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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131079, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788946

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of myofiber changes and protein oxidation on water holding capacity (WHC) of bighead carp fillets stored at -20 °C. WHC, microstructure, protein oxidation parameters, and specific modifications of oxidized amino acids were analyzed during 9 months of frozen storage. Results indicated that WHC decreased accompanied by myofibers' structural changes (including the formation of cavities among myofibers, breakage of myofibrils and myofibers, and shortening of sarcomeres) and protein oxidation. SDS-PAGE and carbonyl and sulfhydryl content determination of myofibrillar proteins and exudates gave a detailed description of the protein oxidation. LC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated that oxidation, di-oxidation, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) adduction were the top four oxidative modifications of proteins. Oxidative modifications impaired configuration and polarity of proteins, which may further affect WHC. This study provides plausible explanations to support the role of protein oxidation in the decrease of WHC in frozen fillets.


Assuntos
Carpas , Água , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Carne/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150148, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520919

RESUMO

Root exudates play essential roles in shaping root-associated microbial communities in plant-soil systems. However, knowledge regarding the influence of root exudates on soil communities, particularly concerning their assembly processes and species coexistence patterns, remains limited. In this study, we performed a 20-month pot experiment using a nitrogen (N) addition gradient (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 g N m-2 yr-1), amplicon sequencing, and metabolomics to investigate the effect of short-term N addition on the assembly process and species coexistence of fungal communities, as well as their association with root exudates in the rhizosphere and bulk soils around Bothriochloa ischaemum. The results demonstrated that short-term N addition led to distinct differences in the diversity, composition, assembly process, and co-occurrence networks of fungal communities in the rhizosphere and bulk soils. The diversity of fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil increased with the rate of N input and peaked at N10 treatment; this could be correlated with the increased abundance in long-chain organic acids (LCOAs). However, above the threshold N rate of 10 g N m-2 yr-1, diversity decreased probably because of the high N-induced inhibitory effect on root exudates (i.e., LCOAs). N addition increased the relative abundance of Sordariomycetes in the rhizosphere and decreased the relative abundance of Mortierellomycetes in the bulk soil, while enhancing the abundance of pathotrophs in both bulk and rhizosphere soils. The rhizosphere fungal community was dominated by a stochastic process at a low N input (N0 and N2.5) and by deterministic processes at a high N input (N10 and N15), which is opposite to the trends in the bulk soil. These fungal assembly processes determine the coexistence of fungal species; deterministic processes lead to less interconnected networks in rhizosphere soils that harbor a more complex network than the bulk soil. Associations between the assembly process and species coexistence in the rhizosphere of B. ischaemum were closely related to the changes in root exudates, such as amino acids, short-chain organic acids, and phenols, which were stimulated by N addition. Collectively, our study emphasizes the key roles of root exudates in the establishment of fungal communities in the plant-soil system and furthers our understanding of plant-microbe interactions.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Rizosfera , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021268, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Pleural effusions (PE) can complicate the course of hematologic disorders (HD) and may arise in the form of malignant PE or as a consequence of non-neoplastic complications. While a certain amount of data has been published regarding infectious and iatrogenic HD-associated PE (HPE), no comprehensive review regarding the other types of HPE has ever been conducted. To address this issue, we performed a systematic review of the literature regarding HPE, focusing on the clinical and chemical characteristics of PE, therapeutic approaches and ì outcomes at the one-year follow-up. METHODS: We conducted our review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS: Overall, 283 manuscripts and 1216 cases were included. In summary, PE frequently signals an underlying HD, especially Hodgkin's lymphoma and IgG4-related disease; it mainly consists of exudate, although chylothorax is diagnosed in some cases. Although cytological examination has a discrete diagnostic yield, it is generally insufficient to render a definitive diagnosis; pleural biopsy remains an important diagnostic means in such cases. Invasive diagnostic procedures are not frequently performed because of an increased risk of haemorrhagic complications. The majority of PE are resolved by means of systemic therapy. When local treatments are attempted, the most frequently adopted procedures are evacuative thoracentesis and indwelling chest tube placement Conclusions: This review highlights the need for well-designed prospective studies comparing diagnostic means and therapeutic interventions for HPE to increase the quality of available data.  (www.actabiomedica.it).


