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1.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 12, 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994768

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perimetric features and their associations with structural and functional features in patients with RP1L1-associated occult macular dystrophy (OMD; i.e. Miyake disease). Methods: In this international, multicenter, retrospective cohort study, 76 eyes of 38 patients from an East Asian cohort of patients with RP1L1-associated OMD were recruited. Visual field tests were performed using standard automated perimetry, and the patients were classified into three perimetric groups based on the visual field findings: central scotoma, other scotoma (e.g. paracentral scotoma), and no scotoma. The association of the structural and functional findings with the perimetric findings was evaluated. Results: Fifty-four eyes (71.1%) showed central scotoma, 14 (18.4%) had other scotomata, and 8 (10.5%) had no scotoma. Central scotoma was mostly noted in both eyes (96.3%) and within the central 10 degrees (90.7%). Among the three perimetric groups, there were significant differences in visual symptoms, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and structural phenotypes (i.e. severity of photoreceptor changes). The central scotoma group showed worse BCVA often with severe structural abnormalities (96.3%) and a pathogenic variant of p.R45W (72.2%). The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) groups largely corresponded with the perimetric groups; however, 8 (10.5%) of 76 eyes showed mfERG abnormalities preceding typical central scotoma. Conclusions: The patterns of scotoma with different clinical severity were first identified in occult macular dystrophy, and central scotoma, a severe pattern, was most frequently observed. These perimetric patterns were associated with the severity of BCVA, structural phenotypes, genotype, and objective functional characteristics which may precede in some cases.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Escotoma/fisiopatologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletrorretinografia , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Macular/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escotoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Escotoma/genética , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Testes de Campo Visual , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150897, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653464

RESUMO

With the effects of global warming becoming ever more obvious, biodiversity conservation is facing severe challenges. Currently, a deeper understanding the mechanisms of the effects of warming on sensitive species has become an important topic in aquatic biodiversity and ecological management. Our study first overcame the "challenge" for a sensitive indicator species (Netzelia tuberspinifera, an endemic testate amoeba species in East Asia) of culturing under laboratory conditions, and then explored its molecular response mechanisms to warming using transcriptomic analysis. Our data indicate that temperature mainly drove the geographical and seasonal variation of N. tuberspinifera populations. Transcriptomic results indicate that when the temperature is <25 °C, rising temperature triggers the biosynthesis of ribosomes; while the temperature is >25 °C, it triggers molecular processes related with cell division, test formation and general biomass increase. However, once the temperature exceeds 40 °C, N. tuberspinifera is unable to survive. Following from these results, the distribution of N. tuberspinifera might expand towards higher altitude or latitude regions under global warming. For the first time, our study showed direct evidence for sensitive protozoa species that presents a very narrow adaptation mechanism to local climate. Our work provides fundamental data for regional biodiversity conservation and scientific reference in subtropical and tropical waterbodies.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Biodiversidade , Clima , Extremo Oriente , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura
4.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(10): 651-659, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758957

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: African Swine Fever (ASF) is a severe viral disease infecting all suid species. Since the first outbreak in Georgia in 2007, it has slowly spread towards Western Europe and reached the European Union when first cases were detected in Poland and the Baltic States in 2014. ASF was first reported in China in 2018 and since then, it has spread to 14 countries within two years. This study aimed to estimate the introduction probability of ASF from Eastern Asia in a qualitative risk assessment, and to compare it to the probability from Eastern Europe, which was assessed in an earlier risk assessment. A high probability of introduction was estimated for the import of meat and meat products, which was found to be the most likely route of introduction. Less important routes were introduction by human contamination (low probability) or import of feed or blood products (very low probability). Import of domestic pigs or free-ranging wild boar, contaminated means of transport, or infected semen, embryo or ticks were all estimated to be negligible. For Eastern Europe, import of meat and meat products was also estimated to pose a high risk and was therefore the most likely route of introduction. Higher probabilities were estimated for import of live pigs, contaminated feed or means of transport and human contamination. Overall, the probability of introduction from Eastern Asia is only slightly lower than from Eastern Europe. As it is important to detect the first case as quickly as possible, it is important not to fall victim to habituation effects, but to remain vigilant.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Doenças dos Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente , Polônia , Probabilidade , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4995(2): 367-374, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810565

