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1.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(5): 598-605, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive phototherapy (IPT) and exchange transfusion (ET) are the main treatments for extreme hyperbilirubinemia. However, there is no reliable evidence on determining the thresholds for these treatments. This multicenter study compared the effectiveness and complications of IPT and ET in the treatment of extreme hyperbilirubinemia. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in seven centers from January 2015 to January 2018. Patients with extreme hyperbilirubinemia that met the criteria of ET were included. Patients were divided into three subgroups (low-, medium-, and high- risk) according to gestational week and risk factors. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to balance the data before treatment. Study outcomes included the development of bilirubin encephalopathy, duration of hospitalization, expenses, and complications. Mortality, auditory complications, seizures, enamel dysplasia, ocular motility disorders, athetosis, motor, and language development were evaluated during follow-up at age of 3 years. RESULTS: A total of 1164 patients were included in this study. After PSM, 296 patients in the IPT only group and 296 patients in the IPT plus ET group were further divided into the low-, medium-, and high-risk subgroups with 188, 364, and 40 matched patients, respectively. No significant differences were found between the IPT only and IPT plus ET groups in terms of morbidity, complications, and sequelae. Hospitalization duration and expenses were lower in the low- and medium-risk subgroups in the IPT only group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, our results suggest that IPT is a safe and effective treatment for extreme hyperbilirubinemia. The indication of ET for patients with hyperbilirubinemia could be stricter. However, it is necessary to have a contingency plan for emergency ET as soon as IPT is commenced especially for infants with risk factors. If IPT can be guaranteed and proved to be therapeutic, ET should be avoided as much as possible.


Assuntos
Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Kernicterus , Pré-Escolar , Transfusão Total/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/complicações , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Kernicterus/complicações , Kernicterus/terapia , Fototerapia/efeitos adversos , Fototerapia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD011997, 2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phototherapy is the mainstay of treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Periodic change in position of the neonate under phototherapy (from supine to prone or lateral positions) may improve the efficiency of phototherapy by hastening the access of phototherapy light to bilirubin deposited in different parts of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of periodic change of body position during phototherapy as compared to no prescribed change in body position, on serum total bilirubin level and duration of treatment in neonates with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia during the first 28 days of life. Secondary objectives of the review included evaluation of the efficacy of periodic change of body position on the need for or number of exchange transfusions, incidence of bilirubin-induced neurological damage (BIND), side effects of phototherapy, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to run comprehensive searches in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2021, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library and Ovid MEDLINE and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions on 5 March 2021. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs and quasi-RCTs if they enrolled neonates (term and preterm) of either gender with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy and compared periodic change of the body position of the infant under phototherapy with no prescribed change in body position. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data, consulting with a third review author in the case of disagreement. We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures, including assessing the risk of bias of included studies. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Primary outcomes were the duration of phototherapy and rate of fall of serum bilirubin at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included the need for exchange transfusion, number of exchange transfusions, incidence of BIND, and SIDS. MAIN RESULTS: We included five studies (343 neonates) with an overall high risk of bias in the review. The body position under phototherapy was changed every two hours or every two-and-a-half hours in two studies each, and every three hours in one study. Three of the five studies included healthy term neonates, whilst the other two studies also included preterm neonates (≥ 33 weeks' gestation); however, separate data about review outcomes in preterm neonates were not available. Periodic change in body position may lead to little or no difference in the duration of phototherapy (mean difference (MD) 1.71 hours, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.17 to 6.59 hours; I² = 58%; 4 studies, 231 participants; low certainty evidence). Only one study reported the rate of fall of serum total bilirubin at 24 hours of starting the phototherapy. Periodic change in body position may lead to little or no difference in the rate of fall of serum total bilirubin at 24 hours (MD 0.02 mg/dL/h, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.06 mg/dL/h; 1 study, 100 participants; low certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of evidence to low due to risk of bias and imprecision. None of the included studies reported the need for or number of exchange transfusions, incidence of BIND, or SIDS. Lack of separate data precluded subgroup analysis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence is insufficient to determine the effects of periodic change of body position compared with no prescribed change of body position under phototherapy. There is low certainty evidence that there may be little or no difference in the duration of phototherapy and rate of fall in bilirubin at 24 hours of starting phototherapy between periodic change in body position and no prescribed change of body position under phototherapy in term and preterm neonates. None of the included studies reported the effect of change of position on the need for or number of exchange transfusions, incidence of BIND, or SIDS. One study is awaiting classification and could not be included in the review. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of periodic change in body position under phototherapy, especially in neonates with haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia and in very preterm neonates. The results of this systematic review apply mainly to neonates born at late-preterm or term gestation receiving phototherapy for non-haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia.


