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1.
Z Gastroenterol ; 62(7): 1032-1041, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), as a nosocomial disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Even though the incidence of CDI has been declining in Germany in recent years, the individual infection may pose a medical challenge despite therapeutic advances. The aim here is to clarify which gaps practitioners consider to be particularly serious in care and in the existing evidence base. METHODS: In a moderated workshop of German CDI experts the topics considered as relevant were identified. A survey already conducted in five other countries (Australia, France, Great Britain, Canada, and Italy) was adapted and processed by 27 practitioners. During the evaluation, the topics perceived as particularly important were identified, the statements of the specialist groups were compared and changes in opinion were considered. RESULTS: 27 fully completed questionnaires were evaluated. The need for improvement was primarily seen in the prevention of CDI recurrences (74.1%) and the treatment of recurrences (55.6%). Evidence deficits were noted in the treatment of recurrences (55.6%) and identification of risk factors for recurrences (48.1%). Improving care via fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) was named by 70.4%. For guidelines, more clarity (48.1%) and more regular updates (40.7%) were desired. For patients, better education on appropriate antibiotic use (52.0%) and choice of FMT were desired (48.1%). SUMMARY: The German expert view and the international assessment is similar, when asked about the need for improvement in care and evidence gaps in the treatment of patients with CDI: The focus is on prevention and therapy of recurrent CDI. The problem of access to FMT is a German peculiarity that seems to need improvement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Humanos , Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Alemanha , Melhoria de Qualidade , Internacionalidade , Prova Pericial , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Avaliação das Necessidades , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
3.
Law Hum Behav ; 48(3): 163-181, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Over the past 4 decades, discrepant research findings have emerged in the juror-confession literature, prompting the need for a systematic review and meta-analysis that assesses the effect of confession evidence (coerced or noncoerced) on conviction rates and the efficacy of trial safeguards. HYPOTHESES: We did not predict any directional hypotheses. Some studies show increased convictions when a confession is present (vs. not), regardless of whether that confession was coerced; other studies demonstrate that jurors are able to discount coerced confessions. Studies have also demonstrated sensitivity effects (safeguards aided jurors in making appropriate decisions), skepticism effects (safeguards led jurors to indiscriminately disregard confession evidence), or null effects with regard to expert testimony and jury instructions. METHOD: We identified 83 independent samples (N = 24,860) that met our meta-analytic inclusion criteria. Using extracted Hedges' g effect sizes, we conducted both network meta-analysis and metaregression to address key research questions. RESULTS: Coerced and noncoerced confessions (vs. no confession) increased convictions (network gs = 0.34 and 0.70, respectively), yet coerced (vs. noncoerced) confessions reduced convictions (network g = -0.36). When jury instructions were employed (vs. not), convictions in coerced confession cases were reduced (this difference did not emerge for noncoerced confessions; a sensitivity effect). Expert testimony, however, reduced conviction likelihood regardless of whether a confession was coerced (a skepticism effect). CONCLUSION: Confession evidence is persuasive, and although jurors appear to recognize the detrimental effect of coercive interrogation methods on confession reliability, they do not fully discount unreliable confessions. Educational safeguards are therefore needed, but more research is encouraged to identify the most effective forms of jury instructions and expert testimony. One potential reform could be in the interrogation room itself, as science-based interviewing approaches could provide jurors with more reliable defendant statement evidence that assists them in reaching appropriate verdict decisions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Coerção , Direito Penal , Prova Pericial , Revelação da Verdade
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1380929, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952393

