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1.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423110

RESUMO

Herpes viruses are widespread in the human population and can cause many different diseases. Genital herpes is common and can increase the risk of HIV infection and neonatal herpes. Acyclovir is the most used drug for herpes treatment; however, it presents some disadvantages due to its poor oral bioavailability. In this study, some ethylene vinyl acetate devices with different acyclovir amounts (0, 10, and 20 wt.%) were manufactured by fused filament fabrication in two different geometries, an intrauterine device, and an intravaginal ring. Thermal analyses suggested that the crystallinity of EVA decreased up to 8% for the sample loaded with 20 wt.% of acyclovir. DSC, SEM, and FTIR analyses confirmed that the drug was successfully incorporated into the EVA matrix. Moreover, the drug release tests suggested a burst release during the first 24 h followed by a slower release rate sustained up to 80 days. Biological assays showed the biocompatibility of the EVA/ACV device, as well as a 99% reduction in vitro replication of HSV-1. Finally, the EVA presented a suitable performance for 3D printing manufacturing that can contribute to developing personalized solutions for long-term herpes treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Infecções por HIV , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Aciclovir/farmacologia , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Simplexvirus , Impressão Tridimensional , Genitália
4.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221112237, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35833668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menstrual disorders were not reported as a possible secondary effect in any of the clinical trials for the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. AIM: To describe the prevalence of perceived premenstrual and menstrual changes after COVID-19 vaccine administration. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 14,153 women (mean age 31.5 ± 9.3 years old) who had received the full course of vaccination at least three months earlier were included in this cross-sectional study. Data including the type of vaccine administered, perceived changes in the amount and duration of menstrual bleeding, presence of clots, cycle length, and premenstrual symptoms were collected through a retrospective online survey from June to September 2021. RESULTS: Of the women who participated in this study, 3136 reported no menstrual changes and 11,017 (78% of the study sample) reported experiencing menstrual cycle changes after vaccination. In summary, women who reported menstrual changes after vaccination were older (overall p < 0.001) and slightly more smokers (p = 0.05) than women who did not report any changes. The most prevalent changes in relation to premenstrual symptoms were increased fatigue (43%), abdominal bloating (37%), irritability (29%), sadness (28%), and headaches (28%). The most predominant menstrual changes were more menstrual bleeding (43%), more menstrual pain (41%), delayed menstruation (38%), fewer days of menstrual bleeding (34.5%), and shorter cycle length (32%). CONCLUSION: Women vaccinated against COVID-19 usually perceive mild menstrual and premenstrual changes. Future studies are warranted to clarify the physiological mechanisms behind these widely reported changes.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Distúrbios Menstruais , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Menstruação , Distúrbios Menstruais/etiologia , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/diagnóstico , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
5.
Amino Acids ; 54(6): 935-954, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35434776

RESUMO

The recent paleoproteomic studies, including paleo-metaproteomic analyses, improved our understanding of the dietary of ancient populations, the characterization of past human diseases, the reconstruction of the habitat of ancient species, but also provided new insights into the phylogenetic relationships between extant and extinct species. In this respect, the present work reports the results of the metaproteomic analysis performed on the middle part of a trunk, and on the portion of a trunk tip tissue of two different woolly mammoths some 30,000 years old. In particular, proteins were extracted by applying EVA (Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate studded with hydrophilic and hydrophobic resins) films to the surface of these tissues belonging to two Mammuthus primigenus specimens, discovered in two regions located in the Russian Far East, and then investigated via a shotgun MS-based approach. This approach allowed to obtain two interesting results: (i) an indirect description of the habitat of these two mammoths, and (ii) an improved characterization of the collagen type I, alpha-1 and alpha-2 chains (col1a1 and col1a2). Sequence characterization of the col1a1 and col1a2 highlighted some differences between M. primigenius and other Proboscidea together with the identification of three (two for col1a1, and one for col1a2) potentially diagnostic amino acidic mutations that could be used to reliably distinguish the Mammuthus primigenius with respect to the other two genera of elephantids (i.e., Elephas and Loxodonta), and the extinct American mastodon (i.e., Mammut americanum). The results were validated through the level of deamidation and other diagenetic chemical modifications of the sample peptides, which were used to discriminate the "original" endogenous peptides from contaminant ones. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier < PXD029558 > .