Assuntos
Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Morte Súbita do Lactente , Bilirrubina , Transfusão Total , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fototerapia/efeitos adversos , Fototerapia/métodos
3.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(3): 98-99, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180760

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease is a lifelong disorder which may be managed by chronic red cell transfusion including exchange transfusion. Chronic indwelling vascular catheters including ports offer convenient and reliable access for red cell exchange but confer risk of complications including infection and thrombosis. Detection of these complications is essential for preserving vascular access and relies on both clinical and laboratory observation. Here we describe a case of asymptomatic port infection detected by manual screening of a peripheral blood smear.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres de Demora , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Eritrócitos , Transfusão Total , Humanos
4.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(1)2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084035

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Phototherapy has reduced the need for exchange transfusion (ET) to manage jaundiced neonates. Hence there are concerns about increased risk of complication due to lack of opportunity to sustain skills in performing ET. We studied the complications and treatment outcomes of neonates treated for jaundice with ET. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective observational study was conducted from June 2013 to June 2020 in a tertiary care hospital in India. All neonates treated with ET for jaundice were included. RESULTS: Twenty-eight neonates underwent 31 ET during the study period. Their mean gestational age and birth weight were 37 weeks and 3200 g, respectively. Predisposing factor for jaundice observed were Coomb's positive status (11), hepatosplenomegaly suggesting hemolysis (3), cephalhematoma (2) and birth asphyxia (1). Abnormal neurological status before ET was seen in seven neonates. Adverse clinical events that happened during or within 8 h after ET were desaturation (4), tachycardia (3), tachypnea (2), bradycardia (2), shock (2) and temperature instability (2). One neonate developed acute kidney injury after ET and required peritoneal dialysis. Abnormal lab parameters observed during or within 8 h after ET were hypocalcemia (20), anemia (8), hypokalemia (7), hypernatremia (3), thrombocytopenia (3) and hyperkalemia (2). Post ET sepsis was seen in five neonates: two had only blood culture positive sepsis, two had bone and joint infection and one had liver abscess. CONCLUSION: The neonates undergoing ET are at high risk of developing complications which may be life threatening. Hence careful monitoring during the procedure is needed.


Exchange transfusion is a treatment done for newborn babies with severe jaundice. This procedure is done by removing baby's blood in small quantities and replacing it with donor's blood. This life-saving procedure is associated with many complications. We did this study to estimate the complications associated with this procedure in our newborn unit. Twenty-eight patients underwent exchange transfusion from June 2013 to June 2020 in our hospital. We found out that temperature disturbance, abnormal heart rate, abnormal breathing and fall in oxygen levels occurred during exchange transfusion. After the procedure blood circulation disturbances, low platelet count, low blood calcium levels and low blood potassium levels were commonly observed. One patient developed renal failure after the procedure and was treated with dialysis. Five patients developed infection after the procedure and were treated with antibiotics. Thus newborn patients undergoing exchange transfusion are at high risk of developing complications which may be life threatening. Hence careful monitoring during the procedure is needed to prevent these complications.