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Anurida is described and illustrated based on material from the Khabarovsk Territory, Russia: A. hirsuta sp. nov. This new species belongs to the amphi-Pacific hammerae-group and it seems to be particularly similar to the Beringian A. hammerae Christiansen, 1952 and the Japanese A. trioculata Kinoshita, 1916. Anurida hirsuta sp. nov. can easily be distinguished from both latter species primarily by its peculiar dorsal chaetotaxy, apparently the most complete among all congeners. A key is presented to all eight species presently known to compose the group.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Extremo Oriente , Federação Russa
6.
Zootaxa ; 5071(2): 271-282, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810668

RESUMO

Zhengica cornuta gen. nov., sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Pentatomini) from Shanxi, China, is described, illustrated, and its phylogenetic affinities are discussed. The genus is recognized as a generalized member of the clade of Pentatoma Olivier, 1789 and related genera, its phylogenetically closest relative is probably Cervicoris Hsiao Cheng, 1977.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Extremo Oriente , Filogenia
7.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(4)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753163

RESUMO

Objectives and importance of study: The need for sufficient and reliable funding for health policy and systems research (HPSR) has attracted varying responses globally. Countries assisted by the South East Asian Regional Office (SEARO) of the World Health Organization (WHO) together make up one-quarter of the world's population. HPSR is not given a high priority in several SEARO countries, so there is a need to understand the barriers and facilitators that influence national HPSR funding. Our study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by studying the barriers to HPSR in five SEARO countries - Republic of Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and India - and the key political factors influencing HPSR funding. STUDY TYPE: Mixed methods. METHODS: We conducted an in-depth desk review to obtain a general overview of HPSR in the five SEARO member countries. The review findings were used to frame a discussion guide for semi-structured interviews with key policy makers, health system experts and academics in the intervention countries. During the interviews, we validated the data from the desk review and explored the following key themes: a) the existing health system landscape of the country; b) organisations involved with HPSR; c) the nature of HPSR funding in the country (demand/supply led); d) budgetary allocations for HPSR; e) barriers to HPSR funding; f) measures to strengthen HPSR funding; and g) suggestions for the right mix for future HPSR funding. The study was conducted from October to December 2020. RESULTS: Thailand is the only country among those studied with a well-established institution dedicated to HPSR. India, Sri Lanka, Republic of Maldives and Nepal are still lagging in providing a solid foundation for HPSR. Most of the countries lack a common definition of HPSR and a dedicated stream for HPSR funding. There is also a lack of local capacity to independently lead and conduct HPSR in most of the study countries. CONCLUSION: We have provided a profile of the existing landscape of health systems in the SEARO member countries and highlighted the determinants of HPSR funding. A common definition and interpretation of HPSR is required, which extends beyond geographical and disciplinary boundaries. There is a need for enhanced core domestic funding along with increased recruitment and availability of HPSR researchers in the study countries.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pessoal Administrativo , Extremo Oriente , Programas Governamentais , Humanos
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20339, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645879

RESUMO

This study investigated the environmental spatial heterogeneity of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and spatial and temporal changes among the top-20 metropolitan cities of the Asia-Pacific. Remote sensing-based assessment is performed to analyze before and during the lockdown amid COVID-19 lockdown in the cities. Air pollution and mobility data of each city (Bangkok, Beijing, Busan, Dhaka, Delhi, Ho Chi Minh, Hong Kong, Karachi, Mumbai, Seoul, Shanghai, Singapore, Tokyo, Wuhan, and few others) have been collected and analyzed for 2019 and 2020. Results indicated that almost every city was impacted positively regarding environmental emissions and visible reduction were found in Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations before and during lockdown periods of 2020 as compared to those of 2019. The highest NO2 emission reduction (~ 50%) was recorded in Wuhan city during the lockdown of 2020. AOD was highest in Beijing and lowest in Colombo (< 10%). Overall, 90% movement was reduced till mid-April, 2020. A 98% reduction in mobility was recorded in Delhi, Seoul, and Wuhan. This analysis suggests that smart mobility and partial shutdown policies could be developed to reduce environmental pollutions in the region. Wuhan city is one of the benchmarks and can be replicated for the rest of the Asian cities wherever applicable.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Cidades/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
9.
Yi Chuan ; 43(9): 880-889, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702700

