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1.
Wiad Lek ; 77(4): 710-715, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To study the spiritual health in existential dimensions, as well as the meaning, value, and emotional components of spiritual health of Ukrainians under the wartime. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: The theoretical and methodological framework of the paper is represented by the works of scholars in classical existentialism, contemporary philosophers, psychologists, medical psychologists, theologians, sociologists, etc. The complex nature of the issue necessitated the use of interdisciplinary approaches, philosophical, general scientific and special sociological methods of gathering, processing and analyzing information. RESULTS: Results: The article analyzes the perception of spirituality and spiritual health related to mental and social aspects in the philosophy of classical existentialism and existential-humanistic psychology. The paper justifies the heuristic potential of these approaches for maintaining spiritual health of Ukrainians, which is based on holistic approaches to human beings and their spiritual frames. The article represents the results of sociological research by the Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the Scientific Research Institute of Social and Economic Development of the City, and a survey of the PhD students of the Bogomolets National Medical University (N=103) made by the authors, representing the results of statistical treatment of the spiritual health characteristics: emotional, value and meaning components. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The study has shown that the deterioration of mental health indicators of Ukrainians during the war is not accompanied by corresponding negative trends in their spiritual health. However, further research on this issue is necessary, including studies among respondents from other age groups (faculty, staff of the Bogomolets National Medical University).


Assuntos
Espiritualidade , Humanos , Ucrânia , Masculino , Existencialismo/psicologia , Feminino , Adulto , Saúde Mental
2.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 186(19)2024 May 06.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808764

RESUMO

Existential suffering refers to the distress arising from an inner realisation that life has lost its meaning or when life is threatened by disease. Compassionate and conscious conversation conducted by healthcare professionals is a way to alleviate existential suffering. In this review, we present a simple conversation tool which can be used to structure and build experience in end-of-life conversations and alleviation of existential suffering. The tool aims for patients to feel dignified and better understood in their existential questions and for doctors to feel better equipped in helping the patients with their suffering.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Humanos , Empatia , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Existencialismo
3.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 203, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In today's business environment, where sustainability has emerged as a strategic axis of business practices, the study of the link between human resources management and environmental management becomes increasingly necessary. In this sense, the present research focuses on analyzing the impact of Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) on the Sustainable Performance (SP) of Spanish wineries, as well as the mediating effect of Employee Wellbeing (EW) and Work Engagement (WE) on this linkage. In addition, age, size and membership in a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) are introduced as control variables to increase the precision of the cause-effect relationships examined. METHODS: The study proposes a conceptual model based on previous studies, which is tested using structural equations (PLS-SEM) with data collected from 196 Spanish wineries between September 2022 and January 2023. RESULTS: The findings of the research reveal the existence of a positive and significant relationship between the GHRM development and the SP of Spanish wineries, as well as the partial mediation of EW and WE in this association. CONCLUSIONS: The uniqueness and significance of this study can be attributed to several crucial factors. First, it enhances the understanding and knowledge regarding the advantages associated with GHRM development. Second, no prior research has conducted a comprehensive study on GHRM as a catalyst for SP within the context of Spanish wineries. Third, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no previous study has analyzed the mediating role of EW and WE as mediators in the relationship between GHRM and SP of wineries.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Vinho , Humanos , Existencialismo , Recursos Humanos
4.
PeerJ ; 12: e17184, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560451

RESUMO

Background: Single-cell annotation plays a crucial role in the analysis of single-cell genomics data. Despite the existence of numerous single-cell annotation algorithms, a comprehensive tool for integrating and comparing these algorithms is also lacking. Methods: This study meticulously investigated a plethora of widely adopted single-cell annotation algorithms. Ten single-cell annotation algorithms were selected based on the classification of either reference dataset-dependent or marker gene-dependent approaches. These algorithms included SingleR, Seurat, sciBet, scmap, CHETAH, scSorter, sc.type, cellID, scCATCH, and SCINA. Building upon these algorithms, we developed an R package named scAnnoX for the integration and comparative analysis of single-cell annotation algorithms. Results: The development of the scAnnoX software package provides a cohesive framework for annotating cells in scRNA-seq data, enabling researchers to more efficiently perform comparative analyses among the cell type annotations contained in scRNA-seq datasets. The integrated environment of scAnnoX streamlines the testing, evaluation, and comparison processes among various algorithms. Among the ten annotation tools evaluated, SingleR, Seurat, sciBet, and scSorter emerged as top-performing algorithms in terms of prediction accuracy, with SingleR and sciBet demonstrating particularly superior performance, offering guidance for users. Interested parties can access the scAnnoX package at https://github.com/XQ-hub/scAnnoX.