Assuntos
Icterícia Neonatal , Icterícia , Transfusão Total/efeitos adversos , Transfusão Total/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Icterícia/etiologia , Icterícia/terapia , Icterícia Neonatal/etiologia , Icterícia Neonatal/terapia , Fototerapia/efeitos adversos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
5.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 15(2): 335-343, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperbilirubinemia (HB), defined as elevated total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels, commonly affects neonates and requires prompt treatment to prevent neurological complications. Up to 10%of neonates experience rebound hyperbilirubinemia (RHB), requiring re-initiation of treatment. Unfortunately, treatment guidelines lack practical recommendations surrounding subthreshold phototherapy, treatment termination, and RHB investigations. We examined local management practices for HB and RHB treatment in a well newborn nursery. As a secondary aim, we investigated the association between treatment practices and RHB rates. METHODS: Retrospective chart review identified neonates treated for hyperbilirubinemia between January 2015 and December 2019 during their birth hospitalization at a tertiary care centre. Standardized data collection sheets were used to record treatment parameters. RESULTS: Over the 5-year period, there were 9683 births and 305 (3.15%) neonates received phototherapy. Of the treated cases, 20-25%were subthreshold to practice guideline values. Upon treatment termination 25-55%of cases had TSB levels within 3 mg/dL, which may increase the risk of RHB. In our cohort, 20.3%of treated cases experienced one episode of RHB and 3.9%experienced two episodes of RHB. Although clinicians evaluated neonates for RHB 0-12 hours following treatment termination prior to discharge, many cases were identified in outpatient settings and required re-admission for phototherapy. CONCLUSION: When managing HB and RHB, treatment practices such as when to terminate treatment in relation to threshold values, and timing of RHB investigations, are largely inconsistent amongst clinicians. Future studies are required to better understand the landscape of hyperbilirubinemia treatment beyond initiation of phototherapy.


Assuntos
Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal , Icterícia Neonatal , Transfusão Total , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/complicações , Hiperbilirrubinemia/terapia , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia , Recém-Nascido , Fototerapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Australas J Dermatol ; 63(1): e60-e62, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817070

RESUMO

Children with erythropoietic porphyria are generally under the care of paediatric dermatologists. When these children undergo major surgery, they are at risk of unusual complications due to their photosensitivity. Dermatologists may be consulted prior to surgery for advice. We describe a case of a child with erythropoietic porphyria undergoing open heart surgery, utilising an exchange transfusion alongside other strategies to minimise the risk of photosensitivity-induced haemolysis.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Transfusão Total , Protoporfiria Eritropoética/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Hemólise , Humanos , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Transtornos de Fotossensibilidade/etiologia
9.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 187, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although it is known that unbound bilirubin can enter the brain, there is little evidence of its association with the development of acute bilirubin encephalopathy. Here, we investigated this potential relationship in neonates who had undergone exchange transfusion. METHODS: Data from 46 newborns who underwent exchange transfusion between 2016 and 1-1 to 2018-12-31 at the First People's Hospital of Changde City in China were analyzed. The unbound bilirubin level was taken as the independent variable and the development of the acute bilirubin encephalopathy as the dependent variable. The covariates were age, birth weight, sex, red blood cell count, blood glucose, hemolytic disease, and whether the infant had received phototherapy. RESULTS: The mean age and gestational age of the neonates were 146.5 ± 86.9 h and 38.6 ± 1.3 weeks [38.7(34.6-41.1) weeks] old, respectively; 52.17% were male. Binary logistic regression analysis after adjustment for covariates showed a positive association between the levels of unbound bilirubin and the development of acute bilirubin encephalopathy (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence intervals 1.05-1.91, P = < 0.05). CONCLUSION: There is a significant association between unbound bilirubin levels and the development of acute bilirubin encephalopathy in neonates. Further investigations are required to explore the mechanisms.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/sangue , Transfusão Total , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia , Icterícia Neonatal/terapia , Kernicterus/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Icterícia Neonatal/sangue , Masculino
10.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(6): 103226, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489185

