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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e236649, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669789

RESUMO

Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., from the Euphorbiaceae family, popularly known as marmeleiro prateado or sacatinga, is a plant from the Caatinga biome commonly found in Brazil's northeastern region. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the species. The phytochemical study was performed through qualitative analysis of chemical constituents and quantitative determination of the total phenol content through the Folin-Ciocalteu test. The qualitative and quantitative antioxidant tests were performed using the DPPH method (2.2 diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution in 96-well plates. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides manifested antioxidant action in the quantitative DPPH test with a significant bioactivity of 84.70 AAO% in 500 µg/mL, with an EC50 of 236.79. The content of total phenolic compounds was 946.06 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample, and total flavonoids was 58.11 mg of quercetin equivalents/g of sample, the result obtained for FRAP was 15294.44 µM Trolox/g of sample and ABTS was 718 µM Trolox of sample. The prospecting of the chemical constituents of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides revealed the presence of the main compounds that manifests the antioxidant activity and it was proven by the DPPH method that there is antioxidant activity in the analyzed sample, in addition to demonstrating a significant content of phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content in the species, which corroborates the antioxidant activity of the plant sample. The leaf extracts presented growth inhibition halos of 10 and 12 mm upon Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Assuntos
Croton , Euphorbiaceae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
2.
J Food Prot ; 84(9): 1524-1527, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375429

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The insecticidal activity of a Ricinus communis leaf hexane extract and its fractions against adult yellow sugarcane aphids (Sipha flava) was evaluated using a contact bioassay after fumigation. The n-hexane extract at 10,000 ppm achieved the highest mortality (80%); the positive control had 100% mortality and the negative control had only 4% mortality over the 72-h experiment time. Chemical fractionation of the hexane extract of R. communis leaves produced multiple fractions, and 10,000 ppm of the F4 fraction resulted in 92% aphid mortality at 72 h. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the F4 fraction revealed linoleic acid as the major compound (84.5%). The R. communis n-hexane extract and linoleic acid could be used for integrated pest control as an ecologically friendly alternative to synthetic chemical insecticides.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Euphorbiaceae , Saccharum , Animais , Ácido Linoleico , Folhas de Planta , Ricinus
3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(36): 19609-19613, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196083

RESUMO

A combined strategy of building blocks recognition and molecular network construction, termed the building blocks-based molecular network (BBMN), was first presented to facilitate the efficient discovery of novel natural products. By mapping the BBMN of the total alkaloid fraction of Flueggea suffruticosa, three Securinega alkaloids (SEAs) with unusual chemical architectures, suffranidines A-C (1-3), were discovered and isolated. Compound 1 characterizes an unprecedented 8/5/6/5/6/6/6/6-fused octacyclic scaffold with a unique cage-shaped 3-azatricyclo[6.4.0.03,11 ]dodecane core. Compounds 2 and 3 are highly modified SEA dimers that incorporate additional C6 motifs. A hypothetical biosynthetic pathway for 1-3 was proposed. In addition, 1 significantly induced neuronal differentiation and neurite extension by upregulating eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2)-mediated protein synthesis.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Euphorbiaceae/química , Securinega/química , Alcaloides/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Conformação Molecular
4.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(8-9): 777-787, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287796

RESUMO

The "River Disease" (RD), a disorder impacting honeybee colonies located close to waterways with abundant riparian vegetation (including Sebastiania schottiana, Euphorbiaceae), kills newly hatched larvae. Forager bees from RD-affected colonies collect honeydew excretions from Epormenis cestri (Hemiptera: Flatidae), a planthopper feeding on trees of S. schottiana. First-instar honeybee larvae fed with this honeydew died. Thus, we postulated that the nectars of RD-affected colonies had a natural toxin coming from either E. cestri or S. schottiana. An untargeted metabolomics characterization of fresh nectars extracts from colonies with and without RD allowed to pinpoint xanthoxylin as one of the chemicals present in higher amounts in nectar from RD-affected colonies than in nectars from healthy colonies. Besides, xanthoxylin was also found in the aerial parts of S. schottiana and the honeydew excreted by E. cestri feeding on this tree. A larva feeding assay where xanthoxylin-enriched diets were offered to 1st instar larvae showed that larvae died in the same proportion as larvae did when offered enriched diets with nectars from RD-colonies. These findings demonstrate that a xenobiotic can mimic the RD syndrome in honeybee larvae and provide evidence of an interspecific flow of xanthoxylin among three trophic levels. Further, our results give information that can be considered when implementing measures to control this honeybee disease.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/análise , Abelhas/fisiologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Animais , Abelhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Análise Discriminante , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica/métodos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Néctar de Plantas/química
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e231957, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076159