RESUMO

The proposed expert opinion aimed to address the current knowledge on conceptual, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and to provide a guidance document to assist clinicians for the best practice in DPN care. The participating experts consider the suspicion of the disease by clinicians as a key factor in early recognition and diagnosis, emphasizing an improved awareness of the disease by the first-admission or referring physicians. The proposed "screening and diagnostic" algorithm involves the consideration of DPN in a patient with prediabetes or diabetes who presents with neuropathic symptoms and/or signs of neuropathy in the presence of DPN risk factors, with careful consideration of laboratory testing to rule out other causes of distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy and referral for a detailed neurological work-up for a confirmative test of either small or large nerve fiber dysfunction in atypical cases. Although, the first-line interventions for DPN are currently represented by optimized glycemic control (mainly for type 1 diabetes) and multifactorial intervention (mainly for type 2 diabetes), there is a need for individualized pathogenesis-directed treatment approaches for DPN. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) seems to be an important first-line pathogenesis-directed agent, given that it is a direct and indirect antioxidant that works with a strategy targeted directly against reactive oxygen species and indirectly in favor of endogenous antioxidant capacity for improving DPN conditions. There is still a gap in existing research in the field, necessitating well-designed, robust, multicenter clinical trials with sensitive endpoints and standardized protocols to facilitate the diagnosis of DPN via a simple and effective algorithm and to track progression of disease and treatment response. Identification of biomarkers/predictors that would allow an individualized approach from a potentially disease-modifying perspective may provide opportunities for novel treatments that would be efficacious in early stages of DPN, and may modify the natural course of the disease. This expert opinion document is expected to increase awareness among physicians about conceptual, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of DPN and to assist them in timely recognition of DPN and translating this information into their clinical practice for best practice in the management of patients with DPN.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas , Humanos , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Prova Pericial , Gerenciamento Clínico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações
5.
West Afr J Med ; 41(4 Suppl): S1-S9, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38944877

RESUMO

Vaccination programs have proven successful in the prevention and control of infectious diseases among children on a global scale, but the majority of adult populations remain unvaccinated. immunocompromised adults as well as older adults aged low-income countries as Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among 65 years and above. Despite the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), the burden of vaccine-type serotypes remains high in there are no clear policies for adult vaccination. As per the Global Burden of Disease 2019 report, about 120,000 individuals aged 70 years and older died as a result of LRTIs) in sub-Saharan Africa. A medical advisory board meeting was conducted in April 2022 to discuss the burden of pneumococcal diseases in adults, the current status of policies and practices of adult vaccination, unmet needs, and challenges in Ghana. This expert opinion paper outlines the pneumococcal epidemiology and burden of disease in Ghana, as well as the rationale for adult pneumococcal vaccination. It also highlights the potential barriers to adult vaccination and offers recommendations to overcome these obstacles and enhance vaccine acceptance in Ghana.


Les programmes de vaccination ont prouvé leur succès dans la prévention et le contrôle des maladies infectieuses chez les enfants à l'échelle mondiale, mais la majorité des populations adultes restent non vaccinées. Les infections à Streptococcus pneumoniae sont associées à une morbidité et une mortalité substantielles chez les adultes immunodéprimés ainsi que chez les personnes âgées de 65 ans et plus. Malgré l'introduction des vaccins conjugués contre le pneumocoque (VCP), la charge des sérotypes vaccinaux reste élevée dans les pays à faible revenu car il n'existe pas de politiques claires en matière de vaccination des adultes. Selon le rapport sur la charge mondiale de morbidité de 2019, environ 120 000 personnes âgées de 70 ans et plus sont décédées des suites d'infections des voies respiratoires inférieures (IVRI) en Afrique subsaharienne. Une réunion du conseil consultatif médical a eu lieu en avril 2022 pour discuter du fardeau des maladies pneumococciques chez les adultes, de l'état actuel des politiques et pratiques de vaccination des adultes, des besoins non satisfaits et des défis au Ghana. Cet article d'opinion d'experts présente l'épidémiologie pneumococcique et le fardeau de la maladie au Ghana, ainsi que les arguments en faveur de la vaccination pneumococcique des adultes. Il met également en lumière les obstacles potentiels à la vaccination des adultes et propose des recommandations pour surmonter ces obstacles et améliorer l'acceptation des vaccins au Ghana. MOTS-CLÉS: Maladie pneumococcique, Fardeau de la maladie, Vaccin conjugué contre le pneumocoque, Vaccination des adultes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Ghana, Défis de la vaccination, Immunisation des adultes, VCP-13, Pneumonie acquise en communauté.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Vacinação , Humanos , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Gana/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Programas de Imunização , Prova Pericial
6.
Int J Cardiol ; 410: 132230, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852859