RESUMO

The ancestry inference of unknown samples plays an important role in forensic investigations. An ideal panel is a set of few markers with high ancestry inference accuracy. We collected 428 AISNP (ancestry informative SNP) that can distinguish the three ethnic groups in north of East Asia, including northern Han, Japanese and Korean. The genotypes of 428 AISNP in 307 samples from these three ethnic groups were obtained. Based on the information of Fst value and clustering by allele frequency, the panel was further refined into 49AISNP smart panel. Inference accuracy of the 49AISNP was verified by the leave-one-out method with 307 samples, and the results showed that its accuracy was higher than 99% in the northern Han, Japanese and Korean ethnic groups. This panel can also be helpful to further distinguish the ethnic sub-groups in East Asia.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , /genética , Extremo Oriente , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 383, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants with neonatal-onset diarrhea present with intractable diarrhea in the first few weeks of life. A monogenic mutation is one of the disease etiologies and the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has made it possible to screen patients for their mutations. MAIN BODY: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of four children from unrelated families, who presented with neonatal-onset, chronic, watery, non-bloody diarrhea. After genetic whole-exome sequencing, novel mutations were identified in the EPCAM gene of two children. Congenital chloride diarrhea was diagnosed in one case, which was associated with an SLC26A3 mutation, in which the patient presented with watery diarrhea, malnutrition, and hypochloremic alkalosis. Patient 4 was diagnosed with microvillus inclusion disease and possessed novel compound heterozygous mutations in the MYO5B gene. A review of the genetic variants of SLC26A3 reported in East Asia revealed that c.269_270 dupAA (p.G91Kfs*3) is the most frequent SLC26A3 mutation in China, compared with c.2063-1 G > T in Japan and Korea. EPCAM and MYO5B genetic variants were only sporadically reported in East Asia. CONCLUSION: This study expands our knowledge of the clinical manifestations and molecular genetics of neonatal-onset watery diarrhea. Early diagnosis could be achieved by genomic analysis in those infants whose histology features are not typical. The discovery of four novel mutations in the EPCAM gene and two novel mutations in the MYO5B gene provides further etiological evidence for the association of genetic mutations with neonatal-onset diarrhea. To date, c.269_270 dupAA is the most frequent SLC26A3 mutation in China.


Assuntos
Antiportadores de Cloreto-Bicarbonato , Diarreia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Miosina Tipo V/genética , Transportadores de Sulfato , Antiportadores de Cloreto-Bicarbonato/genética , Diarreia/genética , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Mutação/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transportadores de Sulfato/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17819, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497309

RESUMO

The vascular complications have been a major cause of morbidity and mortality among all subtypes of BCR-ABL1 negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), but the ethnicity-specific data was limited. We therefore conducted a multi-center retrospective, longitudinal cohort study to evaluate the incidence, characteristics and risk factors of thromboembolic events of MPN patients. Of 256 patients, 27.3% experienced thromboembolic events, majority of which occurred before or within 12 months of MPN diagnosis. The multivariable Cox proportional analyses identified leukocytosis (HR 2.67, 95% CI 1.36-5.24, q = 0.004) and history of thrombosis (HR 9.68, 95% CI 2.00-46.88, q = 0.005) as the risk factors for thromboembolism. In subgroup analysis of polycythemia vera and hemoglobin concentration (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.28-3.04, q = 0.002) appeared to be a significant risk factor of thrombosis, along with age and thrombosis history. In essential thrombocythemia, severity of the established IPSET score was closely correlated with the frequency of thromboembolic events. In primary myelofibrosis, history of thrombosis was associated with thrombosis events (HR 13.85, 95% CI 1.2-159.5, q = 0.035). Overall survival was worse in patients who experienced thromboembolic events. Our study highlighted the importance of recognizing high risk patients and implementing personalized intervention.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/complicações , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 10(5): 423-429, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516436

RESUMO

The Asia-Pacific region is home to a 4.3-billion population and one of the most rapidly aging regions. Addressing the eye care needs in the region would greatly boost the progress toward achieving universal eye health. Over 20 countries/regions have actively engaged in the "VISION 2020" initiative launched since 1999, and remarkable achievements have been witnessed as demonstrated by an increase in both the number and density of ophthalmologists in almost all countries. Nevertheless, formidable and emerging challenges are to be overcome in the coming century. From 1990 to 2015, the absolute number of blind people increased by 17.9%, largely due to population growth and aging. The Asia-Pacific region, the most populous continent with a rapidly aging population, would inevitably be left to tackle this challenge. Furthermore, a high prevalence of blinding eye diseases imposes great pressure on current eye care services, with South Asia having the highest age-standardized prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment (17.5%) and mild vision impairment (12.2%) globally, and high-income countries having the highest overall prevalence of myopia, reaching 53.4% with East Asia having the second-highest overall prevalence (51.6%). Moreover, the availability of ophthalmic resources varies greatly in the region, with the density of ophthalmologists ranging from over 114 ophthalmologists per million population in Japan to 0 in Micronesia, and a highly disproportionate urban-rural distribution. This article aims to shed light on challenges faced by the Asia-Pacific ophthalmic community and propose corresponding strategies to tackle those challenges.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Prevalência
13.
Nature ; 596(7872): 393-397, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349265