RESUMO

Essential oils from the stems and leaves of Croton doctoris were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, resulting in 22 identified compounds. The effects of these essential oils on the germination, root and shoot growth, total chlorophyll content, potential root respiration, peroxidase activity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and mitotic index in lettuce and onion were determined. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activity were also investigated. The results revealed that the stem oil consisted of 15 compounds, of which caryophyllene oxide (24.5%) and E-caryophyllene (13.3%) were the major constituents. The leaf oil contained E-caryophyllene (39.6%) and α-humulene (13.2%) as major compounds. The oils inhibited the germination and growth of lettuce and onion seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content, root respiration, and cell division. They also caused oxidative stress, indicated by the increased activity of the evaluated antioxidant enzymes. These abnormal physiological processes contributed to the inhibition of plant growth. The most pronounced phytotoxic effects were observed in the stem oil. The cytotoxicity tests indicated that leaf oil was more active than stem oil, resulting from the presence of biologically active sesquiterpenes that inhibit the growth of cancer cells.


Assuntos
Croton , Euphorbiaceae , Óleos Voláteis , Germinação , Alface , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta , Óleos Vegetais
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673903, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093575

RESUMO

Honey produced from medicinal plants holds great promise for human health. Increasing evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays an important role in liver pathology after alcohol intake. The aim of this study was to identify the polyphenol composition of triadica cochinchinensis honey (TCH), and to study the potential effect of honey polyphenols on the regulation of gut microbes in mice with alcohol-induced liver injury and the improvement of alcohol-induced liver disease. For these purposes, a total of 190 compounds were identified and 27 of them were quantified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) and we successfully established a mouse model of alcohol-induced liver injury. The results show that TCH polyphenols can significantly restore the levels of ALT and AST, and TCH intervention can significantly improve the pathological changes of liver tissue in alcohol-exposed mice. Additionally, a significant decrease was observed in Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes after TCH treatment. Moreover, KEGG pathways of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, two-component system and biosynthesis of amino acids enriched the most differentially expressed genes after TCH intervention for 8 weeks. Our results may have important implications for the use of TCH as a functional food component with potential therapeutic utility against alcohol-induced liver disease.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mel , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/patologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Euphorbiaceae , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
7.
Zootaxa ; 4985(2): 235244, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186656

RESUMO

Neoparaphytoseius Chant McMurtry is a genus in the family Phytoseiidae, subfamily Amblyseiinae. The genus includes only two known species from Brazil and Peru, and the third is described here. Neoparaphytoseius caatinga n. sp. is described from the Caatinga biome of Alagoas State, where it was found on Croton blanchetianus Baill (Euphorbiaceae). The new species is compared with the closely related species, Neoparaphytoseius charapa Jiménez, McMurtry Moraes, and N. sooretamus (El-Banhawy). An identification key for the species of this genus is provided, based on the examination of the type specimens.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Ácaros/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema
8.
J Nat Med ; 75(4): 813-823, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014467

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle is a major tissue of glucose consumption and plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Prenylflavonoids, a component of Macaranga tanarius fruits, have been reported to have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer effects. However, the effects of these compounds on skeletal muscle glucose metabolism are unclear. Here, we isolated five prenylflavonoids from M. tanarius fruits, and investigated the mechanism of action of these compounds on skeletal muscle cells using L6 myotubes. We found that isonymphaeol B and 3'-geranyl naringenin increased glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both isonymphaeol B and 3'-geranyl naringenin increased AMPK phosphorylation but did not affect PI3K-Akt phosphorylation. Isonymphaeol B and 3'-geranyl naringenin also increased Glut1 mRNA expression and plasma membrane GLUT1 protein levels. These results suggest that isonymphaeol B and 3'-geranyl naringenin have beneficial effects on glucose metabolism through AMPK and GLUT1 pathway. Isonymphaeol B and 3'-geranyl naringenin may be potential lead candidates for antidiabetic drug development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Euphorbiaceae , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Frutas , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 277: 114244, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052354