RESUMO

Fat embolism syndrome in sickle cell disease is associated with great mortality, while more than half of survivors suffer severe neurological sequelae. Release of fat droplets leads to obstruction of the microcirculation as well as generation of proinflammatory cytokines that can cause direct tissue injury. Red cell exchange transfusion can be life-saving but the addition of therapeutic plasma exchange may further improve outcomes by removing such inflammatory mediators. Here, we describe the case of a 27-year-old male patient with sickle cell anaemia presenting with typical features of fat embolism syndrome including neurological involvement with greatly reduced level of consciousness. MRI of his brain showed multiple widespread microhemorrhages giving the characteristic "star field" pattern but also a cytotoxic lesion of the corpus callosum, known to be the result of direct neurotoxicity by proinflammatory cytokines. The patient underwent emergency red cell exchange transfusion leading only to modest clinical improvement but fully regained consciousness after three cycles of therapeutic plasma exchange. This case highlights the deleterious effect of the hyperinflammatory state characteristic of many sickle cell complications and supports further exploring the potential benefit from plasma exchange as an adjunct to red cell exchange in order to remove proinflammatory cytokines during acute complications of sickle cell disease.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Embolia Gordurosa/etiologia , Transfusão Total/efeitos adversos , Troca Plasmática/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Embolia Gordurosa/mortalidade , Embolia Gordurosa/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 60, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422183

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: exchange blood transfusion (EBT) is a form of massive transfusion useful in rapidly reducing serum bilirubin levels, but serum bilirubin levels frequently rebound within hours of completing the procedure, due to equilibration of extravascular bilirubin as well as on-going hemolysis. The study was carried out to determine the pattern of reduction in serum bilirubin levels following EBT among neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia, as well as the factors contributing to this pattern, so as to establish evidence-based expectations following EBT. METHODS: a retrospective descriptive study covering a two-year period in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Details of the EBT procedures, including serial serum bilirubin levels, were obtained from the hospital records of all newborn babies who had double volume EBT done for severe hyperbilirubinaemia during the study period. Data was analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 21.0. RESULTS: the mean total serum bilirubin (TSB) before EBT in the 36 babies was 17.9 ± 6.3 mg/dl. The mean percentage decrease in TSB immediately following EBT was 44.3 ± 10.2%. Six hours after EBT, TSB levels had increased from the immediate post-EBT values by an average of 57.5 ± 32.2%. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, TSB values in most (87.1%) cases were still higher than the immediate post-EBT values, but lower than the pre-EBT values. Post-EBT anemia was recorded among 33.3% of the babies. CONCLUSION: EBT is effective in rapidly reducing serum bilirubin levels and preventing acute bilirubin encephalopathy in neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia, despite the rebound increase that occurs in TSB values after the procedure.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/sangue , Transfusão Total/métodos , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nigéria , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(6): 103236, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate total serum calcium (TSC) and ionized serum calcium (ISC) levels and their effects on clinical outcomes in neonates underwent exchange transfusion (ET). METHOD: In this study, the data of newborn infants who underwent ET due to hyperbilirubinemia in a third level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were monitored by electrocardiogram during ET. Cardiac and respiratory rates, peripheral oxygen saturation, blood pressure values ​​and clinical findings as convulsion, tremor, hypertonia, laryngospasm, cyanosis and apnea were recorded in ET observation forms. The infants with no symptoms of hypocalcemia during the procedure were not routinely given IV calcium gluconate. TSC and ISC measured at the beginning, at the end and 24 h after the end of ET were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: Data of 36 newborn patients were evaluated. Median gestational age was 39 (35-40) weeks, mean birthweight was 2840 ± 841 (mean ± SD) grams. During the ET, desaturation was observed in five patients(13.9 %), sinus bradycardia in six(16.7 %), tachypnea in two(5.5 %), sinus tachycardia in one(2.8 %), and rare ventricular extrasystoles in one(2.8 %). Hypocalcaemia was not detected in any of the patients at the beginning of ET. Hypocalcemia was observed in two cases (5.5 %) at the end of ET. There was no statistically significant difference between the TSC and ISC levels at the beginning of ET, at the end and at the end of 24 h. CONCLUSION: As a result, routine intravenous (IV) calcium administration seems to be unnecessary provided that vital signs and neurological status are closely monitored during ET.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Transfusão Total/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 53(2): 137-139, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194080