Assuntos
Análise de Célula Única , Software , Algoritmos , Genômica , Existencialismo
5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 20(868): 699-704, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568063

RESUMO

Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare autoimmune condition. Since its first description 50 years ago, its mere existence has been debated, given that it shares features of other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis, inflammatory myopathy, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren's syndrome. Also, while antibodies to U1-RNP are essential for the diagnosis of MCTD, these antibodies may be expressed in other circumstances, such as in case of SLE. Nevertheless, the patient fulfilling criteria for MCTD needs specific management. In this review, we describe the clinical features and the potential complications of this complex disease, often wrongly disregarded as benign. We will also emphasize the recommended follow-up exams and address treatment, which is currently lacking formal recommendations.


La connectivite mixte (mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD)) est une maladie auto-immune rare. Dès sa description il y a cinquante ans, l'existence propre de la MCTD est débattue, car les limites avec d'autres maladies, comme le lupus érythémateux systémique (LES), la sclérodermie, les myopathies inflammatoires, la polyarthrite rhumatoïde et le syndrome de Sjögren, sont floues. Les anticorps anti-U1-RNP obligatoires au diagnostic de MCTD sont également exprimés dans d'autres circonstances, comme le LES. Quoi qu'il en soit, le patient présentant des critères de MCTD nécessite une prise en charge spécifique. Nous présentons ici les signes cliniques et complications potentielles d'une maladie longtemps estimée à tort comme d'évolution bénigne. Nous abordons aussi les examens de suivi recommandés et la thérapeutique, qui reste à ce jour mal définie.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Doenças Autoimunes , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo , Humanos , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/complicações , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/terapia , Existencialismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Doenças Raras
6.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 104: 88-97, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493739

RESUMO

I identify and resolve an internal tension in Critical Contextual Empiricism (CCE) - the normative account of science developed by Helen Longino. CCE includes two seemingly conflicting principles: on one hand, the cognitive goals of epistemic communities should be open to critical discussion (the openness of goals to criticism principle, OGC); on the other hand, criticism must be aligned with the cognitive goals of that community to count as "relevant" and thus require a response (the goal-relativity of response-requiring criticism principle, GRC). The co-existence of OGC and GRC enables one to draw both approving and condemning judgments about a situation in which an epistemic community ignores criticism against its goals. This tension results from conflating two contexts of argumentation that require different regulative standards. In the first-level scientific discussion, GRC is a reasonable principle but OGC is not; in the meta-level discussion about science, the reverse holds. In meta-level discussion, the relevance of criticism can be established by appealing to goals of science that are more general than the goals of a specific epistemic community. To illustrate my revision of CCE, I discuss why feminist economists' criticism of the narrowness of the goals pursued in mainstream economics is relevant criticism.