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Codiaeum variegatum also called miracle shrub, is a plant species constituted of more than 300 cultivars which are mostly used as indoor plants for decoration. However, some of these varieties are used by indigenous populations for the treatment of diarrhoea, stomach ache, external wounds, intestinal worms and ulcers. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study describes an overview of the botanical diversity, medicinal uses, phytochemical composition of C. variegatum. Then it critically discusses its pharmacological activities versus toxic potential and new perspectives are suggested for the development of its plant-based products. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bibliographic assessment of publications on C. variegatum indexed in Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link, and Web of Science online databases was conducted from 1970 to 2020, and 89 relevant articles related to the botanical diversity (17), traditional uses (22), phytochemical analysis (11), pharmacological activity (31) and toxicity profile (18) of C. variegatum were selected for this review. RESULTS: Most commonly, it was found that aqueous leaf extracts or decoctions of C. variegatum are used in traditional medicine to treat amoebic dysentery and stomach ache while a bath with root decoction or sap is applied in small quantities on skin related infections. A total of 14 identified and 24 non-identified varieties of C. variegatum were reported for pharmacological activity, and prominent research topics include the anti-amoebic, antimicrobial, antiviral and cytotoxic activities. Alkaloids (3), terpenoids (5) and phenolics (15) were the major compounds identified, and a new antiviral cyanoglucoside was isolated from the sap of C. variegatum. Toxic substances (5-deoxyingenol and phorbol esters) were found in some varieties used as ornamental plants, but the Mollucanum variety used in traditional medicine was found to be safe. CONCLUSION: The present review revealed that the native variety of C. variegatum (cv. Mollucanum) can be used to treat amoebic dysentery. Alkaloids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds have been characterized in this plant species while other classes of phytochemicals are not yet investigated. The development of new cultivars recommends an in-depth toxicological study before any use. No clinical trial has been reported to date, and further studies are needed to evaluate other claimed medicinal uses. Due to its efficacy and safety, the Mollucanum variety is most likely suitable for the development of a medicine against amoebiasis, which will surely lay the foundation for clinical studies.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/química
10.
Phytochemistry ; 186: 112736, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799193

RESUMO

Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata, as a traditional medicine, is widely distributed in China, Korea and Japan. In China, the dried root of this plant is named 'langdu'. It is traditionally used to treat oedema, skin ulcers, abdominal distension, cough, asthma, tuberculosis swelling and other diseases. Previous studies have found that the chemical constituents of E. ebracteolata are mainly concentrated in terpenoids, acetophenones, and flavonoids. Both extracts and pure compounds from E. ebracteolata were found to possess many pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antimicrobial effects. In addition, it was reported that E. ebracteolata shows toxicity. To provide inspiration for further in-depth studies on this plant, this review will provide a timely and systematic summary of E. ebracteolata in traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology toxicology, and quality control.


