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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256916, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355874

RESUMO

Abstract Crotalaria (Fabaceae) occurs abundantly in tropical and subtropical regions and has about 600 known species. These plants are widely used in agriculture, mainly as cover plants and green manures, in addition to their use in the management of phytonematodes. A striking feature of these species is the production of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), secondary allelochemicals involved in plant defense against herbivores. In Crotalaria species, monocrotaline is the predominant PA, which has many biological activities reported, including cytotoxicity, tumorigenicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity, with a wide range of ecological interactions. Thus, studies have sought to elucidate the effects of this compound to promote an increase in flora and fauna (mainly insects and nematodes) associated with agroecosystems, favoring the natural biological control. This review summarizes information about the monocrotaline, showing such effects in these environments, both above and below ground, and their potential use in pest management programs.


Resumo Crotalaria (Linnaeus, 1753) (Fabaceae) ocorre abundantemente em regiões tropicais e subtropicais e tem cerca de 600 espécies conhecidas. Estas plantas são amplamente utilizadas na agricultura, principalmente como cobertura e adubos verdes, além da sua utilização no manejo de fitonematoides. Uma característica marcante destas espécies é a produção de alcalóides pirrolizidinicos (APs), aleloquímicos secundários envolvidos na defesa das plantas contra os herbívoros. Nas espécies de Crotalaria, a monocrotalina é a AP predominante, que tem muitas atividades biológicas relatadas, incluindo citotoxicidade, tumorigenicidade, hepatotoxicidade e neurotoxicidade, além de uma vasta gama de interações ecológicas. Assim, estudos têm procurado elucidar os efeitos desse composto para promover um incremento na flora e fauna (principalmente insetos e nematoides) associados aos agroecossistemas, favorecendo o controle biológico natural. Esta revisão compila informações sobre a monocrotalina, mostrando tais efeitos nesses ambientes, tanto acima como abaixo do solo e a sua potencial utilização em programas de manejo de pragas.


Assuntos
Animais , Artrópodes , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina , Crotalaria , Fabaceae , Monocrotalina/toxicidade
3.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677731

RESUMO

Despite the current management options and therapeutics used in the treatment of diarrhoea, in Africa and Asia, diarrhoea remains a major concern, especially in children under the age of 5 years. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used in the management of diarrhoea symptoms can be explored for their efficacy. In Nigeria, the TMPs (Traditional Medicine Practitioners) have, over the years, employed medicinal plants in the management of diarrhoea symptoms. In our current and previous studies, we aimed at validating the effectiveness of Neorautanenia mitis in the management of diarrhoea as claimed by the TMPs. Out of the 20 compounds isolated from N. mitis, the compounds neodulin, pachyrrhizine, neotenone and dolineone were the most abundant, and in this study, neodulin showed a pronounced relaxation of the rhythmic contraction of the isolated rabbit jejunum in an organ bath in a concentration-dependent manner, with a complete relaxation at 60 µg/mL. Neotenone and dolineone showed a dose-dependent inhibition of defecation of 65.07%, and 50.01%, respectively, at 20 mg/kg in a castor-oil-induced diarrhoea model. This is a strong indication that compounds from N. mitis possess antidiarrhoeal properties, thereby giving credence to its traditional usage in diarrhoea therapy, and therefore validating its antidiarrhoeal activity and its being worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Coelhos , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Antidiarreicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Óleo de Rícino , Nigéria
4.
In Vivo ; 37(1): 270-285, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593044

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Ceratonia siliqua on bone mineral density (BMD) as a non-pharmaceutical alternative treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty mature female Wistar rats were randomly separated into three groups of 10: Control, ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized-plus-C. siliqua (OVX+CS). Total and proximal BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in all groups before ovariectomy, and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. At the end of the study, the femurs were subjected to a three-point bending test. RESULTS: DEXA revealed no statistically significant difference in absolute values or percentage changes for total tibial BMD between OVX+CS and OVX groups throughout the study. In the proximal tibia, both absolute values and BMD percentage changes from baseline were higher in the OVX+CS group compared to the OVX group after 3 and 6 months of C. siliqua administration. Three-point bending test revealed a significantly higher thickness index in the OVX+CS group compared to the OVX group and a higher cross-sectional area index compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Long-term administration of C. siliqua may be considered a non-pharmaceutical alternative treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Further research is required to properly investigate the effects, and suitable treatment dose and schedule.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Osteoporose , Humanos , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/etiologia , Ratos Wistar , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/etiologia , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos
5.
Arch Virol ; 168(1): 20, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593418

RESUMO

Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV; family Tombusviridae, genus Luteovirus, species Soybean dwarf virus) can cause damaging disease epidemics in cultivated plants of the family Fabaceae. The biological characteristics of SbDV isolate WA-8, including its vector species, host range, and impact on Australian grain legume cultivars, were investigated in a series of glasshouse experiments. Isolate WA-8 was classified as the YP strain, as it was transmitted by Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid) and Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) and infected known strain indicator species. Of the 18 pasture legume species inoculated with SbDV, 12 were SbDV hosts, including eight that had not been identified previously as hosts. When inoculated with SbDV, field pea (Pisum sativum), faba bean (Vicia faba), lentil (Lens culinaris), and narrow-leafed lupin cv. Jurien were the most susceptible (70 to 100% plant infection rates), and albus lupin (Lupinus albus), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), and narrow-leafed lupin cv. Mandelup were less susceptible (20 to 70%). Over the course of three experiments, chickpea was the most sensitive to infection, with a > 97% reduction in dry above-ground biomass (AGB) and a 100% reduction in seed yield. Field pea cv. Gunyah, faba bean, and lentil were also sensitive, with a 36 to 61% reduction in AGB. Field pea cv. Kaspa was relatively tolerant, with no significant reduction in AGB or seed yield. The information generated under glasshouse conditions in this study provides important clues for understanding SbDV epidemiology and suggests that it has the potential to cause damage to Australian grain legume crops in the field, especially if climate change facilitates its spread.