Assuntos
Empirismo , Feminismo , Motivação , Existencialismo , Julgamento
7.
Ann Palliat Med ; 13(2): 397-414, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The indication "existential suffering (ES)" for palliative sedation therapy is included in most frameworks for palliative sedation and has been controversially discussed for decades. The appellative character of ES demands rapid relief and sedation often appears to be the best or only solution. ES is still poorly understood and so often neglected by health care professionals due to a lack of consensus regarding assessment, definition and treatment in the international medical literature. Based on a selective review of the literature on ES we propose a different view on the underlying processes of ES and the resulting consequences on medical treatment. METHODS: A narrative review was performed after PubMed search using key terms related to ES and sedation, covering the period from 1950 to April 2023, additionally a selective search in specialist literature on Existential Analysis. Reverse and forward snowballing followed. The language of analyzed publications was restricted to English and German. KEY CONTENT AND FINDINGS: ES is a multidimensional experience that tends to turn into despair and ultimately into a wish to die due to perceived hopelessness and meaninglessness. Pharmacological treatment or sedation do not meet the holistic needs of existential sufferers. The risk of harmful effects by continuous deep sedation seems to be significantly increased for existentially suffering patients. Professional caregivers are burdened by the appellative character of ES, limited treatment options and perceived empathic distress. Without a holistic understanding of the human condition in palliative care, ES cannot be fundamentally alleviated, and existential sufferers have no opportunity to transform and thus mitigate their condition. The recognition of underlying causes of suffering-moods is facilitated by the comprehensive approach of Existential Analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The presented concept of Existential Analysis and the triad of ES are useful instruments for health care professionals to recognize and support underlying moods of existentially suffering patients. Further studies are required. Comprehensive training for professional caregivers on ES is essential to enable them to reflect on their own existential concerns and finiteness as well as those of patients. Continuous deep sedation for ES must remain the exception, equivalent to a last resort option.


Assuntos
Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Existencialismo
8.
Psychopathology ; 57(3): 169-181, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467115

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic had significant repercussions for the everyday life and public health of society. Healthcare professionals were particularly vulnerable. Here, we interviewed medical residents about their lived experiences during the pandemic to offer a phenomenological analysis. To this end, we discuss their pandemic experiences considering Jaspers' "limit situation" concept - that is, a radical shift from their everyday experiences, to one causing them to question the basis of their very existence. METHODS: We interviewed 33 medical residents from psychiatry and other specialties from the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP) who either (a) worked directly with COVID-19 patients or (b) provided psychiatric care to other healthcare professionals. Semi-structured interviews were developed using the Inductive Process to Analyze the Structure of lived Experience (IPSE). RESULTS: The descriptions of the lived experiences of medical residents during the pandemic were organized into four content themes: (a) existential defense, (b) limit situations during the COVID-19 pandemic, (c) changes in lived experience, and (d) new world meanings through lived experience. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, medical residents experienced what can be thought of as a "limit situation," as they encountered the healthcare delivery challenges coupled with the social isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. These challenges included fear of infection and potential death, uncertainty about the future, and the emotional overload caused by the sharp increase in patient deaths. That said, after facing such a limit situation, residents reported feeling strengthened by this experience. This is consistent with the notion that when confronted with limit situations, we draw on our resources to overcome adversity and, in turn, reap existential gains. Health care providers might use these experiences to energize their own professional approach.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Internato e Residência , Médicos , Brasil , COVID-19/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Médicos/psicologia , Psiquiatria , Entrevistas como Assunto , Existencialismo/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Ansiedade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 20(861): 352-355, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353437

RESUMO

Our self-consciousness allows us to know that we exist and to situate ourselves in the world. However, self-consciousness also makes us realize that our existence is characterized by vulnerabilities, that we are individuals with experiences which cannot be experienced by the other and that we will not escape finitude. This selfconsciousness is usually in the background of our mind but may be brought to centre stage in case of illnesses which evolve toward death. Certain disciplines of medicine try to consider the existential dimensions of disease. The question remains what medicine can offer in such situations and why and for whom interventions to increase the well-being of patients under existential threat are proposed. An analysis of these developments needs to focus not only on patients, but also the clinician, medicine, and society.