Assuntos
Botânica , Euphorbia , Euphorbiaceae , China , Etnofarmacologia , Japão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade , República da Coreia
11.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(4): 553-559, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main chemical components and the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts of Adelia ricinella L. aerial parts. METHODS: Three extracts obtained by soxhlet extraction and ethanol/water mixtures were evaluated in their chemical composition by UPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the prepared extracts was assessed through three different assays: COX-1 and COX-2 enzymatic inhibition, cell-based COX assays on RAW264.7 macrophages (ATCC) measuring the COX-2 protein expression by Western blot and the measurement of the PGE2 concentration in the supernatants of the culture medium. Also was determinate the effect of the three extracts on the RAW 264.7 cell viability. KEY FINDINGS: Few differences in the phytochemical profile were found between the three prepared extracts, identifying a blend of thirteen flavonoids derived from luteolin and apigenin, with orientin as main constituent. Plant extracts (alcoholic and aqueous) did not affect the macrophage cell viability (IC50 > 256 µg/ml) and significantly reduced COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities. Additionally, COX-2 expression and PGE2 release were suppressed after 24 h of LPS stimulation and treatment with plant extracts (8-64 µg/ml). CONCLUSIONS: A. ricinella extracts showed the ability to reduce the inflammatory effect exerted by LPS in murine macrophages. However, further studies should confirm their anti-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Apigenina , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1 , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Euphorbiaceae/química , Flavonoides , Glucosídeos , Luteolina , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apigenina/isolamento & purificação , Apigenina/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/análise , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/análise , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Luteolina/isolamento & purificação , Luteolina/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7
12.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(3): 410-423, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Glochidion ellipticum Wight is a medicinal plant, rich in polyphenols, frequently used by the indigenous communities of Bangladesh and possess with multiple health benefits. It exerts anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal properties, but the detailed chemical constituents are yet to be elucidated. METHODS: Glochidion ellipticum extracts were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and then tested by both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation of Raw 264.7 macrophage cells and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis model. Blood serum was taken for fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran) measurement and tissue samples were used to perform histology, RT-PCR and Western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: The extracts could lower the levels of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly in LPS induced macrophage cells. The extracts could also reduce disease activity index (DAI) score, restore antioxidants and pro-oxidants and improve macroscopic and microscopic features of colonic tissues in DSS induced mice. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in protein level was markedly diminished (up to 51.21% and 71.11%, respectively) in the treatment groups compared to the model group of colitic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that G. ellipticum extracts ameliorate DSS colitis via blocking nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which make them to be potential candidates for further research against inflammation and colitis.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Euphorbiaceae/química , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6618565, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928151

RESUMO

In uterine smooth muscle, the effects of Excoecaria grahamii are not yet documented. To fill this gap, we investigated the pharmacological effect of Excoecaria grahamii on the contraction of the rat isolated uterine horns. The isolated segments were exposed to different concentrations of the aqueous extract of Excoecaria grahamii leaves and pharmacological drugs. The results showed that Excoecaria grahamii aqueous extract decreased the amplitude and frequency by concentration-related manner. IC50 values were 2.4 and 2.6, respectively, for amplitude and frequency. Our study revealed that the extract did not act through histamine H2-receptors or the nitric oxide pathway. It also inhibited uterine contractions induced by oxytocin and potassium chloride (KCl). These data suggest that Excoecaria grahamii active compound can be used for calming uterine contractions. The action of Excoecaria grahamii showed that it can be useful to fight against diseases which caused uterotonic effects. It can be useful to prevent preterm birth and pains caused by menstruations but further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanism action.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/química , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Ranitidina/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 191, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are enzymes that play critical roles in the biosynthesis of physiologically important compounds across all organisms. Although they have been characterised in a large number of plant species, no information relating to these enzymes are available from the genus Fontainea (family Euphorbiaceae). Fontainea is significant as the genus includes species that produce medicinally significant epoxy-tigliane natural products, one of which has been approved as an anti-cancer therapeutic. RESULTS: A comparative species leaf metabolome analysis showed that Fontainea species possess a chemical profile different from various other plant species. The diversity and expression profiles of Fontainea P450s were investigated from leaf and root tissue. A total of 103 and 123 full-length P450 genes in Fontainea picrosperma and Fontainea venosa, respectively (and a further 127/125 partial-length) that were phylogenetically classified into clans, families and subfamilies. The majority of P450 identified are most active within root tissue (66.2% F. picrosperma, 65.0% F. venosa). Representatives within the CYP71D and CYP726A were identified in Fontainea that are excellent candidates for diterpenoid synthesis, of which CYP726A1, CYP726A2 and CYP71D1 appear to be exclusive to Fontainea species and were significantly more highly expressed in root tissue compared to leaf tissue. CONCLUSION: This study presents a comprehensive overview of the P450 gene family in Fontainea that may provide important insights into the biosynthesis of the medicinally significant epoxy-tigliane diterpenes found within the genus.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/enzimologia , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 160, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being a promising tropical woody oilseed crop, the evergreen and recurrent plants of Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) has complex phenology and source-sink interactions. Carbon source-sink manipulations with control and two treatments (reduce source, ca. 10% mature leaf pruning; reduce sink, 10% fruitlet thinning) were conducted on 2.5-year-old field-grown P. volubilis plantation during the early-wet season in a seasonal tropical area. RESULTS: Leaf photosynthetic rate and specific leaf area largely remained unchanged in response to defoliation or defloration. Compared with control, higher N contents on average were observed in both remaining leaves and branches of the defoliated plants, suggesting that N-mobilization was mainly due to the enhanced N uptake from soil. Carbon, but not N, is a source-driven growth process of P. volubilis plants, as defoliation reduced the contents of non-structural carbohydrates (especially sugar) in branches, although temporally, whereas defloration increased available C reserve. The seasonal dynamic pattern of fruit ripening was altered by source-sink regulations. Total seed yield throughout the growing season, which depends on fruit set and retention (i.e., number of matured fruit) rather than individual fruit development (size), was slightly increased by defloration but was significantly decreased by defoliation. Compared with control, defloration did not enrich the KEGG pathway, but defoliation downregulated the TCA cycle and carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in fruitlets after 24 days of the applications of source-sink manipulation. CONCLUSION: Carbohydrate reserves serve to buffer sink-source imbalances that may result from temporary adjustment in demand for assimilates (e.g., defloration) or shortfalls in carbon assimilation (e.g., defoliation). Defoliation is disadvantageous for the yield and also for carbohydrate and lipid accumulation in fruits of P. volubilis plants. Although more studies are needed, these results provide new insights to the further improvement in seed yield of the strong source-limited P. volubilis plants by source/sink manipulations.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672019