Assuntos
Mamutes , Animais , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Ecossistema , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Fósseis , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mamutes/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Filogenia , Proteômica/métodos , Tecnologia
6.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(7): 1367-1377, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the interplay between sexual hormones balance, platelet function and clinical outcomes of adults with ischemic heart disease (IHD) are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between the Testosterone (T)-to-Estradiol (E2) Ratio (T/E2) and platelet activation biomarkers in IHD and its predictive value on adverse outcomes. METHODS: The EVA study is a prospective observational study of consecutive hospitalized adults with IHD undergoing coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary interventions. Serum T/E2 ratios E2, levels of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and nitrates (NO), were measured at admission and major adverse events, including all-cause mortality, were collected during a long-term follow-up. RESULTS: Among 509 adults with IHD (mean age 67 ± 11 years, 30% females), males were older with a more adverse cluster of cardiovascular risk factors than females. Acute coronary syndrome and non-obstructive coronary artery disease were more prevalent in females versus males. The lower sex-specific T/E2 ratios identified adults with the highest level of serum TxB2 and the lowest NO levels. During a median follow-up of 23.7 months, the lower sex-specific T/E2 was associated with higher all-cause mortality (HR 3.49; 95% CI 1.24-9.80; p = 0.018). In in vitro, platelets incubated with T/E2 ratios comparable to those measured in vivo in the lowest quartile showed increased platelet activation as indicated by higher levels of aggregation and TxB2 production. CONCLUSION: Among adults with IHD, higher T/E2 ratio was associated with a lower long-term risk of fatal events. The effect of sex hormones on the platelet thromboxane release may partially explain such finding.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Isquemia Miocárdica , Adulto , Idoso , Estradiol , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testosterona , Tromboxanos
7.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334859

RESUMO

Symptoms related cow's milk proteins allergy (CMPA) usually improve between two to four weeks following an elimination diet, firstly with extensively hydrolyzed formulas (eHF). The aim of the EVA study was to observe the evolution of CMPA-related symptoms in real life after initiation of a whey-based extensively hydrolyzed formula (w-eHF, Althéra®, Nestlé Health Science, Switzerland). This cross-sectional prospective non-interventional study was carried out alongside paediatricians in private practice in France between June 2019 and June 2020. Infants aged 0-3 years presenting with confirmed diagnosis or clinical symptoms suggesting CMPA were enrolled. Data were collected at enrolment (baseline visit) and three to five weeks later (follow-up visit). Symptoms were assessed using the Cow's Milk-related Symptom Score (CoMiSS®). The per protocol population included 135 infants. The average number of symptoms per infant significantly decreased under the study formula (from 2.81 to 1.36, p < 0.001) and the proportions of infants with any CMPA related symptoms decreased. Daily crying and regurgitation showed the largest decline, respectively -44.4% and -31.85% (p < 0.001). These results describe the early management of symptoms suspected to be related to CMPA in routine practice that was rarely described in the literature. The number and severity of symptoms decreased most of the cases after commencing the study formula.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Feminino , Humanos , Leite , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Cephalalgia ; 42(10): 993-1004, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the prevalence of primary headache disorders, associated risk factors and use of acute/preventive medication in a representative large sample of adolescents. METHODS: Within the EVA-Tyrol project, a community-based non-randomized controlled cross-sectional study, data was collected from adolescents aged 14-19 years from 45 sites across North-, East- and South Tyrol. Headaches were classified according to the latest ICHD-3 and assessed by headache specialists in face-to-face interviews. FINDINGS: Of 1923 participants 930 (48.4%) reported having headaches. Female to male ratio was 2:1. Migraine, tension-type headache and other headache were diagnosed in 10%, 30.2% and 8.2% respectively. Medication overuse was diagnosed in 3.4%, increasing up to 21.7% in participants with chronic headache. The use of preventative medication was not reported by any adolescent. Sleep disturbances (p < 0.05), alcohol consumption (p < 0.05), low physical activity (p < 0.01) and high screen time exposure (p < 0.01) were associated with an increased risk of headaches. CONCLUSION: We report high prevalence of primary headache disorders and medication overuse in a large community-based sample of teenagers. Acute and preventive non-drug and pharmacological treatments are not established due to lack of paediatric headache outpatient clinics. Promoting health education in teenagers and encouraging public awareness, including that of health care providers is pivotal.Trial registration: EVA-Tyrol has been retrospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov under https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03929692 since April 29, 2019.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários , Transtornos da Cefaleia , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Feminino , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/epidemiologia
9.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 122(5): 1179-1187, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201416