La conscience de soi nous permet de savoir que nous existons dans le monde et de nous y situer. Elle nous fait aussi réaliser que notre existence est caractérisée par des vulnérabilités, que nous sommes des individus avec des expériences que personne ne peut vivre à notre place et que nous n'échapperons pas à la finitude. Cette conscience peut être propulsée sur le devant de la scène en cas de maladie évoluant vers la mort. Certaines disciplines de la médecine tentent ainsi d'en tenir compte. La question reste de savoir ce que le médecin peut véritablement offrir dans pareilles situations et pourquoi/pour qui des interventions auprès des patients sous menace existentielle sont proposées. Une lecture de ces développements implique de se centrer non seulement sur les patient-es, mais aussi sur les cliniciens-nes, la médecine et la société.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicos , Humanos , Existencialismo
10.
Biomater Adv ; 158: 213796, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342024

RESUMO

Tumor metastasis and recurrence are principal reasons for the high mortality and poor prognosis of cancers. Inefficient engagement between T cell and tumor cell, as well as the universal existence of immune checkpoints, are important factors to the limited immunological surveillance of the immune systems to tumor cells. Herein, an immune engager based on engineered platelets with CD3 antibody modification (P-aCD3) was constructed to facilitate the contact between T cell and tumor cell via providing the anchoring sites of above two cells. Combined with the immune checkpoint blockade strategy, P-aCD3 effectively enhanced T cell mediated cytotoxicity and inhibited tumor recurrence and metastasis in mice melanoma postoperative model and breast cancer model, resulting in significantly prolonged survival of mice.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Animais , Camundongos , Melanoma/cirurgia , Plaquetas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Existencialismo , Vigilância Imunológica
11.
PeerJ ; 12: e16763, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38250729

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review of conference papers in social psychology at two large psychology conferences in Japan: the Japanese Psychological Association and the Japanese Society for Social Psychology. The conference papers were effectively not subjected to peer review; hence, they were suitable for testing if psychologists selectively reported statistically significant findings without pressure from journal editors and reviewers. We investigated the distributions of z-values converted from the p-values reported in the articles presented at the 2013 and 2018 conferences. The z-curve analyses suggest the existence of selective reporting by the authors in 2013. The expected discovery rate (EDR) was much lower than the observed discovery rate (ODR; 7% vs. 76%, respectively), and the 95% confidence interval (CI) did not include the ODR. However, this does not mean that the set of studies completely lacked evidential value. The expected replication rate (ERR) was 31%; this is significantly higher than 5%, which was expected under the null hypothesis of no effect. Changes were observed between 2013 and 2018. The ERR increased (31% to 44%), and the EDR almost doubled (7% to 13%). However, the estimation of the maximum false discovery rate (FDR; 68% in 2013 and 35% in 2018) suggested that a substantial proportion of the reported findings were false positives. Overall, while social psychologists in Japan engaged in selective reporting, this does not mean that the entire field was covered with false positives. In addition, slight signs of improvement were observed in how they reported their findings. Still, the evidential value of the target studies was weak, even in 2018, allowing for no optimism.


Assuntos
Revisão por Pares , Psicologia Social , Japão , Existencialismo , Otimismo
12.
J Relig Health ; 63(2): 1154-1177, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217771

RESUMO

The concept of dignity is not, as some scholars claim, an unnecessary moral idea, and nor need it have religious overtones or be characterised by speciesism. In this article, I try to show that dignity can be defined and recognised. The starting point for the argumentation is the four typologies of dignity, which show that the term 'dignity' can denote significantly different concepts, and that the different concepts of dignity can have significantly different ontological senses. A unified typology of dignity allows for five categories to be distinguished: inherent dignity, dignity based on changeable qualities, moral dignity, bestowed dignity and comportment dignity. I take the first two categories of dignity as the object of the analysis, with which I seek to formulate a philosophical response to the charge of speciesism and to show on what basis it can be maintained that all human beings possess dignity. To this end, I distinguish between existential dignity, actual dignity, and potential dignity. Distinguishing these types of dignity becomes possible in the light of Aquinas' and Aristotle's views. In the final section, I point to two ways of recognising dignity. The first is based on certain narratives and emotional states ('ecumenical model of dignity'), while the second is related to a specific moral experience developed within ethical personalism.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Respeito , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Existencialismo , Pessoalidade
13.
Scand J Caring Sci ; 38(1): 200-209, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37655653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the present article was to elaborate on a research approach and method called 'lifeworld hermeneutics'. Significant to lifeworld hermeneutics is that interpretation is the main methodological instrument for explaining and understanding existential research questions and lived experiences. From a caring science perspective, this often refers to research that aims to gain a deeper understanding of existential phenomena and issues, such as existential meaning of health, well-being, homelessness, lostness, suffering and ageing, as well as what it means to experience unhealthiness and illness, the need for care, and caring that responds to such needs. DESIGN: Theoretical paper. RESULT: The article briefly covers ontology and epistemology that clarifies the meaning and importance of a lifeworld hermeneutic attitude. This is followed by suggestions for how to perform a lifeworld hermeneutic study, expressed in relation to methodological principles for the interpretation, validation and structuring of interpretations. Thereafter, follow reflections on how to use theoretical or philosophical support to develop and deepen existential interpretations. The findings of lifeworld hermeneutic research consist of existential interpretations where the researcher, with an open and pliable attitude towards the phenomenon and the aim of the study, clarifies, explains and suggests new ways of understanding participants' lived experiences; the researcher should maintain such an attitude towards their understanding of the phenomenon as well. CONCLUSION: The lifeworld hermeneutical approach and method described in this article makes it possible to further deepen the understanding and knowledge about existential issues that is relevant for caring and caring science.