RESUMO

Little is reported in the literature regarding hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We present a case of a 19-month-old girl child who was referred for an atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) and HS. The patient underwent surgical repair, and an exchange transfusion was performed at the initiation of CPB. No significant hemolysis or events attributed to HS were observed during or after CPB. The surgical repair of an AVSD in a pediatric patient with HS and total volume exchange transfusion is herein reported.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos , Esferocitose Hereditária , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Criança , Transfusão Total , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Esferocitose Hereditária/complicações , Esferocitose Hereditária/cirurgia
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013277, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) and the other serious complications of severe hyperbilirubinemia in the neonate occur far more frequently in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This is due to several factors that place babies in LMIC at greater risk for hyperbilirubinemia, including increased prevalence of hematologic disorders leading to hemolysis, increased sepsis, less prenatal or postnatal care, and a lack of resources to treat jaundiced babies. Hospitals and clinics face frequent shortages of functioning phototherapy machines and inconsistent access to electricity to run the machines. Sunlight has the potential to treat hyperbilirubinemia: it contains the wavelengths of light that are produced by phototherapy machines. However, it contains harmful ultraviolet light and infrared radiation, and prolonged exposure has the potential to lead to sunburn, skin damage, and hyperthermia or hypothermia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of sunlight administered alone or with filtering or amplifying devices for the prevention and treatment of clinical jaundice or laboratory-diagnosed hyperbilirubinemia in term and late preterm neonates. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search CENTRAL (2019, Issue 5), MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL on 2 May 2019. We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and cluster RCTs. We updated the searches on 1 June 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs, quasi-RCTs, and cluster RCTs. We excluded crossover RCTs. Included studies must have evaluated sunlight (with or without filters or amplification) for the prevention and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice in term or late preterm neonates. Neonates must have been enrolled in the study by one-week postnatal age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodologic procedures expected by Cochrane. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Our primary outcomes were: use of conventional phototherapy, treatment failure requiring exchange transfusion, ABE, chronic bilirubin encephalopathy, and death. MAIN RESULTS: We included three RCTs (1103 infants). All three studies had small sample sizes, were unblinded, and were at high risk of bias. We planned to undertake four comparisons, but only found studies reporting on two. Sunlight with or without filters or amplification compared to no treatment for the prevention and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in term and late preterm neonates One study of twice-daily sunlight exposure (30 to 60 minutes) compared to no treatment reported the incidence of jaundice may be reduced (risk ratio [RR] 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45 to 0.82; risk difference [RD] -0.14, 95% CI -0.22 to -0.06; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome [NNTB] 7, 95% CI 5 to 17; 1 study, 482 infants; very low-certainty evidence) and the number of days that an infant was jaundiced may be reduced (mean difference [MD] -2.20 days, 95% CI -2.60 to -1.80; 1 study, 482 infants; very low-certainty evidence). There were no data on safety or potential harmful effects of the intervention. The study did not assess use of conventional phototherapy, treatment failure requiring exchange transfusion, ABE, and long-term consequences of hyperbilirubinemia. The study showed that sunlight therapy may reduce rehospitalization rates within seven days of discharge for treatment for hyperbilirubinemia, but the evidence was very uncertain (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.11; RD -0.04, -0.08 to 0.01; 1 study, 482 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Sunlight with or without filters or amplification compared to other sources of phototherapy for the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in infants with confirmed hyperbilirubinemia Two studies (621 infants) compared the effect of filtered-sunlight exposure to other sources of phototherapy in infants with confirmed hyperbilirubinemia. Filtered-sunlight phototherapy (FSPT) and conventional or intensive electric phototherapy led to a similar number of days of effective treatment (broadly defined as a minimal increase of total serum bilirubin in infants less than 72 hours old and a decrease in total serum bilirubin in infants more than 72 hours old on any day that at least four to five hours of sunlight therapy was available). There may be little or no difference in treatment failure requiring exchange transfusion (typical RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.73; typical RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.01; 2 studies, 621 infants; low-certainty evidence). One study reported ABE, and no infants developed this outcome (RR not estimable; RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.02; 1 study, 174 infants; low-certainty evidence). One study reported death as a reason for study withdrawal; no infants were withdrawn due to death (RR not estimable; typical RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.01; 1 study, 447 infants; low-certainty evidence). Neither study assessed long-term outcomes. Possible harms: both studies showed a probable increased risk for hyperthermia (body temperature greater than 37.5 °C) with FSPT (typical RR 4.39, 95% CI 2.98 to 6.47; typical RD 0.30, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.36; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome [NNTH] 3, 95% CI 2 to 4; 2 studies, 621 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was probably no difference in hypothermia (body temperature less than 35.5 °C) (typical RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.55 to 2.03; typical RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.04; 2 studies, 621 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Sunlight may be an effective adjunct to conventional phototherapy in LMIC settings, may allow for rotational use of limited phototherapy machines, and may be preferable to families as it can allow for increased bonding. Filtration of sunlight to block harmful ultraviolet light and frequent temperature checks for babies under sunlight may be warranted for safety. Sunlight may be effective in preventing hyperbilirubinemia in some cases, but these studies have not demonstrated that sunlight alone is effective for the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia given its sporadic availability and the low or very low certainty of the evidence in these studies.