RESUMO

We determined whether fatigue modifies the effect of custom foot orthoses manufactured from ethyl-vinyl acetate (EVA) and expanded thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) materials, both compared to standardized footwear (CON), on running mechanics, running economy, and perceived comfort. Eighteen well-trained, males ran on an instrumented treadmill for 6 min at the speed corresponding to their first ventilatory threshold (13.8 ± 1.1 km/h) in three footwear conditions (CON, EVA, and TPU). Immediately after completion of a repeated-sprints exercise (8 × 5 s treadmill sprints, rest = 25 s), these run tests were replicated. Running mechanics, running economy and perceived comfort were determined. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA [condition (CON, EVA, and TPU) × fatigue (fresh and fatigued)] were conducted. Flight time shortened (P = 0.026), peak braking (P = 0.016) and push-off (P = 0.032) forces decreased and vertical stiffness increased (P = 0.014) from before to after the repeated-sprint exercise, independent of footwear condition. There was a global fatigue-induced deterioration in running economy (- 1.6 ± 0.4%; P < 0.001). There was no significant condition × fatigue [except mean loading rate (P = 0.046)] for the large majority of biomechanical, cardio-respiratory [except minute ventilation (P = 0.020) and breathing frequency (P = 0.019)] and perceived comfort variables. Acute intense fatigue does not modify the effect of custom foot orthoses with different resilience characteristics on running mechanics, running economy and perceived comfort.


Assuntos
Órtoses do Pé , Corrida , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Humanos , Masculino , Poliuretanos
10.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 216: 106631, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Conjunctival microcirculation has been used to quantitatively assess microvascular changes due to systemic disorders. The space between red blood cell clusters in conjunctival microvessels is essential for assessing hemodynamics. However, it causes discontinuities in vessel image segmentation and increases the difficulty of automatically measuring blood velocity. In this study, we developed an EVA system based on deep learning to maintain vessel segmentation continuity and automatically measure blood velocity. METHODS: The EVA system sequentially performs image registration, vessel segmentation, diameter measurement, and blood velocity measurement on conjunctival images. A U-Net model optimized with a connectivity-preserving loss function was used to solve the problem of discontinuities in vessel segmentation. Then, an automatic measurement algorithm based on line segment detection was proposed to obtain accurate blood velocity. Finally, the EVA system assessed hemodynamic parameters based on the measured blood velocity in each vessel segment. RESULTS: The EVA system was validated for 23 videos of conjunctival microcirculation captured using functional slit-lamp microscopy. The U-Net model produced the longest average vessel segment length, 158.03 ± 181.87 µm, followed by the adaptive threshold method and Frangi filtering, which produced lengths of 120.05 ± 151.47 µm and 99.94 ± 138.12 µm, respectively. The proposed method and one based on cross-correlation were validated to measure blood velocity for a dataset consisting of 30 vessel segments. Bland-Altman analysis showed that compared with the cross-correlation method (bias: 0.36, SD: 0.32), the results of the proposed method were more consistent with a manual measurement-based gold standard (bias: -0.04, SD: 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed EVA system provides an automatic and reliable solution for quantitative assessment of hemodynamics in conjunctival microvascular images, and potentially can be applied to hypoglossal microcirculation images.