Assuntos
Existencialismo , Humanos , Hermenêutica
14.
Sociol Health Illn ; 46(1): 59-77, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37391994

RESUMO

Identity loss and (re)construction forms a central debate in sociology of chronic illness. Living with chronic/persistent health conditions may raise questions about how disruptions can touch upon and further threaten the very roots of existence, by which people reflexively perceive a coherent and stable sense of 'being-in-the-world'. Whilst medical sociologists have shown interest in 'existential loss' in chronic illness, this question remains largely underexplored. Adopting a qualitative study on Long COVID (LC) as an example, this article illuminates existential identity loss as a deeply painful experience of losing body as a fundamental medium to retain continuity and consistency of one's narratively constructed identity. Interviews with 80 LC sufferers in the UK revealed that living with persistent and often uncertain symptoms and disruptions can cause the loss of biographical resources and resilience, making it difficult to reflexively understand their own being within the world. Their dynamic responses to LC also highlighted how sufferers' longing for a narratively coherent self can profoundly shape the ongoing construction of their identity in chronic health conditions. These insights into the complicated and often hard-to-express existential pain of identity loss can also nurture more holistic understandings of and support for LC and chronic illness more broadly.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Humanos , Existencialismo , Doença Crônica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Dor
15.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 50(5): 715-732, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631933

RESUMO

We propose that awe has multifaceted relations with existential isolation, a feeling of separation between the self and others or the world. Three studies examined the relation between awe and existential isolation via feelings of small self (vastness, self-size, self-perspectives) and a sense of connectedness. Awe (vs. a control topic) was induced either using virtual reality (Study 1) or a recall task (Studies 2 and 3) and was indirectly associated with higher and lower levels of existential isolation through differing pathways. Awe was associated with lower feelings of existential isolation via an increased sense of vastness, which in turn predicted greater connectedness; whereas awe was associated with higher feelings of existential isolation via increased sense of feeling small, which in turn predicted lower connectedness. This work advances understanding of the complex nature of awe-revealing its competing effects on the self and the social connectedness pathways through which awe can influence existential isolation.


Assuntos
Emoções , Existencialismo , Humanos
16.
J Relig Health ; 63(1): 31-45, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37715072

RESUMO

There is robust evidence to support the relationship between spirituality and mental health, but the mechanisms of this association are not well-understood. The existential meaning provided by spirituality may be one of these mechanisms. This was the central theme of Viktor Frankl's psychology, which he explained using the notion of the spiritual unconscious. Thus, we sought to explain how Frankl understands this spiritual unconscious and the two pieces of evidence he presents for its existence: the phenomenological description of responsible action and the analysis of dreams. Lastly, we discuss his contribution to the current understanding of the relationship between having an overarching purpose and/or religious meaning and improvement in mental health.