Assuntos
Helioterapia/métodos , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/terapia , Viés , Transfusão Total , Helioterapia/efeitos adversos , Helioterapia/instrumentação , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Hiperbilirrubinemia Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Hipertermia/epidemiologia , Hipotermia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Icterícia Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Icterícia Neonatal/terapia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Falha de Tratamento
18.
Vox Sang ; 116(9): 976-982, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is proposed that severe leucocytosis mainly contributes to pulmonary hypertension by blocking pulmonary capillaries and restricting blood flow. Exchange transfusion (ET) in pertussis has been demonstrated as a safe and useful technique for depleting the leucocyte mass. We aim to discuss four cases of pertussis-induced respiratory distress and the effectiveness of ET in such a setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series at the Infectious Disease Department of Children's Hospital 2 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and included four pertussis patients that were confirmed by PCR tests on respiratory secretions, presented with severe leucocytosis and respiratory distress and required mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Among the included patients, three underwent a double volume ET for leucodepletion, two of whom were discharged after the procedure with proper vitals and laboratory test results. On the other hand, one patient died despite ET, performed late in the course of the disease. Exchange transfusion was not performed in the last patient who died as well. CONCLUSION: Early ET may be a useful and rapid life-saving treatment in children with critical pertussis and severe leucocytosis before cardiopulmonary complications appear.


Assuntos
Coqueluche , Criança , Dispneia , Transfusão Total , Humanos , Lactente , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coqueluche/terapia
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(2S Suppl 2): S162-S168, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Military experience has shown low-titer O whole blood (LTOWB) to be safe and beneficial in the resuscitation of hemorrhaging trauma patients. However, few civilian centers use LTOWB for trauma resuscitation. We evaluated the early experience and safety of a LTOWB program at a level 1 civilian trauma center. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our trauma registry from January 2018 to June 2020 for patients admitted in shock (defined as ≥1 of the following: heart rate, >120 beats per minute; systolic blood pressure, <90 mm Hg; or shock index, >0.9) who received blood products within 24 hours. Patients were grouped by resuscitation provided: LTOWB (group 1), component therapy (CT; group 2), and LTOWB-CT (group 3). Safety, outcomes, and variables associated with LTOWB transfusion and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: 216 patients were included: 34 in Group 1, 95 in Group 2, and 87 in Group 3. Patientsreceiving LTOWB were more commonly male (p<0.001) and had a penetrating injury (p=0.005). Groups 1 and 3 had higher median ISS scores compared to Group 2 (19 and 20 vs 17; p=0.01). Group 3 received more median units of blood product in the first 4h (p<0.001) and in the first 24h (p<0.001). There was no difference between groups in 24h mortality or transfusion-related complications (all p>0.05). Arrival ED SBP was associated with LTOWB transfusion (odds ratio [OR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-1.00, p=0.03). ED lactate was independently associated with 24h mortality. (OR 1.27, CI 1.02-1.58, p=0.03). LTOWB transfusion was not associated with mortality (p=0.49). Abstract. CONCLUSION: Severely injured patients received LTOWB-CT and more overall product units but had similar 24 h mortality when compared with the LTOWB or CT groups. No increase in transfusion-related complications was seen after LTOWB transfusion. Low-titer O whole blood should be strongly considered in the resuscitation of trauma patients at civilian centers. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Retrospective, therapeutic, level IV.


Assuntos
Transfusão Total , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Transfusão Total/efeitos adversos , Transfusão Total/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
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