Assuntos
Atividade Extraespaçonave , Microvasos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Hemodinâmica , Microcirculação , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Hum Factors ; 64(4): 649-661, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better study human motion inside the space suit and suit-related contact, a multifactor statistical model was developed to predict torso body shape changes and lumbar motion during suited movement by using fabric strain sensors that are placed on the body. BACKGROUND: Physical interactions within pressurized space suits can pose an injury risk for astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). In particular, poor suit fit can result in an injury due to reduced performance capabilities and excessive body contact within the suit during movement. A wearable solution is needed to measure body motion inside the space suit. METHODS: An array of flexible strain sensors was attached to the body of 12 male study participants. The participants performed specific static lumbar postures while 3D body scans and sensor measurements were collected. A model was created to predict the body shape as a function of sensor signal and the accuracy was evaluated using holdout cross-validation. RESULTS: Predictions from the torso shape model had an average root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.02 cm. Subtle soft tissue deformations such as skin folding and bulges were accurately replicated in the shape prediction. Differences in posture type did not affect the prediction error. CONCLUSION: This method provides a useful tool for suited testing and the information gained will drive the development of injury countermeasures and improve suit fit assessments. APPLICATION: In addition to space suit design applications, this technique can provide a lightweight and wearable system to perform ergonomic evaluations in field assessments.


Assuntos
Trajes Espaciais , Astronautas , Desenho de Equipamento , Ergonomia , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Humanos , Região Lombossacral , Masculino
12.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 126: 105064, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968944

RESUMO

The use of Mouthguards (MGs) in contact sports is an interesting biomedical topic. MGs are protective personal equipment made principally from the copolymer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). EVA is a thermoplastic whose thickness and rigidity are variables of concern for a good shock energy absorption capability in an MG. A natural fiber polymer composite is an interesting attempt for tackling these variables. Luffa cylindrica (luffa) is a sponge gourd that grows in 3D structure, which is used mainly as an ornament, a filling, or is trimmed for its use as a bathing product. In this work, a new EVA-luffa composite (EVLc) was made from commercial EVA sheets and luffa mat acting as reinforcement. FTIR, DSC, and TGA tests of EVA revealed its nature compared to literature data. A mechanical testing was applied to eight EVLc ASTM D-638 type V dumbbells (D1-D8) that showed low tensile strength values compared to EVA resistance ranges in literature. SEM images of EVLc's D1-D8 confirmed good adhesion between the reinforcement and matrix without surface treatment, and a descriptive statistical analysis indicated an intrinsic variation.


Assuntos
Luffa , Desenho de Equipamento , Etilenos , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Polivinil , Compostos de Vinila
13.
Appetite ; 168: 105787, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737031

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study estimated associations of eating contexts (including regularity of meals, places where they occur, and if they take place with attention and in company) with food consumption by degree of industrial processing and overweight indicators in a sample of Brazilian adolescents (14-19 years old) enrolled in 29 public schools in Juiz de Fora, MG (n = 805). We used an exploratory questionnaire, which was submitted to cluster analysis. Three clusters were identified: cluster 1 (n = 572), "appropriate eating contexts at breakfast, lunch, and dinner"; cluster 2 (n = 139), "inappropriate eating context at breakfast"; and cluster 3 (n = 94) "inappropriate eating context at dinner". The evaluation of food consumption involved two 24-h dietary recalls, whose items were analyzed according to the NOVA classification system. Linear regression models were performed, using cluster 1 as reference. Clusters 2 and 3 were associated with an increase in the energy fraction from ultra-processed foods [respectively, ß = 2.55% (IC 95%: 0.50; 5.05) and ß = 4.18% (IC 95%: 1.21; 7.14)]; and cluster 2 was associated with a reduction in the energy fraction from unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients [ß = -3.61% (IC 95%: -6.40; -0.82)]. Additionally, clusters 2 and 3 were associated with an increase of body mass index for age [respectively, ß = 0.23 z-score (IC 95%: 0.01; 0.46) and ß = 0.27 z-score (IC 95%: 0.02; 0.54)]; and cluster 2 was associated with an increase of body fat [ß = 1.21% (IC 95%: 0.23; 2.64)]. In conclusion, inappropriate eating contexts at breakfast and dinner were associated with higher ultra-processed food intake, higher body mass index and higher body fat percentage.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Almoço , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Refeições , Sobrepeso , Adulto Jovem
14.
Surg Technol Int ; 40: 71-77, 2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942676