Assuntos
Doenças Hematológicas , Derrame Pleural , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Derrame Pleural/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Planta ; 254(6): 112, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727239

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Solanoeclepin A is a hatching stimulant for potato cyst nematode in very low (pM) concentrations. We report a highly sensitive method for the analysis of SolA in plant root exudates using UHPLC-MS/MS and show that there is considerable natural variation in SolA production in Solanum spp. corresponding with their hatching inducing activity. Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is a plant root sedentary endoparasite, specialized in the infection of solanaceous species such as potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Earlier reports (Mulder et al. in Hatching agent for the potato cyst nematode, Patent application No. PCT/NL92/00126, 1996; Schenk et al. in Croat Chem Acta 72:593-606, 1999) showed that solanoeclepin A (SolA), a triterpenoid metabolite that was isolated from the root exudate of potato, induces the hatching of PCN. Its low concentration in potato root exudate has hindered progress in fully understanding its hatching inducing activity and exploitation in the control of PCN. To further investigate the role of SolA in hatching of PCN, the establishment of a highly sensitive analytical method is a prerequisite. Here we present the efficient single-step extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS based analysis for rapid determination of SolA in sub-nanomolar concentrations in tomato root exudate. This method was used to analyze SolA production in different tomato cultivars and related solanaceous species, including the trap crop Solanum sisymbriifolium. Hatching assays with PCN, Globodera pallida, with root exudates of tomato genotypes revealed a significant positive correlation between SolA concentration and hatching activity. Our results demonstrate that there is natural variation in SolA production within solanaceous species and that this has an effect on PCN hatching. The analytical method we have developed can potentially be used to support breeding for crop genotypes that induce less hatching and may therefore display reduced infection by PCN.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/química , Hexanos/química , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Solanum tuberosum , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade
5.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 515, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uveal effusion syndrome is a rare disease characterized by exudative detachments of the choroid, ciliary body, and retina. Various surgical procedures and nonsurgical strategies have been described to treat uveal effusion syndrome with limited success. The treatment for uveal effusion syndrome remains a serious challenge for clinicians. To the best of our knowledge, no previous report has described a severe uveal effusion syndrome patient with nanophthalmos treated by using an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent alone. We report here one such case with unexpected positive results. CASE PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old Chinese male patient presented with painless vision loss in both eyes that had persisted for 2 months. Examination of the right eye revealed a best corrected visual acuity of 0.03; the best corrected visual acuity of the left eye was finger count/20 cm. The intraocular pressure was normal on both eyes. A-scan revealed an right eye axial length of 15.88 mm and a left eye axial length of 16.21 mm. In the right eye, half of the peripheral choroid and nearly three-fourths of the retina were detached. The left fundus was not visible because of the total retinal detachment located just behind the lens, which could be clearly observed directly with a slit lamp. Considering all the possibilities and available treatments as well as the patient's intentions after discussion, we first administered an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab 0.5 ml into both eyes. The patient's visual perception improved 3 days after the injection. One month later, most of the effusion under the choroid and retina was absorbed. Visual acuity improved from finger count to 0.05 in both eyes, and vision quality was remarkably improved. Encouraged by this good result, the patient opted to undergo a second injection 1 month later. Choroidal and retinal detachment completely vanished 30 days after the second injection. CONCLUSIONS: Using an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agent alone may be a potentially effective and safe method for managing some types of uveal effusion syndrome, such as in nanophthalmos. The injection may be administered before considering more aggressive procedures in some uveal effusion syndrome patients.


Assuntos
Doenças da Coroide , Microftalmia , Descolamento Retiniano , Síndrome da Efusão da Úvea , Adulto , Doenças da Coroide/complicações , Doenças da Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Humanos , Masculino , Descolamento Retiniano/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933396, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND As use of immune checkpoint inhibitors consistently grows, so does knowledge of immune-related adverse events. Pleural complications from PD-L1 inhibitors such as atezolizumab have never been reported. We describe the first reported case of biopsy-proven pleuritis manifesting as recurrent pleural effusion in a patient treated with atezolizumab. CASE REPORT A 66-year-old woman with history of extensive-stage small cell lung cancer presented with a new pleural effusion. She was previously treated with carboplatin, etoposide, and atezolizumab followed by atezolizumab maintenance, but this later was stopped due to pneumonitis. She had been on no systemic therapy for 6 months prior; radiation to the chest was completed 1 year earlier. Thoracentesis revealed an exudate with eosinophilia but no malignancy. She underwent medical thoracoscopy, which showed normal pleura with no evidence of radiation changes. Random pleural biopsies revealed only chronic pleuritis. Given normal-appearing pleura, radiation pleuritis was ruled out. It was felt that the chemotherapy had occurred too long ago to be a present cause of her pleuritis. As such, after extensive workup, the eosinophilic pleural effusion was felt to be due to pleuritis from atezolizumab. The effusion has ultimately recurred 5 times over 1 year, and cytology remains negative for malignancy. CONCLUSIONS Patients with prior cancer presenting with a new pleural effusion should undergo an extensive workup to evaluate for recurrence. When other causes have been ruled out, ongoing immune-related effects of immunotherapy should be considered. Pleural complications from PD-L1 inhibitors have not been reported; we present a possible case of chronic pleuritis and recurrent effusion due to atezolizumab.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Derrame Pleural , Pleurisia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Derrame Pleural/induzido quimicamente , Pleurisia/induzido quimicamente
7.
J Wound Care ; 30(Sup9a): VIi-VIx, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597174

