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1.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104798, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After significant early interest in aging and dying, recent empirical studies have been few and theoretically fragmented. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this review were to map what is empirically known about the intersections between existential aging (a sense of passing years that evoke a sense of nearness-to-death) and dying identity and to describe the available evidence. METHOD: Articles were reviewed employing PRISMA guidelines. Seven data bases were searched resulted in 165 records. Of these 165 records a final selection of 24 studies that met the criteria were examined. RESULTS: Evidence from the review found that the formation of the identity of dying alongside existential aging was associated with personal changes related to self/gerotranscendence, self-concerns about the inevitability of death (mortality salience), self-concerns about the prospect of death (death anxiety), attitudes toward the older self as a moderator of attitudes to death (aging attitudes), or simply anticipating the death of self (the future). Collectively, these studies found that death and dying were threats or challenges to life as an increasingly aging identity and that this seems to require compensation or accommodation. CONCLUSION: These studies confirm the importance of nearness-to-death on identity formation and psychological change in older populations. However, most of the studies were quantitative and tested for pre-existing ideas and concepts. There is a need for more qualitative studies to search for wider or parallel meanings about identity change in the face of aging and death, more longitudinal designs, and greater attention to mixed methods approaches, especially for populations for whom talk or writing may be restrictive.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Atitude Frente a Morte , Idoso , Humanos , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Existencialismo
2.
J Lesbian Stud ; 26(4): 367-381, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369937

RESUMO

This article argues for the usefulness of deploying a trans lens to examine the diaries of Anne Lister (1791-1840). The author contends that a trans reading may expand possibilities for critical analysis of Lister's gender practices within the context of early-nineteenth-century white, upper-class Halifax society, in addition to existing labels such as "lesbian" and "queer." Examples to illustrate these possibilities are drawn from Lister's reading habits, facilitated by some initial quantitative analysis of Lister's own indexing practices. The article concludes that Lister structures their literary life to enable them to trans certain gender practices, and to fashion a livable gendered existence amidst the competing pressures of class, nationhood, financial security, self-determination, and sexual desire.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Feminina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Humanos , Feminino , Leitura , Emoções , Existencialismo
3.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2132640, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373833

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to survey the findings of phenomenological studies built up in the field of diabetes care in Sweden. DESIGN: This is a meta-synthesis of phenomenological studies on experiences related to diabetes in Sweden focusing on learning to live with diabetes. METHOD: We proceeded by reference to the seven phases of Noblit & Hare. RESULTS: We examined papers from seven phenomenological studies on learning to live with diabetes in Sweden. From the papers, which describe the experience of living with diabetes, three overarching themes were selected-perception and awareness of the body; integration and responsibility; and presence of others who provide support. From those describing the expert's experience, an overarching theme emerged-encouraging reflection in persons with diabetes. We interpreted each of these themes in phenomenological terms and compared them with theories in Japan. Persons with diabetes take responsibility for coping with a range of things brought on by the illness and learn to live with diabetes. Experts support these persons so they can see their world objectively and critically scrutinize it. By building a model of diabetes care in Japan that references Scandinavian human science, it will be possible to find new approaches that support learning at the existential level.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Suécia , Adaptação Psicológica , Existencialismo
4.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(4): 533-554, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189655

RESUMO

This article uses a large corpus of previously understudied documents-i.e., appointment edicts of medieval China-to reveal how real-time negotiation between the imperial court and its provincial officials gave rise to two sophisticated theories of political reciprocity that impose limits on the sovereign. The first, well-studied in existent scholarship, claimed that the ruler was obliged to appoint worthy officials to promote the well-being of the commoners. The second, which this article excavates, stated instead that the ruler, while enjoying the services of the employed officials, was obliged to repay the services properly, sometimes even at the cost of commoners.