RESUMO

Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women1,2, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of European ancestry. These common alleles were associated with clinical extremes of ANM; women in the top 1% of genetic susceptibility have an equivalent risk of premature ovarian insufficiency to those carrying monogenic FMR1 premutations3. The identified loci implicate a broad range of DNA damage response (DDR) processes and include loss-of-function variants in key DDR-associated genes. Integration with experimental models demonstrates that these DDR processes act across the life-course to shape the ovarian reserve and its rate of depletion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental manipulation of DDR pathways highlighted by human genetics increases fertility and extends reproductive life in mice. Causal inference analyses using the identified genetic variants indicate that extending reproductive life in women improves bone health and reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, but increases the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that govern ovarian ageing, when they act, and how they might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to extend fertility and prevent disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Ovário/metabolismo , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Envelhecimento Saudável/genética , Humanos , Longevidade/genética , Menopausa/genética , Menopausa Precoce/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/genética , Útero
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16852, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413343

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused disruptions of public life and imposed lockdown measures in 2020 resulted in considerable reductions of anthropogenic aerosol emissions. It still remains unclear how the associated short-term changes in atmospheric chemistry influenced weather and climate on regional scales. To understand the underlying physical mechanisms, we conduct ensemble aerosol perturbation experiments with the Community Earth System Model, version 2. In the simulations reduced anthropogenic aerosol emissions in February generate anomalous surface warming and warm-moist air advection which promotes low-level cloud formation over China. Although the simulated response is weak, it is detectable in some areas, in qualitative agreement with the observations. The negative dynamical cloud feedback offsets the effect from reduced cloud condensation nuclei. Additional perturbation experiments with strongly amplified air pollution over China reveal a nonlinear sensitivity of regional atmospheric conditions to chemical/radiative perturbations. COVID-19-related changes in anthropogenic aerosol emissions provide an excellent testbed to elucidate the interaction between air pollution and climate.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Clima , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Atmosfera , COVID-19/transmissão , China , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Pandemias , Tempo (Meteorologia)
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444959

RESUMO

The rapid rise in prevalence of overweight/obesity, as well as high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and other nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases, has led the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to propose a front-of-package labeling (FOPL) regulation. An effective FOPL system applies a nutrient profile model that identifies foods high in sugar, sodium, and saturated fat that would receive a warning label for consumers to effectively discern between more and less healthy foods. Previous Nutrition Alchemy data collected by the food industry (n = 1306 products) estimated that approximately 96% of foods in India would have at least one warning label based on the FSSAI proposed FOPL. This near universal coverage of warning labels may be inaccurate and misleading. To address this, the current study compared two nutrient profile models, the WHO South-East Asia Region Organization (SEARO) and the Chilean Warning Octagon (CWO) Phase 3, applied to food products available in the Indian market from 2015-2020, collected through Mintel Global New Products Database (n = 10,501 products). Results suggest that 68% of foods and beverages would have at least one ' high-in' level warning label. This study highlights the need to include a more comprehensive sample of food products for assessing the value of warning labels.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Chile , Comportamento do Consumidor , Bases de Dados Factuais , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Índia , Valor Nutritivo , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117711, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329053

RESUMO

In East Asia, air quality has been recognized as an important public health problem. In particular, the surface concentrations of air pollutants are closely related to human life. This study aims to develop models for estimating high spatial resolution surface concentrations of NO2 and O3 from TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) data in East Asia. The machine learning was adopted by fusion of various satellite-based variables, numerical model-based meteorological variables, and land-use variables. Four machine learning approaches-Support Vector Regression (SVR), Random Forest (RF), Extreme Gradient Boost (XGB), and Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LGBM)-were evaluated and compared with Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) as a base statistical method. This study also modeled the NO2 and O3 concentrations over the ocean surface (i.e., land model for scheme 1 and ocean model for scheme 2). The estimated surface concentrations were validated through three cross-validation approaches (i.e., random, temporal, and spatial). The results showed that the NO2 model produced R2 of 0.63-0.70 and normalized root-mean-square-error (nRMSE) of 38.3-42.2% and the O3 model resulted in R2 of 0.65-0.78 and nRMSE of 19.6-24.7% for scheme 1. The indirect validation based on the stations near the coastline for scheme 2 showed slight decrease (~0.3-2.4%) in nRMSE when compared to scheme 1. The contributions of input variables to the models were analyzed based on SHapely Additive exPlanations (SHAP) values. The NO2 vertical column density among the TROPOMI-derived variables showed the largest contribution in both the NO2 and O3 models.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise
17.
Br J Sociol ; 72(4): 1113-1126, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312834

