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1.
PeerJ ; 11: e14493, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620744

RESUMO

Background: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses related to high-intensity functional training (HIFT) have been conducted. However, due to a restricted pool of available research, these investigations are often limited in scope. As such, a scoping review investigating the present literature surrounding the acute physiological response to HIFT-based exercise was chosen as a more appropriate structured review. Methodology: A scoping review was conducted following Arksey and O'Malley's framework. Three large scale databases were searched to reveal any article pertaining to HIFT and related exercise terminology. Results: A total of 2,241 articles were found during the initial search. Following this, titles, then abstracts, and full-texts were reviewed to determine inclusion eligibility. A total of 60 articles which investigated a combined total of 35 unique HIFT workouts were included within this review. Conclusions: A variety of physiological parameters and HIFT workouts have been examined. Markers of intensity (e.g., blood lactate concentrations, heart rate) have been most consistently assessed across all studies, and these support the idea that HIFT workouts are typically performed at high-intensity. In contrast, the inclusion of most other measures (e.g., hormonal, markers of inflammation and damage, energy expenditure, performance) has been inconsistent and has thus, limited the possibility for making generalized conclusions. Differences in study methodologies have further impacted conclusions, as different studies have varied in sample population characteristics, workouts assessed, and time points. Though it may be impossible to comprehensively research all possible HIFT workouts, consistent adoption of population definitions and workload quantification may overcome this challenge and assist with future comparisons.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Exercício Físico , Inflamação
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 290, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609613

RESUMO

Urbanization may influence physical activity (PA) levels, although little evidence is available for low- and middle- income countries where urbanization is occurring fastest. We evaluated associations between urbanization and total PA, as well as work-, leisure-, home-, and transport-specific PA, for 138,206 adults living in 698 communities across 22 countries within the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. The 1-week long-form International PA Questionnaire was administered at baseline (2003-2015). We used satellite-derived population density and impervious surface area estimates to quantify baseline urbanization levels for study communities, as well as change measures for 5- and 10-years prior to PA surveys. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to examine associations between urbanization measures and PA levels, controlling for individual, household and community factors. Higher community baseline levels of population density (- 12.4% per IQR, 95% CI - 16.0, - 8.7) and impervious surface area (- 29.2% per IQR, 95% CI - 37.5, - 19.7), as well as the rate of change in 5-year population density (- 17.2% per IQR, 95% CI - 25.7, - 7.7), were associated with lower total PA levels. Important differences in the associations between urbanization and PA were observed between PA domains, country-income levels, urban/rural status, and sex. These findings provide new information on the complex associations between urbanization and PA.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Urbanização , Adulto , Humanos , População Urbana , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural
3.
Clin J Sport Med ; 33(1): 97-100, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599364

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This present case presentation offers supportive evidence that low-load blood-flow-restriction exercise (LL-BFRE) may be a feasible intervention to preserve skeletal muscle mass and, in part, lower-limb muscle function after a fracture of the lateral malleolus. A 28-year-old female patient sustained a radiographically verified stabile fracture of the lateral malleolus and was treated with a walker cast. She was allowed weight bearing on the limb within the limits of her pain threshold and to perform unloaded plantar and dorsiflexion movements of the ankle. The patient performed 12 weeks of home-based LL-BFRE 4 times per week to diminish declines in functional performance, muscle strength, and skeletal muscle atrophy. We observed that LL-BFRE was feasible with no exercise-related adverse events in the early stage of rehabilitation. The patient experienced no-or-low pain during exercise. Vastus lateralis muscle volume, and thigh and calf circumference was preserved.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Treinamento de Força , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 112, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noncommunicable diseases are major contributors to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Modifying the risk factors for these conditions, such as physical inactivity, is thus essential. Addressing the context or circumstances in which physical activity occurs may promote physical activity at a population level. We assessed the effects of infrastructure, policy or regulatory interventions for increasing physical activity. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and clinicaltrials.gov to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before-after (CBAs) studies, and interrupted time series (ITS) studies assessing population-level infrastructure or policy and regulatory interventions to increase physical activity. We were interested in the effects of these interventions on physical activity, body weight and related measures, blood pressure, and CVD and type 2 diabetes morbidity and mortality, and on other secondary outcomes. Screening and data extraction was done in duplicate, with risk of bias was using an adapted Cochrane risk of bias tool. Due to high levels of heterogeneity, we synthesised the evidence based on effect direction. RESULTS: We included 33 studies, mostly conducted in high-income countries. Of these, 13 assessed infrastructure changes to green or other spaces to promote physical activity and 18 infrastructure changes to promote active transport. The effects of identified interventions on physical activity, body weight and blood pressure varied across studies (very low certainty evidence); thus, we remain very uncertain about the effects of these interventions. Two studies assessed the effects of policy and regulatory interventions; one provided free access to physical activity facilities and showed that it may have beneficial effects on physical activity (low certainty evidence). The other provided free bus travel for youth, with intervention effects varying across studies (very low certainty evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from 33 studies assessing infrastructure, policy and regulatory interventions for increasing physical activity showed varying results. The certainty of the evidence was mostly very low, due to study designs included and inconsistent findings between studies. Despite this drawback, the evidence indicates that providing access to physical activity facilities may be beneficial; however this finding is based on only one study. Implementation of these interventions requires full consideration of contextual factors, especially in low resource settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018093429.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Humanos , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Políticas
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673654