RESUMO

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is routinely required during pre-participation screening in the presence of symptoms, family history of sudden cardiac death or cardiomyopathies <40-year-old, murmurs, abnormal ECG findings or in the follow-up of athletes with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). TTE is a cost-effective first-line imaging modality to evaluate the cardiac remodeling due to long-term, intense training, previously known as the athlete's heart, and to rule out the presence of conditions at risk of sudden cardiac death, including cardiomyopathies, coronary artery anomalies, congenital, aortic and heart valve diseases. Moreover, TTE is useful for distinguishing physiological cardiac adaptations during intense exercise from pathological behavior due to an underlying CVD. In this expert opinion statement endorsed by the Italian Society of Sports Cardiology, we discussed common clinical scenarios where a TTE is required and conditions falling in the grey zone between the athlete's heart and underlying cardiomyopathies or other CVD. In addition, we propose a minimum dataset that should be included in the report for the most common indications of TTE in sports cardiology clinical practice.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Ecocardiografia , Sociedades Médicas , Medicina Esportiva , Humanos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia/normas , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Medicina Esportiva/normas , Itália , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Cardiologia/normas , Cardiologia/métodos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Atletas , Prova Pericial/métodos , Prova Pericial/normas , Esportes/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0298504, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38913645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemical contamination and pollution are an ongoing threat to human health and the environment. The concern over the consequences of chemical exposures at the global level continues to grow. Because resources are constrained, there is a need to prioritize interventions focused on the greatest health impact. Data, especially related to chemical exposures, are rarely available for most substances of concern, and alternate methods to evaluate their impact are needed. STRUCTURED EXPERT JUDGMENT (SEJ) PROCESS: A Structured Expert Judgment (Research Outreach, 2021) process was performed to provide plausible estimates of health impacts for 16 commonly found pollutants: asbestos, arsenic, benzene, chromium, cadmium, dioxins, fluoride, highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs), lead, mercury, polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Per- and Polyfluorinated Substances (PFAs), phthalates, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and brominated flame retardants (BRFs). This process, undertaken by sector experts, weighed individual estimations of the probable global health scale health impacts of each pollutant using objective estimates of the expert opinions' statistical accuracy and informativeness. MAIN FINDINGS: The foremost substances, in terms of mean projected annual total deaths, were lead, asbestos, arsenic, and HHPs. Lead surpasses the others by a large margin, with an estimated median value of 1.7 million deaths annually. The three other substances averaged between 136,000 and 274,000 deaths per year. Of the 12 other chemicals evaluated, none reached an estimated annual death count exceeding 100,000. These findings underscore the importance of prioritizing available resources on reducing and remediating the impacts of these key pollutants. RANGE OF HEALTH IMPACTS: Based on the evidence available, experts concluded some of the more notorious chemical pollutants, such as PCBs and dioxin, do not result in high levels of human health impact from a global scale perspective. However, the chemical toxicity of some compounds released in recent decades, such as Endocrine Disrupters and PFAs, cannot be ignored, even if current impacts are limited. Moreover, the impact of some chemicals may be disproportionately large in some geographic areas. Continued research and monitoring are essential; and a preventative approach is needed for chemicals. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: These results, and potential similar analyses of other chemicals, are provided as inputs to ongoing discussions about priority setting for global chemicals and pollution management. Furthermore, we suggest that this SEJ process be repeated periodically as new information becomes available.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Prova Pericial , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Amianto/efeitos adversos , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Dioxinas/análise
8.
Cancer Radiother ; 28(3): 258-264, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866652