RESUMO

AIMS: We describe the development of a novel porcine eschar model and compare the debridement efficacy of various concentrations of a novel bromelain-based enzymatic agent with collagenase. METHODS: Full thickness excisional wounds were created on pigs and injected intradermally with various doses of doxorubicin. Wounds were monitored for a period of 46 days for the development of eschar and wound closure. After determining the optimal concentration and dose of doxorubicin resulting in non-healing eschars, these conditions were used to create additional wounds on another set of animals. The resulting eschars were treated with various concentrations of a novel bromelain-based enzymatic agent (EscharEx-02) or collagenase. The primary endpoint was greater than 95% removal of the central eschar. RESULTS: Consistent eschars composed of two distinct areas (a central area of exudate and slough representing the hard-to-heal wound bed, and a peripheral area of full-thickness mummified necrosis) were seen after injection of doxorubicin (0.5 ml/cm2 of stock solution 0.75mg/ml) at one and six days after wound creation. Complete removal of the central eschar was achieved in all wounds after five and eight treatments with 5% and 2% EscharEx-02 respectively. Complete removal of the central eschar with collagenase was achieved in 0% and 82% of the wounds after 10 and 16 treatments respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a porcine model for creating eschars similar to hard-to-heal wounds in humans. A novel bromelain-based enzymatic debridement agent was more effective than a commercially available collagenase in removing eschars in this wound model.


Assuntos
Bromelaínas , Cicatrização , Animais , Bromelaínas/farmacologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Necrose , Suínos
8.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(8): 1250-1259, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We propose an hard exudate(EX)segmentation algorithm based on regional classification-guided wavelet Y-Net network to eliminate the influence of optic disc on EX segmentation process. METHODS: The wavelet Y-Net network was an end-to-end fundus image EX segmentation network, which combined the regional detection of optic disc and hard exudates segmentation by regional classification-guided EX segmentation to effectively reduce the interference of optic disc in EX segmentation.To avoid failure of small EX region segmentation caused by information loss due to down-sampling operation, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) were introduced to replace the traditional pooling down-sampling and up-sampling operations.Meanwhile, the inception module based on residual connection was used to obtain the multi-scale features.The proposed algorithm was trained and tested on the IDRiD and e-ophtha EX datasets and evaluated at the pixel level. RESULTS: For IDRiD and e-ophtha EX datasets, the proposed algorithm achieved accuracy rates of 0.9858 and 0.9938 with AUC values of 0.9880 and 0.9986, respectively. CONCLUSION: The proposed method can effectively avoid the influence of the optic disc, retain the image details, and improve the effect of EX segmentation.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos , Disco Óptico , Algoritmos , Exsudatos e Transudatos/diagnóstico por imagem , Fundo de Olho , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Cesk Slov Oftalmol ; 77(4): 202-206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507496