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is resurging interest in the importance of effective, nuanced insufflation and personalised pneumoperitoneal pressure-management during laparoscopy. Here, we present user-evaluation data from a regulated, prospective, multispecialty study of a new insufflator (EVA-15, Palliare, Galway, Ireland) which provides high-frequency pressure-sensing, built-in smoke evacuation with pedal activation and highly responsive, high-flow gas provision. METHODS: With institutional ethics and regulatory body approval, a non-randomised, prospective clinical investigation was performed on 30 subjects undergoing laparoscopic surgery using an EVA-15 device. Cases were selected from a variety of specialties on a near-consecutive basis without specific exclusion criteria. Users (both surgeons and operating room nurses) completed a survey at case completion to capture ordinal categorical data on a 5-point Likert agreement scale (1 - Strongly disagree to 5 - Strongly agree) concerning (i) Settings and Setup Evaluations, (ii) Alarms and Displays Evaluations, (iii) Short Instruction Guide, and (iv) Insufflator Performance along with any additional feedback. RESULTS: Operations on 30 patients (mean age 54 y, 15 males) were studied with a questionnaire completed by operating room teams after individual consent. The procedures included general (n=13), upper (n=3) and lower (n=6) gastrointestinal surgery, bariatric (n=3), hepatobiliary (n=2) urology (n=2, both robotic prostatectomy) and gynaecology (n=1) operations. In all cases, the laparoscopic component was completed capably with the use of the EVA-15 device. The insufflator evaluation score across all categories was a median of 4, demonstrating satisfactory use and performance in all regards. CONCLUSION: The EVA-15 is a smart insufflator system that is capable of satisfactory performance across a spectrum of cases among different specialties.


Assuntos
Insuflação , Laparoscopia , Pneumoperitônio , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1262, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Model projects for flexible and integrated treatment (FIT) in Germany aim at advancing the quality of care for people with mental disorders. A new FIT model project was established in 2017 at the Department of child and adolescent psychiatry (KJP) of the University Hospital Tübingen (Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, UKT). The study design of EVA_TIBAS presented here describes the evaluation of the FIT model project at the KJP of the UKT. This evaluation aims at quantifying the anticipated FIT model project changes, which are to improve patients' cross-sectoral care at the same maximum cost as standard care. METHODS: EVA_TIBAS is a controlled cohort study using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. The FIT evaluation consists of three modules. In Module A, anonymized claims data of a statutory health insurance fund will be used to compare outcomes (duration of inpatient and day care psychiatric treatment, inpatient and day care psychiatric length of stay, outpatient psychiatric treatment in hospital, inpatient hospital readmission, emergency admission rate, direct medical costs) of patients treated in the model hospital with patients treated in structurally comparable control hospitals (estimated sample size = ca. 600 patients). In Module B, patient-reported outcomes (health related quality of life, symptom burden, return to psychosocial relationships (e.g. school, friends, hobbies), treatment satisfaction, societal costs) will be assessed quantitatively using validated questionnaires for the model and two control hospitals (estimated sample size = ca. 300 patients). A subsequent health economic evaluation will be based on cost-effectiveness analyses from both the insurance fund's and the societal perspective. In Module C, about 30 semi-structured interviews will examine the quality of offer, effects and benefits of the service offered by the social service of the AOK Baden-Württemberg (for stabilizing the overall situation of care in the family) in the model hospital. A focus group discussion will address the quality of cooperation between employees of the university hospital and the social services. DISCUSSION: The results of this evaluation will be used to inform policy makers whether this FIT model project or aspects of it should be implemented into standard care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov PRS (ID: NCT04727359 , date: 27 January 2021).