Assuntos
Anormalidades do Olho , China , Existencialismo , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos
5.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2132653, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36204822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is associated with different feelings and experiences that can negatively affect adolescents' health and well-being. In the transition between childhood and adulthood, experiences of loneliness are common. A deep form of loneliness is described as existential loneliness. Studies among adults have shown that existential loneliness often arises in connection with transitions and is related to suffering, but may lead to positive experiences when acknowledged and addressed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore adolescents' experiences of existential loneliness. METHODS: This was an exploratory-descriptive qualitative study based on narrative interviews with 16 adolescents (median age 17.5). The data were analysed inductively using qualitative content analysis. FINDINGS: Existential loneliness among adolescents was related to experiences of social exclusion and "in-betweenness". To alleviate their suffering, the adolescents tried to avoid burdensome feelings and thoughts, and they chose between sharing or not sharing their inner lives with someone else. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to support adolescents' sense of belonging, and they may need assistance in dealing with existential loneliness, as well as with finding constructive and healthy ways of recuperating from the suffering. Professionals need knowledge of existential loneliness to promote adolescents' existential health and well-being.


Assuntos
Existencialismo , Solidão , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Emoções , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Isolamento Social
6.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2122157, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073742

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to describe the loss of a family member by suicide, based on the lived experience of suicide survivors. METHODS: A phenomenology study with a Reflective Lifeworld Research approach was conducted, consisting of sixteen interviews with eight suicide survivors. RESULTS: The essence of losing a family member by suicide encompasses experiences of involuntary and existential loneliness, life suffering, and additional burdens in a life that is radically transformed, comprising prolonged and energy-intensive attempts to understand. Life for the family member encompasses a constant fear of being judged and an ambiguous silence, where this silence can both lead to involuntary loneliness and be a source of support and fellowship. Support mechanisms inside the family fall apart, and it becomes obvious that the survivors' experiences affect others. The loss also implies an active endeavour to maintain the memory of the deceased. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, it is important for professionals to accept the survivors as suffering human beings early-from the point of the notification of death-and consider them as patients in need of compassionate care. Such support might reduce life suffering, counteract stigma and involuntary loneliness, and work simultaneously as suicide prevention.


Assuntos
Solidão , Suicídio , Existencialismo , Família , Humanos , Sobreviventes
7.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 7469970, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36159753

RESUMO

Heidegger is not actually an antitechnologist or a revivalist. He does not think we need to escape from technology while criticizing it, nor does he miss a certain "golden age" in human history. Heidegger cannot provide us with specific methods to solve many problems in the technological age, but his reflection and questioning provide us with a possible way of redemption, which is of great significance to the development of our current era. After analyzing Heidegger's related works and related literature by many scholars, this paper finds that most of the research stays on aspects such as the existence, the nature of art, the nature of technology, the crisis brought about by technology, and the rescue of technology by art. Part of it involves the relationship between technology and art, but rarely concentrates on thinking about the relationship between technology and art. Based on this, through the exploration and analysis of the origin of ancient techniques and the reconsideration of the essence of modern technology, this paper takes the "Ge-stell" thought in the context of Heidegger's thinking on technology as the breakthrough point and reexamines technology. It understands and expounds the development of art; tries to study the inner connection and connotation between Heidegger's modern technology, art, and modern technology "Ge-stell"; and grasps the relationship between technology and art as a whole. By analyzing and pointing out the "Ge-stell" essence of technology, the blood relationship between technology and art has been cut off, and art has been brought into the control of technology, resulting in an unprecedented survival crisis for human beings. Finally, the rescue in the technological era is proposed. It can provide philosophical guidance and new thinking for the development of the current society and the plight of the times it is facing.