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Purpose of this article is to present a case report of a patient with uveal effusion syndrome who underwent deep posterior sclerotomy. CASE REPORT: A 73-year-old patient with unilateral decrease in the best corrected visual acuity, ablation of choroid and secondary retinal detachment in the right eye was admitted to our clinic for examination in November 2017. At the first examination, the best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 0.3, in the left eye 1.0. Intraocular pressure was 16 mmHg in the right eye and 21 mmHg in the left eye. After performing ultrasound biomicroscopy of the anterior segment (Accutome, Keeler, USA), ultrasound sonography of the affected eye (Accutome, Keeler, USA), magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, abdominal ultrasound and blood tests, we concluded the finding as uveal effusion syndrome. We initiated a conservative treatment consisting of oral administration of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor in combination with topical use of prostaglandin analogue. Despite conservative treatment the best corrected visual acuity of the affected eye decreased to 0.05 so we proceeded to a surgical procedure - deep posterior sclerotomy with perioperative scleral sampling for histological examination (detection of glycosaminoglycans in the sclera wall by Alcian blue staining), which was negative. This histological result ranks the patient as the third type of uveal effusion syndrome (ie, non-nanophthalmic with a normal sclera). After the operation both the ablation of choroid and retinal detachment reattached and the best corrected visual acuity in the right eye improved to 0.3. After the subsequent cataract surgery, the ablation of choroid and retinal detachment occurred again, this time with spontaneous recovery. Postoperatively, the best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 0.5 and at the last check-up at our clinic 0.6. CONCLUSION: Deep posterior sclerotomy is a method of choice of surgical treatment for uveal effusion syndrome that does not respond to conservative therapy.


Assuntos
Doenças da Coroide , Descolamento Retiniano , Síndrome da Efusão da Úvea , Idoso , Doenças da Coroide/diagnóstico , Doenças da Coroide/terapia , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Humanos , Descolamento Retiniano/diagnóstico , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Esclera
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544724

RESUMO

We report a case of a 74-year-old male patient who was referred to the respiratory clinic with an incidental finding of a left sided pleural effusion. He was initially being treated by the general practitioner for chest infection with productive cough that had limited resolution after course of oral antibiotics. At the pleural clinic, 1.5 L of serosanguineous fluid was drained and sent for diagnostics. However, the diagnosis only reached as far as idiopathic exudative effusion with lymphocytes and plasma cells. He was then referred for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery pleural biopsy and pleurodesis. It revealed black pleura with abundant IgG4 positive cells. He is followed up in respiratory clinic where further discussion and treatment has commenced.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural , Idoso , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Humanos , Masculino , Pleura/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Pleurodese , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588205

RESUMO

Neonatal chylothorax is a rare presentation leading to significant respiratory distress, thus requiring timely diagnosis. A preterm neonate was resuscitated and ventilated, following which she clinically improved but subsequently developed respiratory distress with a right-sided pleural effusion. Interestingly, thoracentesis fluid appeared 'milky' with elevated triglycerides and lymphocytes, suggesting chylothorax. As fluid triglyceride level was lower than the established diagnostic criterion for chylothorax (1.24 mmol/L), a high fluid-to-serum triglyceride ratio was used as a surrogate diagnostic marker, later confirmed by lipoprotein electrophoresis. As observed in the index patient, a critically ill neonate would have a lower-than-average fat intake leading to less chylomicron production, thus lower triglyceride levels in chyle than expected, which may still fail to meet the amended cut-off limit. This case highlights the challenges in diagnosing neonatal chylothorax due to the lack of age-specific triglyceride levels in chyle and low oral fat intake in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Quilo , Quilotórax , Derrame Pleural , Quilotórax/diagnóstico , Quilotórax/etiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/etiologia
13.
J Wound Care ; 30(9): 738-750, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554841