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Alemanha , Humanos
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e020233, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482715

RESUMO

Background Cardiovascular disease depends on the duration and time course of risk factor exposure. Previous reports on risk factors of progression of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in the young were mostly restricted to high-risk populations or susceptible to certain types of bias. We aimed to unravel a risk factor signature for early vessel pathology based on repeated ultrasound assessments of the carotid arteries in the general population. Methods and Results Risk factors were assessed in 956 adolescents sampled from the general population with a mean age of 15.8±0.9 years, 56.2% of whom were female. cIMT was measured at baseline and on average 22.5±3.4 months later by high-resolution ultrasound. Effects of baseline risk factors on cIMT progression were investigated using linear mixed models with multivariable adjustment for potential confounders, which yielded significant associations (given as increase in cIMT for a 1-SD higher baseline level) for alanine transaminase (5.5 µm; 95% CI: 1.5-9.5), systolic blood pressure (4.7 µm; 0.3-9.2), arterial hypertension (9.5 µm, 0.2-18.7), and non-high-density (4.5 µm; 0.7-8.4) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (4.3 µm; 0.5-8.1). Conclusions Systolic blood pressure, arterial hypertension, low-density and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and alanine transaminase predicted cIMT progression in adolescents, even though risk factor levels were predominantly within established reference ranges. These findings reemphasize the necessity to initiate prevention early in life and challenge the current focus of guideline recommendations on high-risk youngsters. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03929692.


Assuntos
Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Hipertensão , Adolescente , Alanina Transaminase , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Feminino , Humanos
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577512

RESUMO

In order to meet the assist requirements of extravehicular activity (EVA) for astronauts, such as moving outside the international space station (ISS) or performing on-orbit tasks by a single astronaut, this paper proposes an astronaut robotic limbs system (AstroLimbs) for extravehicular activities assistance. This system has two robotic limbs that can be fixed on the backpack of the astronaut. Each limb is composed of several basic module units with identical structure and function, which makes it modularized and reconfigurable. The robotic limbs can work as extra arms of the astronaut to assist them outside the space station cabin. In this paper, the robotic limbs are designed and developed. The reinforcement learning method is introduced to achieve autonomous motion planning capacity for the robot, which makes the robot intelligent enough to assist the astronaut in unstructured environment. In the meantime, the movement of the robot is also planned to make it move smoothly. The structure scene of the ISS for extravehicular activities is modeled in a simulation environment, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Voo Espacial , Astronautas , Simulação por Computador , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Humanos
18.
Trials ; 22(1): 526, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A healthy lifestyle can help prevent diseases that impair quality of life and lead to premature death. The Techniker health insurance fund offers a comprehensive online health program to support users in achieving their health goals of Increasing Fitness, Losing and Maintaining Weight, or Smoking Cessation. METHODS: The aim of this study is to test the long-term effectiveness of the web-based TK-HealthCoach with regard to the primary outcomes of increased physical activity, sustainable weight reduction, and smoking abstinence. We are conducting three interconnected, randomized controlled trials (RCT), one for each health goal, within which participants are allocated to an intervention group (interactive online health program) or a control group (non-interactive online health program). The effects of the intervention groups compared to the control groups will be analyzed by multi-level models for change. Participants' data are captured via online questionnaires before the program starts (baseline t0), again when it ends (t1), and later at two follow-up surveys (t2 and t3); the latter 12 months after t1. We are documenting socio-demographic, health-related, and psychological variables as well as usage behavior data of the programs. According to our sample size calculation, we have to enroll 1114 participants in each Losing and Maintaining Weight and Increasing Fitness RCT and 339 participants in the Smoking Cessation RCT. Additionally, 15-20 participants in the interactive smoking-cessation program will be invited to qualitative telephone interviews with the aim to obtain detailed information concerning utilization, compliance, and satisfaction. The online RCTs' inclusion criteria are: adults of each gender regardless of whether they are insured with Techniker health insurance fund. Persons with impairments or pre-existing conditions require a medical assessment as to whether the program is suitable for them. Specific exclusion criteria apply to each program/RCT. DISCUSSION: We assume that study participants will improve their health behavior by using the offered online health programs and that each health goal's intervention group will reveal advantages regarding the outcome variables compared to the control groups. Study enrollment started on January 1, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register, Universal Trial Number (UTN): U1111-1245-0273 . Registered on 11 December 2019.