Assuntos
Existencialismo , Tecnologia , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Palliat Support Care ; 20(5): 754-756, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This report describes a case of concurrent engagement in Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy (MCP) and Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy for Caregivers (MCP-C), brief, structured interventions designed to address existential distress in patients with cancer and cancer caregivers. METHOD: Descriptions of the independent courses of MCP/MCP-C treatment for a patient with Glioblastoma Multiforme and his caregiver are provided with both unique and shared themes around sources of meaning highlighted. RESULTS: The patient and caregiver each experienced enhanced well-being as a result of receiving MCP and MCP-C, as well as shared benefits of deepened connectedness. Engagement in MCP/MCP-C had important implications for their experience of the patient's end-of-life and the caregiver's bereavement. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: MCP and MCP-C are interventions typically delivered independently to patients and caregivers. The individual and shared benefits derived from MCP/MCP-C by this patient and caregiver point to the potential benefits of concurrent engagement and the need for future dyadic research on MCP/MCP-C.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Neoplasias , Existencialismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Psicoterapia , Qualidade de Vida
10.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 84, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35974362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vulnerability is a key concept in traditional and contemporary bioethics. In the philosophical literature, vulnerability is understood not only to be an ontological condition of humanity, but also to be a consequence of contingent factors. Within bioethics debates, vulnerable populations are defined in relation to compromised capacity to consent, increased susceptibility to harm, and/or exploitation. Although vulnerability has historically been associated with older adults, to date, no comprehensive or systematic work exists on the meaning of their vulnerability. To fill this gap, we analysed the literature on aged care for the meaning, foundations, and uses of vulnerability as an ethical concept. METHODS: Using PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of argument-based ethics literature in four major databases: PubMed, Embase®, Web of Science™, and Philosopher's Index. These covered biomedical, philosophy, bioethical, and anthropological literature. Titles, abstracts, and full texts of identified papers were screened for relevance. The snowball technique and citation tracking were used to identify relevant publications. Data analysis and synthesis followed the preparatory steps of the coding process detailed in the QUAGOL methodology. RESULTS: Thirty-eight publications met our criteria and were included. Publication dates ranged from 1984 to 2020, with 17 publications appearing between 2015 and 2020. Publications originated from all five major continents, as indicated by the affiliation of the first author. Our analyses revealed that the concept of vulnerability could be distinguished in terms of basic human and situational vulnerability. Six dimensions of older adults' vulnerability were identified: physical; psychological; relational/interpersonal; moral; sociocultural, political, and economic; and existential/spiritual. This analysis suggested three ways to relate to older adults' vulnerability: understanding older adults' vulnerability, taking care of vulnerable older adults, and intervening through socio-political-economic measures. CONCLUSIONS: The way in which vulnerability was conceptualised in the included publications overlaps with distinctions used within contemporary bioethics literature. Dimensions of aged care vulnerability map onto defining features of humans, giving weight to the claim that vulnerability represents an inherent characteristic of humans. Vulnerability is mostly a value-laden concept, endowed with positive and negative connotations. Most publications focused on and promoted aged care, strengthening the idea that care is a defining practice of being human.


Assuntos
Bioética , Idoso , Dissidências e Disputas , Existencialismo , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Populações Vulneráveis
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011883

RESUMO

Globally, humanity is in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic; thus, we question our individual, and collective, behaviours. Long periods of lockdown and ever-escalating death rates have found people asking questions such as "What is the point of carrying on?" This is exacerbated by the world's burgeoning ecological crisis. Humanity is beginning to wonder if it belongs on the planet when its footprint has caused such rampant destruction to forests, oceans, the animal kingdom, and other ecological entities. Existential positive psychology (EPP) seeks to uncover truths about humankind's existence, survival, and, thus, meaning in life. We, as people, need to make sense of our reason for being as we struggle with our anxieties and seek to become authentic. This discussion paper contends that EPP can help humanity find the courage to challenge, and heal, its existential anxieties, namely, death, isolation, freedom, and meaningless, in order to find individual and group identities, as well as overall mental wellness (or happiness), specifically in a South African context, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The writings of Wong, who works within the framework of EPP, and those of Frankl, a holocaust survivor, whose work falls within the scope of humanistic and existential psychology and Asante's Afrocentrism, which is a philosophical framework grounded on the African continent, are used to support this argument.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Existencialismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Existencialismo/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Psicologia Positiva , África do Sul
12.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2109812, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938549

RESUMO

What enables well-being when experiencing existential concerns as a young adult is an under-explored area of research. In order to address young adults' existential concerns and provide caring support that builds their resilience to meet life challenges, the purpose of the study is to describe the meaning of enabling well-being as experienced by young adults living with existential concerns. This phenomenological study is based on a reflective lifeworld research. Seventeen young adults, aged 17-27 years, were interviewed. The results is presented in an essential meaning and further explored with its variations and individual nuances of the phenomenon; enabling well-being. The essential meaning of enabling well-being, when experiencing existential concerns as a young adult, means finding a place to rest. Finding a place to rest means finding both movement and stillness in life to reflect upon one's life story in order to understand oneself. The results also show that young adults enable their own well-being in many ways when experiencing existential concerns. When their existential concerns feel overwhelming, they need support from healthcare professionals. When young adults seek professional support, the professionals must be open and focus on the young adults' life story to enable well-being.