RESUMO

This study aims to analyse sex-specific associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviour with oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in a young-adult population. Sixty participants (21 women, 22.63 ± 4.62 years old) wore a hip accelerometer for 7 consecutive days to estimate their physical activity and sedentarism. Oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, malondialdehyde, and advanced oxidation protein products) and inflammatory (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) markers were measured. Student t-tests and single linear regressions were applied. The women presented higher catalase activity and glutathione concentrations, and lower levels of advanced protein-oxidation products, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 than the men (p < 0.05). In the men, longer sedentary time was associated with lower catalase activity (ß = -0.315, p = 0.04), and longer sedentary breaks and higher physical-activity expenditures were associated with malondialdehyde (ß = -0.308, p = 0.04). Vigorous physical activity was related to inflammatory markers in the women (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, ß = 0.437, p = 0.02) and men (interleukin-6, ß = 0.528, p < 0.01). In conclusion, the women presented a better redox and inflammatory status than the men; however, oxidative-stress markers were associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviours only in the men. In light of this, women could have better protection against the deleterious effect of sedentarism but a worse adaptation to daily physical activity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Adulto , Catalase , Interleucina-6 , Exercício Físico , Estresse Oxidativo , Antioxidantes , Malondialdeído , Glutationa , Acelerometria
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673668

RESUMO

Exercise resolutions are the most common goals people set each New Year. However, research has rarely examined adaptive goal processes and motives that may maintain wellbeing and resolution pursuit. We therefore investigated if (1) personal goal flexibility and tenacity maintain mental wellbeing and adherence to New Year exercise resolutions and if (2) underlying intrinsic and extrinsic motives maintain wellbeing and sustained exercise resolution adherence. A community sample (N = 297) completed an online longitudinal study. At baseline, participants listed their most important exercise-related New Year resolution. Participants then completed measures to assess goal flexibility and tenacity, resolution motives, and mental wellbeing at baseline. At three follow-up surveys over a two-month period, participants completed self-report measures of wellbeing and adherence to their exercise resolution. As predicted, goal flexibility and tenacity each independently predicted wellbeing across time. Counter to prediction, neither goal flexibility nor tenacity predicted sustained exercise adherence. Notably, underlying intrinsic motives (but not extrinsic motives) maintained mental wellbeing and exercise adherence across time. Our findings indicate that goal flexibility and tenacity are beneficial in maintaining mental wellbeing and that pursuing resolutions for internalised motives is beneficial for one's mental wellbeing and exercise adherence.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Motivação , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Exercício Físico
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673683

RESUMO

In recent years, the number of pregnant women with obesity has increased exponentially; thus, it is important to evaluate and characterize the physical activity levels of this specific group. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of the Physical Activity and Pregnancy Questionnaire and Pregnancy Questionnaire in pregnant women with obesity and to classify physical activity using the Physical Activity and Pregnancy Questionnaire and accelerometry. An analytical observational study was carried out between May and August of 2019 at the University Hospital Center of São João, with a sample of 31 pregnant women with obesity (30.9 ± 4.6 years 36.5 ± 4.6 kg/m2 of BMI and 21.5 ± 9 gestational weeks). The physical activity of participants was evaluated using an accelerometer and Physical Activity and Pregnancy Questionnaire at two time points (the first visit at the moment of consultation and the second seven days after, with accelerometer retest), the interclass correlation coefficient was used to test reliability between the Physical Activity and Pregnancy Questionnaire filled out at visit1 and the Physical Activity and Pregnancy Questionnaire filled out at visit2, and Pearson's correlation was used to determine validity between the Physical Activity and Pregnancy Questionnaire and accelerometry. The interclass correlation coefficient values for total activity were 0.95, 0.97 for moderate and 0.58 for vigorous intensities. It ranged from 0.74 for sports/exercise to 0.96 for domestic activities. The Pearson's correlations showed that the Physical Activity and Pregnancy Questionnaire is moderately valid for moderate intensity (r = 0.435). A total of 67.7% of the pregnant women complied with international physical activity recommendations.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Gestantes , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Portugal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acelerometria , Obesidade
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673731