Assuntos
Terapias Espirituais , Espiritualidade , Masculino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Existencialismo
17.
Palliat Support Care ; 22(2): 381-386, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38093581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Existential guilt is a deep and multidimensional concept that is correlated with concepts, such as in/authenticity, existential anxiety, decisiveness, and personal and social responsibility. The aim of the present study is to investigate the experience of existential guilt among cancer patients. METHODS: The present research was conducted with a qualitative method with a content analysis design. A purposeful sampling method was used to select the participants and the sampling procedure went on until we reached data saturation. Data were obtained using semi-structured interviews with the participants. RESULTS: From a total of 18 interviews, 94 codes related to existential guilt were obtained. After the analysis, three main concepts were extracted: (1) incompleteness, (2) passivity, and (3) feelings of harm to self and others. Each of these had a number of subcategories. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The participants of the present research were found to experience existential guilt in different ways. The research showed that it is necessary to find the sources of existential guilt in order that effective therapeutic attention can be given cancer patients.


Assuntos
Culpa , Neoplasias , Humanos , Emoções , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Neoplasias/complicações , Existencialismo
18.
Med Humanit ; 50(1): 135-143, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37945331

RESUMO

Modern hospitals have succeeded in saving humans from numerous diseases owing to the rapid development of medical technology. However, modern medical science, combined with advanced technology, has developed a strong tendency to view human beings as mere targets of restoration and repair, with modern hospitals characterised as spaces centred on technology-focused treatment. This results in a situation where human beings are reduced to objects and alienated. This study, integrating Heidegger's concepts of dwelling and care, contends that 'care' is a vital concept in terms of the fundamental spatiality of hospitals and needs to be restored as the key guiding principle affecting hospital space. The loss of the caring spirit in the development of modern hospitals affects how hospitals are conceived, built and managed, as well as how human experiences within hospitals are dealt with or allowed for appropriately. This study offers critical reflection on how future planning of hospital spaces can be better conducted to ensure that human experiences, and the care needed to appropriately value such experiences, are adequately expressed, and the complexity of human existence is suitably considered.


Assuntos
Existencialismo , Tecnologia , Humanos
19.
Nurs Philos ; 25(1): e12464, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37731272

RESUMO

The discussion around dignity in nursing philosophy has been underway for many years. The literature still lacks philosophical arguments that would justify the thesis that all people have dignity. Scholars who defend dignity as an intrinsic value most often refer to Kant. However, Kant does not seem to be the most suitable candidate to defend the thesis that all human beings possess dignity. In this paper, I attempt to show that Aristotle's and Aquinas's views can help justify this thesis. To this end, I distinguish between actual dignity, potential dignity, and existential dignity. I state that all human beings have existential dignity or potential dignity.


Assuntos
Filosofia em Enfermagem , Respeito , Humanos , Existencialismo
20.
Gerontologist ; 64(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37632342

RESUMO

This paper argues that the philosophy of ambiguity, associated with Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Simone de Beauvoir, provides a helpful framework for understanding the complex and paradoxical nature of old age outside the dominant categories of the "third" and "fourth" ages. Building on philosophical literature in cultural gerontology including that focused on the "art of living" and other approaches that draw on existentialist thought, it suggests "ambiguity" as a theme that has been overlooked in such literature. The advantage of this approach is that it can accommodate contradictory elements and thus underpin an integrated approach to old age. At the same time, in distinguishing between ontological and social dimensions of ambiguity, the conceptual framework offers a new perspective on ageism that can help clarify the distinction between ageism as oppression and the negative aspects of deep old age itself. The paper is structured as follows. After making the case for the value and importance of "ambiguity" as a framework for viewing old age, I set out the key aspects of this philosophy as found in the work of Merleau-Ponty and particularly Beauvoir. I then apply this framework to a discussion of 2 literary memoirs of deep old age, by Diana Athill and Florida Scott-Maxwell, respectively. I argue that the picture of old age that emerges contrasts with the hegemonic discourses enframed by successful aging and frailed old age and offers the possibility not only of a true appreciation of old age but also of a more meaningful life course itself.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Filosofia , Humanos , Existencialismo , Envelhecimento , Florida
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