RESUMO

Drawing upon fieldwork data collected among a group of Tibetan graduates who attended an internationally linked English training program that dramatically and fundamentally altered their life trajectories, this study argues that these Tibetans acquired individualism prior to individualization practice. Their pathway is in contrast with the tendency found among Korean women "toward individualization without individualism, a region-wide phenomenon in East Asia'. Different scenarios exactly reveal complicatedness and complexity in compressed modernity of East Asia. However, the study also finds that their exercise of individualization did not turn them into an ontological or radical-that is, egoistic-individualist on account of multiple factors. Toward the end of the article, we also recommend replacing the controversial concept of individualization (individualism) with the notion of individuation-a project of the individual that may be geared toward collective action and shared ideals-to avoid conceptual ambiguity in the future. This individuation project is more likely to contribute to both the integrity and identity of the individual in her search for a legitimate status and a settled life in the wider society, as well as a prosperous society in the future.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Individuação , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Humanos , Tibet
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201984

RESUMO

This study investigates changes in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration and air-quality index (AQI) in Asia using nine different Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project 6 (CMIP6) climate model ensembles from historical and future scenarios under shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). The results indicated that the estimated present-day PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to satellite-derived data. Overall, the PM2.5 concentrations of the analyzed regions exceeded the WHO air-quality guidelines, particularly in East Asia and South Asia. In future SSP scenarios that consider the implementation of significant air-quality controls (SSP1-2.6, SSP5-8.5) and medium air-quality controls (SSP2-4.5), the annual PM2.5 levels were predicted to substantially reduce (by 46% to around 66% of the present-day levels) in East Asia, resulting in a significant improvement in the AQI values in the mid-future. Conversely, weak air pollution controls considered in the SSP3-7.0 scenario resulted in poor AQI values in China and India. Moreover, a predicted increase in the percentage of aged populations (>65 years) in these regions, coupled with high AQI values, may increase the risk of premature deaths in the future. This study also examined the regional impact of PM2.5 mitigations on downward shortwave energy and surface air temperature. Our results revealed that, although significant air pollution controls can reduce long-term exposure to PM2.5, it may also contribute to the warming of near- and mid-future climates.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ásia , China , Exposição Ambiental , Extremo Oriente , Índia , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203021

RESUMO

The effect of ambient air pollutants and Asian dust (AD) on absence from school due to sickness has not been well researched. By conducting a case-crossover study, this study investigated the influence of ambient air pollutants and desert sand dust particles from East Asia on absence from school due to sickness. From November 2016 to July 2018, the daily cases of absence due to sickness were recorded in five elementary schools in Matsue, Japan. During the study period, a total of 16,915 absence cases were recorded, which included 4865 fever cases and 2458 cough cases. The relative risk of overall absence in a 10-µg/m3 increment of PM2.5 and a 0.1-km-1 of desert sand dust particles from East Asia were found with 1.28 (95%CI: 1.15-1.42) and 2.15 (1.04-4.45) at lag0, respectively. The significant influence of PM2.5 persisted at lag5 and that of desert sand dust particles at lag2. NO2 had statistically significant effects at lag2, lag3, and lag4. However, there was no evidence of a positive association of Ox and SO2 with absence from school. These results suggested that PM2.5, NO2, and AD increased the risk of absence due to sickness in schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Extremo Oriente , Japão/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 57(3): 281-287, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231913

RESUMO

In this essay, the author reflects on his past and current research in transnational history psychiatry and the history of lunatics in Hong Kong, attempting to develop an alternative narrative in the unique free port between the East and the West concerning the conventional colonial historiography of psychiatry. He emphasizes that, in Hong Kong, the historiography of psychiatry should broaden its focus and not limited to the role of mental asylums, for modern psychiatry was almost absent in Britain's crown colony until the end of World War II, and custodial care for lunatics was only one temporary measure in a much broader network of patient repatriation. The grand project was designed not for the well-being of the mentally ill but the smooth operation of the international commercial port. In addition, the post-war institutionalization of psychiatry, including the expansion of hospitals and the creation of the psychiatric specialty in Hong Kong, did not improve the mental health of Hong Kong residents. The author argues that this is because the rapid development of modern psychiatry in the former British colony overlooked the social determinants of mental suffering. A historical understanding of psychiatry in Hong Kong is helpful to address such ignorance.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Extremo Oriente , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental
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