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of a single exercise session of Self-Myofascial Release (SMR) on the posterior muscular chain flexibility after one hour from the intervention. Thirty-six participants performed SMR using a rigid ball under the surface of both feet. Participants were tested with the Sit and Reach (S&R) test at four different times: before (T0), immediately after (T1), 30 (T2), and 60 (T3) minutes after the SMR intervention. The sample (n = 36) was categorized into three groups: (1) flexible, (2) average, and (3) stiff, based on the flexibility level at T0 (S&R values of >10 cm, >0 but <10 cm and <0 cm, respectively). For the whole sample, we detected significant improvements in the S&R test between the T1, T2, and T3 compared to T0. The stiff group showed a significant (p < 0.05) improvement between T1-T2 and T1-T3. Results were similar between the average group and the whole sample. The flexible group did not show any significant difference (p > 0.05) over time. In conclusion, this investigation demonstrated that an SMR session of both feet was able to increase posterior muscular chain flexibility up to one hour after intervention. Considering that a standard training session generally lasts one hour, our study can help professionals take advantage of SMR effects for the entire training period. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that physical exercise practitioners should also assess individuals' flexibility before training, as the SMR procedure used in this work does not seem necessary in flexible individuals.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Terapia de Liberação Miofascial , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , , Massagem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673743

RESUMO

The health benefits of sport and physical exercise (SPE) have been well documented, while the influence of household physical activity (HPA) on health has received much less research attention. This study aims to provide epidemiologic insight into the role HPA plays in the development of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease (RESP), and cancer mortality in a nationwide cohort of Chinese adults. We conceived a prospective cohort comprising 30,791 participants aged ≥16 years from 25 provinces of China using data derived from baseline (2010) and 4 waves of follow-up (2012-2018) investigations of the China Family Panel Studies. Self-reported times of HPA and SPE were collected by interviewing participants with a standard questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the associations of HPA and SPE with all-cause, CVD, RESP, and cancer mortality, adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. A restricted cubic spline smoother was used to investigate the dose-response relationships of HPA and SPE with mortality outcomes. Sex subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the potential effect disparity between men and women. To investigate the interactive effects of HPA and SPE, we calculated the relative excess risk due to the interaction and attributable proportion of additive effects to the total observed effects. During a median follow-up of 7.2 years, a total of 1,649 deaths occurred, with 209 cases from CVD, 123 from RESP, and 323 from cancer. HPA was identified to be associated with reduced mortality outcomes, suggesting remarkably reduced risks of 43-60% in all-cause mortality, 42-50% in CVD mortality, 36-71% in RESP mortality, and 38-46% in cancer mortality. In general, higher levels of HPA tended to be associated with lower risks. An approximately inverted J-shape association was identified between HPA and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, suggesting strong evidence for potential nonlinearity. Women performing HPA had a lower risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. We did not identify significant evidence for additive interaction between HPA and SPE. HPA is independently associated with a reduced risk of mortality in Chinese women and men. More biological studies are needed to validate our findings and clarify the mechanisms underlying the association.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Exercício Físico , Fatores de Risco , Mortalidade
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in the medical-surgical field have significantly increased survival after solid organ transplantation in the pediatric population. However, these patients are predisposed to the development of long-term complications (e.g., cardiovascular disease). The therapeutic role of physical activity (PA) to counteract these complications is well known. The purpose of the study was to investigate the level of PA in a pediatric population after solid organ transplantation. METHODS: In the first 4 weeks at the beginning of the school year, the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and Adolescents was administered to young patients who had previously undergone solid transplants at our institute. RESULTS: Questionnaires of 49 patients (57.1% female, mean age 13.2 ± 3.5 years) were analyzed and 32.7% of subjects did not perform any exercise during school physical education classes. Only 24% practiced a moderate quantity of exercise in the previous week (2-3 times/week) and 72% engaged in sedentary behaviors during weekends. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data confirmed that young recipients are still far from meeting the minimum indications of the World Health Organization on PA and sedentary behavior. It will be necessary to increase their involvement in PA programs in order not only to increase their life expectancy but also to improve their quality of life.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Exercício Físico , Itália
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673756