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Commercial vendors have created artificial intelligence (AI) tools for use in all aspects of life and medicine, including radiation oncology. AI innovations will likely disrupt workflows in the field of radiation oncology. However, limited data exist on using AI-based chatbots about the quality of radiation oncology information. This study aims to assess the accuracy of ChatGPT, an AI-based chatbot, in answering patients' questions during their first visit to the radiation oncology outpatient department and test knowledge of ChatGPT in radiation oncology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Expert opinion was formulated using a set of ten standard questions of patients encountered in outpatient department practice. A blinded expert opinion was taken for the ten questions on common queries of patients in outpatient department visits, and the same questions were evaluated on ChatGPT version 3.5 (ChatGPT 3.5). The answers by expert and ChatGPT were independently evaluated for accuracy by three scientific reviewers. Additionally, a comparison was made for the extent of similarity of answers between ChatGPT and experts by a response scoring for each answer. Word count and Flesch-Kincaid readability score and grade were done for the responses obtained from expert and ChatGPT. A comparison of the answers of ChatGPT and expert was done with a Likert scale. As a second component of the study, we tested the technical knowledge of ChatGPT. Ten multiple choice questions were framed with increasing order of difficulty - basic, intermediate and advanced, and the responses were evaluated on ChatGPT. Statistical testing was done using SPSS version 27. RESULTS: After expert review, the accuracy of expert opinion was 100%, and ChatGPT's was 80% (8/10) for regular questions encountered in outpatient department visits. A noticeable difference was observed in word count and readability of answers from expert opinion or ChatGPT. Of the ten multiple-choice questions for assessment of radiation oncology database, ChatGPT had an accuracy rate of 90% (9 out of 10). One answer to a basic-level question was incorrect, whereas all answers to intermediate and difficult-level questions were correct. CONCLUSION: ChatGPT provides reasonably accurate information about routine questions encountered in the first outpatient department visit of the patient and also demonstrated a sound knowledge of the subject. The result of our study can inform the future development of educational tools in radiation oncology and may have implications in other medical fields. This is the first study that provides essential insight into the potentially positive capabilities of two components of ChatGPT: firstly, ChatGPT's response to common queries of patients at OPD visits, and secondly, the assessment of the radiation oncology knowledge base of ChatGPT.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Humanos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prova Pericial , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias/radioterapia
9.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 52(2): 139-148, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834359

RESUMO

Forensic psychiatrists may be asked to opine on neurological evidence or neurological diseases outside the scope of their expertise. This article discusses the value of involving experts trained in behavioral neurology in such cases. First, we describe the field of behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry, the subspecialty available to both neurologists and psychiatrists focused on the behavioral, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric manifestations of neurological diseases. Next, we discuss the added value of behavioral neurologists in forensic cases, including assisting in the diagnostic evaluation for complex neuropsychiatric diseases, using expertise in localization to provide a strong scientific basis for linking neurodiagnostic testing to relevant neuropsychiatric symptoms, and assisting in relating these symptoms to the relevant legal question in cases where such symptoms may be less familiar to forensic psychiatrists, such as frontal lobe syndromes. We discuss approaches to integrating behavioral neurology with forensic psychiatry, highlighting the need for collaboration and mentorship between disciplines. Finally, we discuss several forensic cases highlighting the additional value of experts trained in behavioral neurology. We conclude that forensic psychiatrists should involve behavioral neurology experts when encountering neurological evidence that falls outside their scope of expertise, and the need for further cross-disciplinary collaboration and training.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria Legal , Neurologistas , Humanos , Neurologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Papel do Médico , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Masculino , Prova Pericial
10.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 52(2): 149-152, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834366

RESUMO

There is a clear need for experts with the requisite knowledge and experience to offer medicolegal opinions pertaining to various neuropsychiatric conditions. There is also an important distinction between clinical and medicolegal roles, and the need for training and expertise applicable to forensic assessment. But there remain few available experts with credentials spanning neuropsychiatry and forensic assessment. This creates a dilemma whereby parties involved in litigation featuring neuropsychiatric illness or injury are frequently forced to choose between experts with either knowledge and skills applicable to neuropsychiatric conditions or experts with skills and experience applicable to forensic assessment. Either choice introduces risk. Whether flawed medicolegal opinions are a consequence of deficient medical knowledge or an inadequate forensic evaluation process, the result remains the same, with triers of fact potentially being exposed to problematic testimony. There is, however, a more fundamental problem that implicates patient care more broadly: spurious dichotomies created by the historical segregation of psychiatry and neurology. Optimizing clinical care for patients with neuropsychiatric conditions, improving medical education in support of such care, and enabling forensic neuropsychiatric assessment must then start with more proactive efforts to reintegrate psychiatry and neurology.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial , Neurologistas , Humanos , Neurologistas/legislação & jurisprudência , Prova Pericial/legislação & jurisprudência , Psiquiatria Legal , Neurologia , Papel do Médico , Medicina Legal , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
11.
Neurology ; 103(1): e209560, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833660