RESUMO

Among the advanced wound dressing types, superabsorbent (SA) dressings form an important class of dressings, particularly for the management of medium to highly exuding wounds. However, SA dressings are not all made the same. This educational article describes distinct, common SA dressing designs, which differ fundamentally in structure and composition, and, thereby, in their exudate absorption function and clinical efficacy. The diverse design families of SA dressings, including dressings with an SA polymer-sheet core, versus dressings with an air laid core, where the SA polymer grains are embedded in fluff, relate to different manufacturing processes, production techniques and associated fabrication costs. These fundamental structural and material differences across SA dressing designs from different manufacturers naturally lead to wide variations in the fluid handling characteristics of the products, which are analysed here using both theoretical and experimental bioengineering laboratory approaches. This work is primarily aimed at promoting critical thinking among health professionals who should ask manufacturers to present relevant testing data for an informed clinical decision-making with regards to the choice of the safest and best performing SA dressing for each treated wound case.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Polímeros , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 50(3): 394-403, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The classification of effusions in human medicine currently uses biochemical parameters of verified analytical accuracy, while veterinary medicine is traditionally guided by protein content (TP) and total nucleated cell count (TNCC) in the effusion, without solid scientific support. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the accuracy of the current veterinary classification system to distinguish transudates from exudates and create new tools involving biochemical parameters that better classify canine cavitary effusions. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data from 250 canine pleural and peritoneal effusions were retrospectively and prospectively collected, organized, and statistically evaluated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using biochemical and cellular parameters. RESULTS: For identifying exudates, the accuracy (87.7%, n = 204) of the best traditional classification system (TNCC > 3000 cells/µL) was similar to that of the individual biochemical cutoff values with the greatest accuracy in the abdominal cavity (eg, cholesterol, CHO-E > 40.1 mg/dL, 87.3%, n = 55). The accuracy of albumin (ALB-E > 0.8 g/dL) in the pleural cavity was nonetheless higher (100%, n = 23). The best multiple predictive models for any cavity used the percentage of neutrophils and CHO-E (n = 72), presenting an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the diagnosis of exudate of 88%, 96%, and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical classification of pleural effusions has a higher accuracy than the traditional system (based on TP and TNCC). Utility and cutoff of analytes are different for each cavity. Implementing a multiple regression model or establishing ratios or gradients with concurrent serum values adds no significant improvement in the diagnostic potential of distinguishing transudate and exudates in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Derrame Pleural , Albuminas , Animais , Líquido Ascítico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 50(3): 384-393, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is disagreement in the literature about the proportion of neutrophils expected in canine transudates. A cutoff of <30% neutrophils has been recommended for distinguishing transudates from exudates, but its validity has not been established. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate differential cell counts in canine effusions and analyze the percentage and number of neutrophils in transudates and exudates. METHODS: Effusion data were obtained retrospectively from 263 dogs with pleural or peritoneal effusion. Low-protein transudates, high-protein transudates, and exudates were classified using the total protein (TP) concentration and total nucleated cell count (TNCC). Differential percentages and absolute neutrophil counts were compared by the effusion type and underlying etiology. RESULTS: Low-protein transudates (n = 63), high-protein transudates (n = 84), and exudates (n = 77) had a median (range) of 35% (0%-100%), 59% (0%-100%), and 90% (50%-98%) neutrophils (P < .0001). All effusions with <50% neutrophils were transudates, but 53% of transudates had ≥50% neutrophils, and 69% had ≥30%. Median neutrophil counts were 62/µL (0-892/µL), 538/µL (0-4550/µL), and 45 590/µL (5400-496 800/µL) in low-protein transudates, high-protein transudates, and exudates, respectively (P < .0001). Neutrophil counts correlated with TNCC (r2  = 0.99), such that using neutrophil cutoffs did not affect effusion classifications in most cases. Neutrophil percentages and counts were higher in effusions from dogs with uroabdomen and sepsis (P < .01); neutrophil counts were lower in dogs with hepatic insufficiency (P < .0001). Uroabdomen usually caused low-protein, high-neutrophil exudates. CONCLUSIONS: Although effusions with <50% neutrophils are transudates, most transudates and exudates have ≥50% neutrophils, limiting the diagnostic usefulness of % neutrophils for classifying effusions. Absolute neutrophil cutoffs did not notably improve effusion classification but could warrant future studies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Derrame Pleural , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Neutrófilos , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(9): 5599-5611, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455446

RESUMO

Plants release various metabolites from roots and root exudates contribute to differences in stress tolerance among plant species. Plant and soil microbes have complex interactions that are affected by biotic and abiotic factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in metabolites in root exudates of rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars and their correlation with bacterial populations in the rhizosphere. Two rice cultivars (O. sativa cv. Akamai and O. sativa cv. Koshihikari) were grown in soils fertilized with 0 g P kg-1 (- P) or 4.8 g P kg-1 (+ P). Root exudates and root-attached soil were collected at 13 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT) and their metabolites and bacterial community structure were determined. The exudation of proline, serine, threonine, valine and 4-coumarate were increased under low P conditions in both cultivars. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of pantothenate in root exudates and the representation of members of the genera Clostridium and Sporosarcina, which were negatively correlated with root dry weight. Gracilibacter, Opitutus, Pelotomaculum, Phenylobacterium and Oxobacter were positively correlated with root dry weight and presence of allantoin, 2-aminobtyrate and GlcNac. This study provides new information about the response of plants and rhizosphere soil bacteria to low P conditions.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Solo
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(39): 54497-54510, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431053