Assuntos
Emoções , Existencialismo , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 36(5): 295-303, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981114

RESUMO

This study aims at exploring the perspectives of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the existential meaning of lifestyle change as an evidence base for spiritual care by nurses and other health professionals. This study has been carried out within the paradigm of phenomenological caring sciences. The sample of 18 participants was purposively selected. Data consisted of in-depth interviews among adults with an episode of CVD. Data analysis of transcribed audio recordings was done using the method of Reflective Lifeworld Approach. For patients with CVD, changing one's lifestyle is an experience of transition in self-image. This transition has a twofold dynamic. On the one hand, it entails alternating phases in what is meaningful for the patient: letting go (loss of the normal, of health, of bodily functions) and holding on (desire to be healthy and to be normal). On the other hand, through the vulnerability and loneliness patients often experience, patients report a need to be encouraged by and connected to others/the Other. Making brave choices and connecting to the patients' spiritual resources of inner strength are crucial for successful lifestyle changes and meaningful transition to a new lifestyle. Lifestyle change is not only a physical and psychological process for the patient with CVD but also an existential transition that involves fundamental views and values of being human. It is an experience that is in part socially influenced, that is, by encouragement from meaningful others. For the health care worker, knowledge of this experience may help provide spiritual care after CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Existencialismo/psicologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Solidão/psicologia , Espiritualidade
14.
J Palliat Med ; 25(11): 1721-1731, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849746

RESUMO

In 2009, the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) developed a framework on palliative sedation, acknowledging this practice as an important and ethically acceptable intervention of last resort for terminally ill patients experiencing refractory symptoms. Before and after that, other guidelines on palliative sedation have been developed in Europe with variations in terminology and concepts. As part of the Palliative Sedation project (Horizon 2020 Funding No. 825700), a revision of the EAPC framework is planned. The aim of this article is to analyze the most frequently used palliative sedation guidelines as reported by experts from eight European countries to inform the discussion of the new framework. The three most reported documents per country were identified through an online survey among 124 clinical experts in December 2019. Those meeting guideline criteria were selected. Their content was assessed against the EAPC framework on palliative sedation. The quality of their methodology was evaluated with the Appraisal Guideline Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Nine guidelines were included. All recognize palliative sedation as a last-resort treatment for refractory symptoms, but the criterion of refractoriness remains a matter of debate. Most guidelines recognize psychological or existential distress as (part of) an indication and some make specific recommendations for such cases. All agree that the assessment should be multiprofessional, but they diverge on the expertise required by the attending physician/team. Regarding decisions on hydration and nutrition, it is proposed that these should be independent of those for palliative sedation, but there is no clear consensus on the decision-making process. Several weaknesses were highlighted, particularly in areas of rigor of development and applicability. The identified points of debate and methodological weaknesses should be considered in any update or revision of the guidelines analyzed to improve the quality of their content and the applicability of their recommendations.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Existencialismo , Consenso , Inquéritos e Questionários , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Assistência Terminal/métodos
15.
Psychopathology ; 55(6): 317-324, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863321