RESUMO

Neurologic evidence, including MRI, PET, and EEG, has been introduced in more than 2,800 criminal cases in the past decade, including 12% of all murder trials and 25% of death penalty trials, to argue whether neurologic diseases are present, contribute to criminal behavior, and ultimately whether the defendant is less criminally responsible, competent to stand trial, or should receive a reduced punishment for his or her crime. Unfortunately, neurologists are often not involved in these criminal cases despite being the medical specialty with the most relevant training and expertise to address these issues for the court. Reasons for the absence of neurologists in criminal cases include a lack of awareness from lawyers, judges, and other expert witnesses on the value of including neurologists in forensic evaluations, and the lack of experience, training, and willingness of neurologists to work as expert witnesses in criminal cases. Here, we discuss forensic neurology, a field bridging the gap between neurology, neuroscience, and the law. We discuss the process of performing forensic evaluations, including answering 3 fundamental questions: the neurologic diagnostic question, the behavioral neurology/neuropsychiatry question, and the forensic neurology question. We discuss practical aspects of performing forensic expert witness work and important ethical differences between the neurologist's role in treatment vs forensic settings. Finally, we discuss the currently available pathways for interested neurologists to receive additional training in forensic assessments.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Neurologia , Humanos , Neurologia/educação , Medicina Legal/educação , Prova Pericial , Neurologistas
12.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 67(3): 5-9, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38887063

RESUMO

The article is devoted to legal and forensic medical problems of postmortem donation. The substantive provisions of postmortem donation, as well as normative legal documents regulating the processes of organs harvesting from deceased persons for subsequent transplantation and governing the work of transplantologists and forensic medical experts have been considered. The practical examples illustrating the essence and nature of the problem of postmortem forensic medical expertise of persons with absent organs has been given and the importance of the participation of a forensic medical expert involved in the decision-making process on possibility (or impossibility) of the corpse's organs and tissues explantation without prejudice to the further expert examination has been emphasized. The authors pay particular attention to the inadequacy of the legal framework, including the lack of a clear understanding of the legal status of the person holding the position of forensic medical expert, who provides an expert opinion on the organs' explantation.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Humanos , Medicina Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Legal/métodos , Federação Russa , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/legislação & jurisprudência , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Prova Pericial/métodos , Prova Pericial/legislação & jurisprudência , Autopsia/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos/legislação & jurisprudência
13.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 67(3): 29-33, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38887068

RESUMO

Death from general hypothermia is one of the leading causes in the structure of violent death in the Russian Federation. OBJECTIVE: To clarify and supplement the complex of differential diagnostic macro- and microscopic signs of a fatal acute general cold trauma received when person is in the air and water. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The conclusions of forensic medical experts on the bodies of people who died from hypothermia in the air and in water (by 150 observations) were analyzed. Methods of descriptive statistics, calculation of the frequency ratio of signs' occurrence were used. RESULTS: The article provides quantitative assessment of occurrence (detection) rate of diagnostically significant signs established with the help of traditional methods of expert examination. A new classification of diagnostic death signs from hypothermia taking into account their differential diagnostic significance and reflecting the conditions of a person's stay in the air and water in the pre-mortem and post-mortem periods, as well as terminal period mechanisms is proposed. CONCLUSION: The established complexes of signs provide an objective basis for determining death cause in non-obvious conditions when cold exposure is expected to be one of the most damaging factors.


Assuntos
Hipotermia , Humanos , Hipotermia/diagnóstico , Hipotermia/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Patologia Legal/métodos , Prova Pericial/métodos , Autopsia/métodos , Temperatura Baixa , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Medicina Legal/métodos , Ar/análise , Água
14.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 67(3): 10-13, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38887064