RESUMO

Putrajeevak (Putranjiva roxburghii Wall.; synonym Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurus) seeds have been used since ancient times in the treatment of infertility in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India. In this study, the oil component of Putrajeevak seeds (PJSO) was extracted using the supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) method using liquid CO2 and the constituents were analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionized detectorand high-performance thin-layer chromatography. PJSO contained trace amounts of ß-sitosterol with oleic and linoleic acids as the major fatty acid constituents. Male and female zebrafish were mutagenized with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and fish that produced less than 20 viable embryos were selected for the study. SCFE oil extracts from the P. roxburghii seeds were used in this study to reverse fertility impairment. The mutant fish were fed with PJSO for a period of 14 days and the rates of fertility, conception, and fecundity were determined with wild-type healthy fish as a breeding partner. Treatment with PJSO increased the ovarian follicle count as well as the number of mature eggs, while reducing the number of ovarian cysts. Sperm count as well as sperm motility were greatly enhanced in the ENU-mutagenized male zebrafish when treated with PJSO. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the effectiveness of P. roxburghii seed oil in reversing impaired fertility in both male and female zebrafish models.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Sementes/química , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Ovário/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pelve/patologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sitosteroides/análise , Sitosteroides/química , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668609

RESUMO

Plant stinging hairs have fascinated humans for time immemorial. True stinging hairs are highly specialized plant structures that are able to inject a physiologically active liquid into the skin and can be differentiated from irritant hairs (causing mechanical damage only). Stinging hairs can be classified into two basic types: Urtica-type stinging hairs with the classical "hypodermic syringe" mechanism expelling only liquid, and Tragia-type stinging hairs expelling a liquid together with a sharp crystal. In total, there are some 650 plant species with stinging hairs across five remotely related plant families (i.e., belonging to different plant orders). The family Urticaceae (order Rosales) includes a total of ca. 150 stinging representatives, amongst them the well-known stinging nettles (genus Urtica). There are also some 200 stinging species in Loasaceae (order Cornales), ca. 250 stinging species in Euphorbiaceae (order Malphigiales), a handful of species in Namaceae (order Boraginales), and one in Caricaceae (order Brassicales). Stinging hairs are commonly found on most aerial parts of the plants, especially the stem and leaves, but sometimes also on flowers and fruits. The ecological role of stinging hairs in plants seems to be essentially defense against mammalian herbivores, while they appear to be essentially inefficient against invertebrate pests. Stinging plants are therefore frequent pasture weeds across different taxa and geographical zones. Stinging hairs are usually combined with additional chemical and/or mechanical defenses in plants and are not a standalone mechanism. The physiological effects of stinging hairs on humans vary widely between stinging plants and range from a slight itch, skin rash (urticaria), and oedema to sharp pain and even serious neurological disorders such as neuropathy. Numerous studies have attempted to elucidate the chemical basis of the physiological effects. Since the middle of the 20th century, neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin) have been repeatedly detected in stinging hairs of Urticaceae, but recent analyses of Loasaceae stinging hair fluids revealed high variability in their composition and content of neurotransmitters. These substances can explain some of the physiological effects of stinging hairs, but fail to completely explain neuropathic effects, pointing to some yet unidentified neurotoxin. Inorganic ions (e.g., potassium) are detected in stinging hairs and could have synergistic effects. Very recently, ultrastable miniproteins dubbed "gympietides" have been reported from two species of Dendrocnide, arguably the most violently stinging plant. Gympietides are shown to be highly neurotoxic, providing a convincing explanation for Dendrocnide toxicity. For the roughly 648 remaining stinging plant species, similarly convincing data on toxicity are still lacking.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/efeitos adversos , Irritantes/efeitos adversos , Neurotransmissores/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Tricomas/efeitos adversos , Urticaceae/efeitos adversos , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Herbivoria , Humanos , Irritantes/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Tricomas/metabolismo , Urticaceae/metabolismo
18.
Fitoterapia ; 151: 104877, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667564