RESUMO

According to phenomenological literature, the life-world of the obsessive subject is characterized by its claustrophobic closure, the attempt to stop the flow of time, and the inability to accept the formlessness hidden behind the form. The obsessive obstinately tries to build defences against what he cannot tolerate of reality and this effort causes loss of spontaneity in the pre-reflective dimension of existence, resulting in the thought process being oversaturated and ending up by blocking action. Our proposal is to unpack the phenomenon of partition in the obsessive's world, analysing the similarities and differences with the schizophrenic life-world. In fact, although the mechanization and the predominance of a reflective dimension are similar in these psychopathological typologies, these phenomena are based on completely different foundations: the ontological question in the case of the schizophrenic subject, while the ontic question in the case of the obsessive subject. By decomposing reality, the obsessive tries to stem the dimension of the formless, which is hidden under the representative order of things which he cannot tolerate. Understanding the hyper-rationalizing tendency of obsessive thought offers important clinical implications by providing shareable insights into psychotherapeutic development.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Masculino , Humanos , Psicopatologia , Processos Mentais , Existencialismo , Agitação Psicomotora
16.
Nurs Ethics ; 29(7-8): 1761-1772, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Expressions of dignity as a clinical phenomenon in nursing homes as expressed by caregivers were investigated. A coherence could be detected between the concepts and phenomena of existence and dignity in relationships and caring culture as a context. A caring culture is interpreted by caregivers as the meaning-making of what is accepted or not in the ward culture. BACKGROUND: The rationale for the connection between existence and dignity in relationships and caring culture is that suffering is a part of existence, as well as compassion in relieving suffering, and ontological interdependency. AIM: To describe different expressions of dignity in relationships and existence in context of caring cultures from the perspective of the caregivers. RESEARCH DESIGN: The methodology and method are hermeneutic. The method used was to merge the theoretical preunderstanding as one horizon of understanding with empirical data. PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: Focus group interviews with caregivers in nursing homes. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The principles of the Helsinki Declaration have been followed to, for example, preserve self-determination, integrity, dignity, confidentiality and privacy of the research persons. FINDINGS: Data interpretation resulted in four themes: Encountering existential needs that promote dignity in a caring culture; To amplify dignity in relationships by the creative art of caring in a caring culture; Violation of dignity by ignorance or neglect in a non-caring culture and The ethic of words and appropriated ground values in a caring culture. DISCUSSION: Dignity-promoting acts of caring, or dignity-depriving acts of non-caring are adequate to see from the perspective of dignity in relationships and existence and the caring culture. CONCLUSIONS: Dignity in relationships seems to touch the innermost existential life, as the existential life is dependent on confirmation from others.


Assuntos
Casas de Saúde , Respeito , Humanos , Hermenêutica , Existencialismo , Empatia
17.
Med Health Care Philos ; 25(4): 603-613, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798987

RESUMO

Phenomenology of illness has grown increasingly popular in recent times. However, the most prominent phenomenologists of illness defend a psychologizing notion of phenomenology, which argues that illness is primarily constituted by embodied experiences, feelings, and emotions of suffering, alienation etc. The article argues that this gives rise to three issues that need to be addressed. (1) How is the theory of embodiment compatible with the strong distinction between disease and illness? (2) What is the difference between problematic embodiment and illness? (3) How is existential edification, that illness can give rise to according to the phenomenologists, to be understood? The article then engages in an analysis of Heidegger's and Waldenfels' phenomenology with the ambition of developing a notion of existence, which can transgress the psychologization of illness. Rather than arguing that illness is constituted by experiences of suffering and alienation, it emphasizes that broaches upon conatively guided activities constitute illness.


Assuntos
Emoções , Existencialismo , Humanos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886283

RESUMO

This Special Issue, entitled "Positive and Existential Psychology in Times of Change: Towards Complex, Holistic, Systemic and Integrative Perspectives", addresses the urging questions and challenges of our times from the latest positive and existential psychology perspectives [...].


Assuntos
Existencialismo
19.
J Relig Health ; 61(4): 3363-3383, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790579

RESUMO

The Viennese psychiatrist Rudolf Allers was one of the principal authors that studied character and contributed to understanding its development and education, including the neurotic character. His psychological observations were based on his own clinical experience, his individual psychology, phenomenological and existential philosophies, and, above all, the doctrine of the Fathers of the Catholic Church and Thomas Aquinas. This paper presents Allers's main ideas about self-improvement as a process of personal changing toward self-perfection, that is, toward the best version of oneself. For Allers, self-perfection implies the modification of insane aspects of character such as egocentricity, pride, and untidy love for oneself, which are the most important impediments to self-improvement.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Catolicismo , Existencialismo , Humanos , Amor , Filosofia
20.
Cancer Res Treat ; 54(3): 651-660, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790196

RESUMO

Palliative care is comprised of an interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach with members from different disciplines who collaboratively work together to reduce multidimensional components of pain and suffering and improve quality of life for patients coping with a terminal illness. Psychosocial team members are integral to the palliative care IDT and provide expertise in assessment and empirically validated interventions to address psychological distress. The following paper will provide a review of different facets of psychological distress experienced by advanced cancer patients such as psychological disorders, existential distress, spiritual distress, caregiver distress, parental distress, and grief. Finally, an overview of commonly used screening and assessment tools as well as psychological interventions relevant for the palliative care population is presented.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Existencialismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia
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