RESUMO

Increasing crop yields and ensuring food security is a major global challenge. In order to increase crop production, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are excessively used. However, the significance of root exudates is understudied. Beneficial interactions between plant and rhizosphere microbiome are critical for plant fitness and health. In this review, we discuss the application and progress of current research methods and technologies in terms of root exudates and rhizosphere microbiome. We summarize how root exudates promote plant access to nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron, and how root exudates strengthen plant immunity to cope with biotic stress by regulating the rhizosphere microbiome, and thereby reducing dependence on fertilizers and pesticides. Optimizing these interactions to increase plant nutrient uptake and resistance to biotic stresses offers one of the few untapped opportunities to confront sustainability issues in food security. To overcome the limitations of current research, combination of multi-omics, imaging technology together with synthetic communities has the potential to uncover the interaction mechanisms and to fill the knowledge gap for their applications in agriculture to achieve sustainable development.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rizosfera , Produção Agrícola , Exsudatos e Transudatos
18.
S D Med ; 74(9): 434-439, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461681

RESUMO

Chylothorax is the presence of a chylous effusion in the pleural space. Diagnosing chylothorax requires a high clinical suspicion, awareness of the different appearances of a chylothorax and the performance of tests on the pleural fluid, additional to those typically required to differentiate an exudate from a transudate based on Light's criteria. Chylothorax is a more common diagnosis in the trauma and post-surgical patients, but it is still important for practitioners of other disciplines to be aware of it. In this article we provide a concise summary of chylothorax diagnosis and management.


Assuntos
Quilotórax , Derrame Pleural , Quilotórax/diagnóstico , Quilotórax/terapia , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Humanos
19.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104725, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399196

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of retinopathy is essential for preventing retinal complications and visual impairment due to diabetes. For the detection of retinopathy lesions from retinal images, several automatic approaches based on deep neural networks have been developed in the recent years. Most of the proposed methods produce point estimates of pixels belonging to the lesion areas and give no or little information on the uncertainty of method predictions. However, the latter can be essential in the examination of the medical condition of the patient when the goal is early detection of abnormalities. This work extends the recent research with a Bayesian framework by considering the parameters of a convolutional neural network as random variables and utilizing stochastic variational dropout based approximation for uncertainty quantification. The framework includes an extended validation procedure and it allows analyzing lesion segmentation distributions, model calibration and prediction uncertainties. Also the challenges related to the deep probabilistic model and uncertainty quantification are presented. The proposed method achieves area under precision-recall curve of 0.84 for hard exudates, 0.641 for soft exudates, 0.593 for haemorrhages, and 0.484 for microaneurysms on IDRiD dataset.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Microaneurisma , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112622, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390985

RESUMO

The residues of bensulfuron-methyl (BSM), a sulfonylurea herbicide, in soil have caused serious damage to the rotation of susceptible crops. Many studies have reported that the removal of BSM in soil was achieved by adding degrading bacteria. However, the mechanisms used by bacteria to degrade BSM in the crop rhizosphere remain unclear. In this study, a BSM-degrading bacterium, Hansschlegelia zhihuaiae S113, was applied to investigate the enhancement of effects mediated by organic acids during the bioremediation of BSM-contaminated maize rhizosphere soil. Organic acids, such as L-malic acid, tartaric acid, and fumaric acid, identified in maize root exudates, significantly stimulated the expression of cheA, which encoded the histidine kinase in strain S113 and contributed to the chemotactic response. This process accelerated the accumulation of strain S113 around the maize roots and promoted the colonization process on maize roots. The growth of strain S113 was significantly increased by L-malic acid but not tartaric acid or fumaric acid. After the S113 suspension was root-irrigated to BSM-contaminated soil, the density of strain S113 colonizing root surfaces and in rhizosphere soil reached 1.1 × 104 cells/g for roots and 4.9 × 104 cells/g in dry soil at 15 d, leading to 80.9% BSM degradation efficiency. The treatment with the addition of a mixture of S113 and L-malic acid completely degraded BSM in rhizosphere soil due to the strong attraction and growth promotion of strain S113 by L-malic acid, with a higher efficiency than that with the extra addition of fumaric acid (89.7%) or tartaric acid (87.0%). This paper revealed the enhancement effects of organic acids identified in root exudates for the in situ bioremediation of BSM-contaminated rhizosphere soil.


Assuntos
Rizosfera , Zea mays , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Methylocystaceae , Raízes de Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo
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