RESUMO

Five new flavonol glycosides (1-5), one new phenylpropanoid glycoside (6), and nine known glycosides (7-15) were isolated from the stems and leaves of Neoshirakia japonica. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and acid hydrolysis experiment. The antineuroinflammatory effects of all the isolates were evaluated by inhibiting NO production against LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Compounds 1, 8, and 9 showed more potent inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 2.7, 5.5, and 4.1 µM, respectively, than that of the positive control minocycline (IC50 = 15.6 µM), while compounds 7 (IC50 = 17.0 µM) and 10 (IC50 = 24.3 µM) also displayed inhibitory activities to a certain degree.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , China , Flavonóis/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química
19.
Food Res Int ; 140: 110022, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648252

RESUMO

Sacha inchi is a super seed primarily grown in the Amazon rainforest of Peru. One of the main products obtained from seeds is oil. This product is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, and sterols. The objective of this work was to authenticity evaluate of the Sacha inchi oil by means of characterization of phenols, volatile compounds, and sensory profile. The phenolic and volatile compounds were analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS) and headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS), respectively. A total of 16 phenolic compounds were detected in commercial Sacha inchi oils, while 54 compounds have been found in the volatile fraction. These compounds mainly correspond to notes generated by alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ketones, and terpenoids. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first two PCs account for 71.13% of total variance. Statistical analysis was used to observe the relationships between phenolic and volatile compounds; therefore, consequently, it has been found that 16 volatile compounds may have a significant influence upon overall perceived flavor and odor of the commercial Sacha inchi oils. According to the odor and flavor, the Sacha inchi oil is characterized by "green" odor notes, seed, dried fruit and rough.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Peru , Fenóis , Óleos Vegetais
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 624745, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763384

RESUMO

Human babesiosis is a CDC reportable disease in the United States and is recognized as an emerging health risk in multiple parts of the world. The current treatment for human babesiosis is suboptimal due to treatment failures and unwanted side effects. Although Babesia duncani was first described almost 30 years ago, further research is needed to elucidate its pathogenesis and clarify optimal treatment regimens. Here, we screened a panel of herbal medicines and identified Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Artemisia annua, Scutellaria baicalensis, Alchornea cordifolia, and Polygonum cuspidatum to have good in vitro inhibitory activity against B. duncani in the hamster erythrocyte model. Furthermore, we found their potential bioactive compounds, cryptolepine, artemisinin, artesunate, artemether, and baicalein, to have good activity against B. duncani, with IC50 values of 3.4 µM, 14 µM, 7.4 µM, 7.8 µM, and 12 µM, respectively, which are comparable or lower than that of the currently used drugs quinine (10 µM) and clindamycin (37 µM). B. duncani treated with cryptolepine and quinine at their respective 1×, 2×, 4× and 8× IC50 values, and by artemether at 8× IC50 for three days could not regrow in subculture. Additionally, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta 90% ethanol extract also exhibited no regrowth after 6 days of subculture at doses of 2×, 4×, and 8× IC50 values. Our results indicate that some botanical medicines and their active constituents have potent activity against B. duncani in vitro and may be further explored for more effective treatment of babesiosis.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua , Babesia , Euphorbiaceae , Fallopia japonica , Animais , Cricetinae , Cryptolepis , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Scutellaria baicalensis
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