RESUMO

This article reports the results of Smart Walk: a randomized pilot trial of an 8-month culturally tailored, smartphone-delivered physical activity (PA) intervention for African American women with obesity. Sixty participants (age range = 24-49 years; BMI range = 30-58 kg/m2) were randomized to the Smart Walk intervention (n = 30) or a wellness comparison intervention (n = 30). Results supported the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention, as demonstrated by participant retention (85% at 4 months and 78% at 8 months), Smart Walk app use, and intervention satisfaction (i.e., 100% of PA participants completing the intervention [n = 24] reported they would recommend it to friend). Smart Walk participants also reported greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous PA (4-month between-arm difference in change [b] = 43.3 min/week; p = 0.018; Cohen's d = 0.69; 8-month b = 56.6 min/week; p = 0.046; d = 0.63) and demonstrated clinically relevant, although not statistically significant (p-values > 0.05), baseline to 4 months improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (b = 1.67 mL/kg/min; d = 0.40), systolic blood pressure (b = -3.33 mmHg; d = 0.22), diastolic blood pressure (b = -4.28 mmHg; d = 0.37), and pulse wave velocity (b = -0.46 m/s; d = 0.33). Eight-month cardiometabolic outcomes followed similar trends, but had high rates of missing data (45-53%) due to COVID-19 restrictions. Collectively, findings demonstrated favorable outcomes for acceptability and feasibility, while also highlighting key areas for refinement in future research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Smartphone , Análise de Onda de Pulso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673761

RESUMO

The current study examines the effects of a Tabata high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on affective, cognitive and physiological indicators in women of different fitness levels. A total of 28 adult women (aged 24.2 ± 1.5 years) completed a 20 m shuttle run test and were then assigned to higher fitness and lower fitness groups (HF and LF, n = 14 each) according to their predicted aerobic power. On a separate occasion, participants completed a 30 min Tabata workout (six 4 min rounds separated by 1 min passive rest). Each round included eight exercises (20 s exercise and 10 s rest). Affective, physiological and cognitive responses were assessed prior to, during and after the protocol. Heart rate and blood lactate concentration increased similarly in both groups over time throughout the workout (p < 0.001). Total Mood Disturbance was higher for LF (111.4 ± 15.7) vs. HF (102.9 ± 11.7) (p = 0.48), vigor showed a level by time interaction of p = 0.006 and Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List factors deteriorated over time (p < 0.001). The Concentration Grid Test was better overall for HF (10.5 ± 3.6) vs. LF (8.6 ± 3.6) (p = 0.05). The Feeling Scale and Rating of Perceived Exertion worsened similarly in both groups over time (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Positive and negative affect and arousal did not differ between groups or change over time (p > 0.05). These results show that, despite the different levels of aerobic fitness, physiological, metabolic, perceptual and affective responses were similar in the two groups of women during a 30 min Tabata session. This may imply that affective responses during this type of HIIT are independent of aerobic fitness.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Exercício Físico , Nível de Saúde , Terapia por Exercício , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673757

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA) plays an important role in health outcomes for people with cancer, and pre-diagnosis PA influences PA behaviors after cancer treatment. Less is known about the PA of lung cancer patients, and the strong history of smoking could influence pre-diagnosis levels of PA and place them at risk for health problems. This study aimed to compare pre-diagnosis PA and its correlates in patients with lung cancer and other types of cancer (female breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer) and examine the relationship between pre-diagnosis PA and all-cause mortality. METHODS: This study used data from the UK Biobank, which is a national cohort study with accelerometry data. We included 2662 participants and used adjusted linear regressions and survival analyses. RESULTS: Male and female lung cancer groups spent a mean of 78 and 91 min/day in pre-diagnosis moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), respectively; this is lower than the 3 other types of cancer (p < 0.001). Younger age and faster walking pace had a strong association with PA in all the four types of cancer (p < 0.01). Smoking status had a strong association with PA in the lung cancer group, while obesity had a strong association with PA in female breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer (p < 0.01). Higher levels of pre-diagnosis MVPA (≥1.5 h/day) were associated with a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that lung cancer patients are the most inactive population before diagnosis. The identified difference in correlates of PA suggest that cancer-specific approaches are needed in PA research and practices. This study also highlights the importance of high PA for individuals with high cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Exercício Físico , Acelerometria , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Pulmão , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673777