RESUMO

The article presents the results of analysis of 482 forensic biological and forensic cytological expertises on cases of sexual crimes. A presence of different types of such crimes has been noted. Expertises' effectiveness when examining content of vagina, oral cavity and rectum, impression smears and lavages from suspects' genital organs, subungual content of victims and suspects and other objects has been determined. The dependence of expertises' effectiveness on the terms of object removal has been noted. The article presents a number of objects' examination methods (luminescent-microscopic spermatozoids' identification, diagnosis of cells origin from mucous membranes of the vagina and oral cavity, determination of group belonging of specific cells in specimens, diagnosis of fecal masses presence) allowing to improve expertises' quality.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Medicina Legal/métodos , Prova Pericial/métodos
15.
Reumatismo ; 76(2)2024 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38916162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fragility fractures (FF) resulting from osteoporosis pose a significant public health challenge in Italy, with considerable socio-health and economic implications. Despite the availability of safe and effective drugs, osteoporosis remains underdiagnosed and undertreated, leaving over 2 million high-risk Italian women without treatment. This paper aims to identify and propose key improvements in the management of osteoporosis, focusing particularly on the critical issues related to the use of anabolic drugs in secondary prevention, according to the current Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) Note 79. METHODS: The Expert Panel, composed of nine recognized Italian experts in rheumatology, analyzed current practices, prescribing criteria, and the most recent literature. Three main reasons for revising the indications on pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis were identified: inadequate treatment of osteoporosis, new evidence regarding frontline placement of anabolics in high-risk conditions, and emerging sequential or combined strategies. RESULTS: The proposed improvements include the adoption of the Derived Fracture Risk Assessment algorithm for accurate fracture risk assessment, revision of AIFA Note 79 to reflect current evidence, improved prescribing appropriateness, broader access to anabolic agents, and the provision of sequential therapies with antiresorptives for teriparatide. These changes aim to enhance patient outcomes, streamline healthcare processes, and address the high percentage of undertreated individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This expert opinion emphasizes the importance of the appropriate use of anabolic drugs to reduce FF and associated costs while ensuring the sustainability of the National Health Service. The proposed recommendations are in line with the latest scientific evidence, providing a comprehensive strategy to optimize the management of osteoporosis in Italy. On behalf of the Study Group on Osteoporosis and Skeletal Metabolic Diseases of the Italian Society of Rheumatology.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Humanos , Itália , Anabolizantes/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Medição de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Prova Pericial
16.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0306098, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38935698

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Expert opinion is widely used in clinical guidelines. No research has ever been conducted investigating the use of expert opinion in international infectious disease guidelines. This study aimed to create an analytical map by describing the prevalence and utilization of expert opinion in infectious disease guidelines and analyzing the methodological aspects of these guidelines. METHODS: In this meta-epidemiological study, systematic searches in PubMed and Trip Medical Database were performed to identify clinical guidelines on infectious diseases, published between January 2018 and May 2023 in English, by international organizations. Data extracted included guideline characteristics, expert opinion utilization, and methodological details. Prevalence and rationale of expert opinion use were analyzed descriptively. Methodological differences between groups were analyzed with Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U Test. RESULTS: The analysis covered 66 guidelines with 2296 recommendations, published/endorsed by 136 organizations. Most guidelines (79%) used systematic literature searches, 42% provided search strategies, and 38% presented screening flow diagrams and conducted risk of bias assessments. 48.5% of the guidelines allowed expert opinion, most of which included expert opinion as part of the evidence hierarchy within the grading system. Guidelines allowing expert opinion, compared to those which do not, issued more recommendations per guideline (48.82 vs.19.13, p<0.001), and reported fewer screening flow diagrams (25% vs. 65%, p = 0.002), and less risk of bias assessments (19% vs.78%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Expert opinion is utilized in half of assessed guidelines, often integrated into the evidence hierarchy within the grading system. Its utilization varies considerably in methodology, form, and terminology between guidelines. These findings highlight a pressing need for additional research and guidance, to improve and advance the standardization of infectious disease guidelines.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Prova Pericial , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Humanos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos
20.
Ophthalmologie ; 121(6): 482-486, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the research performance in ophthalmology in Germany based on the findings of the recent research map of the German Ophthalmological Society ( DOG) and to suggest strategies for future improvements on a national level both to DOG as well as to politics. The focus is on preclinical and translational clinical research. METHODS: International expert panel evaluation and discussion organized by the Task Force Research of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG). RESULTS: The international view on the German ophthalmological research landscape was generally positive. The value for money relationship was judged as very good. As Germany is facing an aging society and vision impairment will create an ever-increasing socioeconomic burden, the reviewers suggested several lines of future activities: an increased activity of securing intellectual property, more lay audience lobbying, intensified collaboration and critical mass building between "lighthouses" of ophthalmic research in Germany, as well as the establishment of a German national eye institute equivalent. CONCLUSION: The ophthalmological research performance in Germany was rated to be very good by an international expert panel. Nonetheless significant improvements were requested in the fields of translation (clinical trials, IP), synergy between specialized institutions and governmental funding for a German center for eye research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Oftalmologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Sociedades Médicas , Prova Pericial , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica
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