Assuntos
Atividade Extraespaçonave , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Humanos , Internet , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e042211, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373287

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Thrombolysis in Ischemic Stroke Patients (TRISP) collaboration was a concerted effort initiated in 2010 with the purpose to address relevant research questions about the effectiveness and safety of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). The collaboration also aims to prospectively collect data on patients undergoing endovascular treatment (EVT) and hence the name of the collaboration was changed from TRISP to EVA-TRISP. The methodology of the former TRISP registry for patients treated with IVT has already been published. This paper focuses on describing the EVT part of the registry. PARTICIPANTS: All centres committed to collecting predefined variables on consecutive patients prospectively. We aim for accuracy and completeness of the data and to adapt local databases to investigate novel research questions. Herein, we introduce the methodology of a recently constructed academic investigator-initiated open collaboration EVT registry built as an extension of an existing IVT registry in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). FINDINGS TO DATE: Currently, the EVA-TRISP network includes 20 stroke centres with considerable expertise in EVT and maintenance of high-quality hospital-based registries. Following several successful randomised controlled trials (RCTs), many important clinical questions remain unanswered in the (EVT) field and some of them will unlikely be investigated in future RCTs. Prospective registries with high-quality data on EVT-treated patients may help answering some of these unanswered issues, especially on safety and efficacy of EVT in specific patient subgroups. FUTURE PLANS: This collaborative effort aims at addressing clinically important questions on safety and efficacy of EVT in conditions not covered by RCTs. The TRISP registry generated substantial novel data supporting stroke physicians in their daily decision making considering IVT candidate patients. While providing observational data on EVT in daily clinical practice, our future findings may likewise be hypothesis generating for future research as well as for quality improvement (on EVT). The collaboration welcomes participation of further centres willing to fulfill the commitment and the outlined requirements.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Procedimentos Endovasculares , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Anal Chem ; 93(36): 12181-12186, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455775

RESUMO

Extracting metabolic features from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data relies on the recognition of extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) peak shapes using peak picking algorithms. Unfortunately, all peak picking algorithms present a significant drawback of generating a problematic number of false positives. In this work, we take advantage of deep learning technology to develop a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based program that can automatically recognize metabolic features with poor EIC shapes, which are of low feature fidelity and more likely to be false. Our CNN model was trained using 25095 EIC plots collected from 22 LC-MS-based metabolomics projects of various sample types, LC and MS conditions. Notably, we manually inspected all the EIC plots to assign good or poor EIC quality for accurate model training. The trained CNN model is embedded into a C#-based program, named EVA (short for evaluation). The EVA Windows Application is a versatile platform that can process metabolic features generated by LC-MS systems of various vendors and processed using various data processing software. Our comprehensive evaluation of EVA indicates that it achieves over 90% classification accuracy. EVA can be readily used in LC-MS-based metabolomics projects and is freely available on the Microsoft Store by searching "EVA Metabolomics".


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Algoritmos , Cromatografia Líquida , Atividade Extraespaçonave , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica
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