RESUMO

In recent years, patients with chronic diseases have shown a younger trend due to physical inactivity and irregular lifestyles. Accordingly, the Chinese government has implemented the "National Fitness Program", which aims to enhance people's health by popularizing exercise and a healthy lifestyle. However, women are less physically active than men, and how to appeal to women to devote themselves to fitness activities has become a social concern. Based on the expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study explores the impact of the perceived policy effectiveness and health awareness on physical activity among working women. This study adopted a repeated cross-sectional study method, and each respondent was asked to complete a two-stage survey. The structural model of the extended TPB was tested using sample data from 376 working women in Changsha, China. The results show that perceived policy effectiveness and health awareness positively affect actual behavioral control and implementation intention. Among them, perceived policy effectiveness has the most significant impact on implementation intention, followed by health awareness. Furthermore, actual behavioral control and implementation intention mediate the relationship between perceived policy effectiveness/health awareness and physical activity. The findings suggest that to promote physical activity among working women, the Chinese government should deepen the implementation of the "National Fitness Program" and raise the public's health awareness.


Assuntos
Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Políticas
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673793

RESUMO

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the effect of physical activity (PA) on inhibitory function in children with ADHD. Experimental studies on the effect of PA on the inhibitory function of children with ADHD were retrieved. The data were obtained from PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EBSCO (MEDLINE, APA Psyclnfo, ERIC), Embase, Scopus, and ProQuest. The search period was from the date of inception of the respective databases to 4 May 2022, and Reviewer Manager software (version 5.3) was used for analysis. Eleven articles and 713 samples were included in the meta-analysis. Results revealed that PA can significantly improve the inhibitory function of children with ADHD (SMD = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.45-1.10, p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that the effectiveness of PA as an intervention in improving the inhibitory function of children with ADHD was moderated by the frequency, intensity, duration, type, and length of intervention. Based on the findings, PA can effectively improve interference suppression inhibitory function in children with ADHD. Longitudinal open-skill exercise for 60 min or more, two times/week has the best effect on improving inhibitory function in children with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Humanos , Criança , Exercício Físico
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673797

RESUMO

Exercise dependence (ED) is common in endurance athletes and can lead to physical and psychological distress with various health effects. We designed a prospective cross-sectional study to investigate the personality traits associated with ED among ultraendurance athletes. A total of 507 participants (41.6 (9.8) years, men: 73.7%) completed (1) a screening questionnaire about sociodemographic data, sporting habits, and healthcare data, (2) the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R, 21 items scored from 1 (never) to 6 (always), 7 subscales), (3) the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and (4) 2 items of the SCOFF (Sick-Control-One Stone-Fat-Food) questionnaire regarding possible eating disorders. Based on the EDS-R scores, 37 (7.3%) participants were at risk for ED (scores ≥ 5/6 on ≥3 subscales), 366 (72.2%) were nondependent but symptomatic (scores ≥ 3/6 on ≥3 subscales), and 104 (20.5%) were asymptomatic. Participants with ED had a greater training volume and a higher prevalence of possible eating disorders. A higher level of neuroticism was associated with increased EDS-R scores (r = 0.294; p < 0.001), with significantly higher scores in the ED group (F = 14.50, p < 0.001). The association between neuroticism and ED was not moderated by the presence of eating disorders. These findings will help to screen ultraendurance athletes at risk for ED and optimize their care.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Neuroticismo , Atletas/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Personalidade
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673808

RESUMO

Physical inactivity is one of the most modifiable factors linked to childhood obesity. Several Canadian provinces adopted daily physical activity (DPA) policies to promote physical activity during the school day. In Ontario, only 23% of in-service teachers meet DPA mandates. Promoting DPA implementation must occur at the pre-service level to foster self-efficacy and create long-term teaching habits. This study surveyed 155 pre-service teachers from an Ontario university to determine key perceptions and practices that should be targeted during their educational training to improve DPA fidelity. Findings revealed that over 96% of pre-service teachers viewed physical activity as beneficial for their own and their students mental and physical health, and as much as 33% received no education or training related to DPA. Pre-service teachers valued DPA more if they had opportunities to learn about and observe DPA during school placements. Pre-service teachers were more confident implementing DPA if they were more physically active, viewed themselves as more athletic, and had more positive physical education experiences. This work brings to the forefront important factors that could contribute to DPA implementation among in-service teachers and highlights target areas at the pre-service level for improved fidelity.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Humanos , Criança , Política de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ontário , Professores Escolares , Exercício Físico
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673819

RESUMO

Sedentary behavior (SB) is a risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the effects of an extracurricular physical exercise program and health advice on SB in adolescents. This was a non-randomized experimental study involving 19 adolescents divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG), aged 13-16 years from a public school in a Brazilian municipality. SB was measured using self-reports and accelerometers. The intervention included physical exercise and health advice. Repeated measures analysis of variance with a significance level of α = 5% was used. There was a time*group interaction for the subscapular fold ((pre IG = 16.30 mm vs. CG = 13.44 mm, post IG = 14.00 mm vs. CG = 15.89 mm) p = 0.001), and VO2MAX ((pre IG = 32.75 mL/kg/min vs. CG = 30.66 mL/kg/min, post IG = 35.76 mL/kg/min vs. CG = 29.28 mL/kg/min) p = 0.008). The accelerometer showed significant differences between groups in the total SB ((pre IG = 647.49 min/day vs. CG = 535.24 min/day, post IG = 614.02 min/day vs. CG = 586.97 min/day) p = 0.045), with a significant decrease in the IG. In conclusion, an extracurricular physical exercise program and health advice was effective in reducing SB in adolescents.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos , Adolescente , Autorrelato , Instituições Acadêmicas , Terapia por Exercício
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673829

RESUMO

Percussive massage therapy (PT) has been widely used by therapists and the fitness population to treat myofascial-related conditions. However, there is no evidence to confirm the effects of PT on the fascia. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PT on thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) morphology and other related outcomes. METHODS: Sixty-six healthy males participated and were randomly allocated into a percussive massage group (PT group) and a control group. The PT group received 15 min of back percussion massage, while the control group rested prone lying in the same environment for 15 min. Thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) thickness and echo intensity, perceived stiffness, lumbar flexibility, and skin temperature were measured in both groups before and immediately after the intervention. RESULT: TLF thickness and lumbar flexibility did not change when compared in the two groups. However, the echo intensity (left side, difference -3.36, 95% CI -5.1 to -1.6; right side, difference -4.39, 95% CI -6.1 to -2.7) and perceived stiffness (difference, -1.18, 95% CI -1.84 to -0.52) in the TLF region were significantly lower in the PT group than in the control group and were accompanied by increased skin temperature (difference 0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.48). CONCLUSION: We suggest that a 15 min PT with 30 Hz on the back region could reduce TLF echo intensity and perceived stiffness and increase skin temperature in healthy men individual.


Assuntos
Fáscia , Região Lombossacral , Humanos , Masculino , Fáscia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fáscia/anatomia & histologia , Região Lombossacral/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Massagem , Exercício Físico
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical exercise can slow down the decline of the cognitive function of the older adults, yet the review evidence is not conclusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and resistance training on cognitive ability. METHODS: A computerized literature search was carried out using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase SCOPUS, Web of Science, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), Wanfang, and VIP database to identify relevant articles from inception through to 1 October 2022. Based on a preliminary search of the database and the references cited, 10,338 records were identified. For the measured values of the research results, the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to synthesize the effect size. RESULTS: Finally, 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Since the outcome indicators of each literature are different in evaluating the old cognitive ability, a subgroup analysis was performed on the included literature. The study of results suggests that aerobic or resistance training interventions significantly improved cognitive ability in older adults compared with control interventions with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MD 2.76; 95% CI 2.52 to 3.00), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MD 2.64; 95% CI 2.33 to 2.94), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (MD 2.86; 95% CI 2.25 to 3.47), the Wechsler Memory Scale (MD 9.33; 95% CI 7.12 to 11.54), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (MD 5.31; 95% CI 1.20 to 9.43), the Trail Making Tests (MD -8.94; 95% CI -9.81 to -8.07), and the Stroop Color and Word Test (MD -5.20; 95% CI -7.89 to -2.51). CONCLUSION: Physical exercise improved the cognitive function of the older adults in all mental states. To improve cognitive ability, this meta-analysis recommended that patients perform at least moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and resistance exercise on as many days as possible in the week to comply with current exercise guidelines while providing evidence for clinicians.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Treinamento de Força , Humanos , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cognição , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Qualidade de Vida
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