Assuntos
Cicer , Fabaceae , Luteovirus , Vicia faba , Luteovirus/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Austrália , Verduras
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674676

RESUMO

Excess Manganese (Mn) is toxic to plants and reduces crop production. Although physiological and molecular pathways may drive plant responses to Mn toxicity, few studies have evaluated Mn tolerance capacity in roots and leaves. As a result, the processes behind Mn tolerance in various plant tissue or organ are unclear. The reactivity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) to Mn toxicity stress was examined in this study. Mn oxidation spots developed on peanut leaves, and the root growth was inhibited under Mn toxicity stress. The physiological results revealed that under Mn toxicity stress, the activities of antioxidases and the content of proline in roots and leaves were greatly elevated, whereas the content of soluble protein decreased. In addition, manganese and iron ion content in roots and leaves increased significantly, but magnesium ion content decreased drastically. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in peanut roots and leaves in response to Mn toxicity were subsequently identified using genome-wide transcriptome analysis. Transcriptomic profiling results showed that 731 and 4589 DEGs were discovered individually in roots and leaves, respectively. Furthermore, only 310 DEGs were frequently adjusted and controlled in peanut roots and leaves, indicating peanut roots and leaves exhibited various toxicity responses to Mn. The results of qRT-PCR suggested that the gene expression of many DEGs in roots and leaves was inconsistent, indicating a more complex regulation of DEGs. Therefore, different regulatory mechanisms are present in peanut roots and leaves in response to Mn toxicity stress. The findings of this study can serve as a starting point for further research into the molecular mechanism of important functional genes in peanut roots and leaves that regulate peanut tolerance to Mn poisoning.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Transcriptoma , Arachis/genética , Arachis/metabolismo , Manganês/toxicidade , Manganês/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fabaceae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
7.
Food Microbiol ; 111: 104188, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681389

RESUMO

The emergence of mobile colistin resistant gene (mcr-1) in Enterobacteriaceae has become a global public health concern. Dissemination of the mcr-1 gene through conjugation of bacteria associated with food may occur. This research investigated the transfer frequency of the mcr-1 gene among Escherichia coli in liquid media and during growth of mung bean sprouts. The donor strain E. coli NCTC 13846 (mcr-1 positive) and recipient strains of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O104:H4 were used. Mating experiments in vitro were conducted at 4, 25, and 37 °C for up to 36 h. The in vivo mating experiments (growing sprouts) were conducted in a sprout growth chamber with irrigation of 1 min/h over 6 days following inoculation of mung bean seeds with the donor and a recipient. The highest transfer frequencies in TSB media, 2.86E-07 and 3.24E-07, occurred at 37 °C after mating for 24 h for E. coli O104:H4 and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Transconjugants were not detected in liquid media at 4 °C. Moreover, transfer frequency (5.68E-05 per recipient) of mcr-1 was greater during mung bean sprout growth for E. coli O104:H4 compared to E. coli O157:H7 (1.02E-05 per recipient) Day 3 to Day 6. This study indicates that the transfer of antibiotic resistant gene(s) among bacteria during mung bean sprout production may facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment and to humans.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O104 , Escherichia coli O157 , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Fabaceae , Vigna , Antibacterianos , Colistina , Escherichia coli O104/genética , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Nutrientes , Plasmídeos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
8.
Molecules ; 28(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615543

RESUMO

The genus Ulex comprises thirteen accepted species of perennial shrubs in the family Fabaceae. In Galicia (Spain) many of these are considered spontaneous colonizing species, which are easy to establish and maintain. Among them, Ulex gallii Planch. is used in traditional medicine for the same anti-infective, hypotensive and diuretic purposes as Ulex europaeus L., which is the most studied species. Likewise, some studies have described the antitumoral properties of several species. However, there are few scientific studies that justify the use of Ulex gallii Planch. and nothing has been reported about its composition to date. In our study, the entire plant was extracted with methanol and the crude extract was subjected to liquid phase extraction with distinct solvents, yielding three fractions: hexane (H), dichloromethane (D) and methanol (M), which were subsequently fractionated. The dichloromethane (D5, D7 and D8) and methanol (M4) sub-fractions showed antiproliferative activity on A549 (lung cancer) and AGS (stomach cancer) cell lines, and caspase 3/7 activity assessment and DNA quantification were also performed. Targeted analysis via UHPLC-QToF, in combination with untargeted analysis via MS-Dial, MS-Finder and Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS), allowed us to tentatively identify different metabolites in these sub-fractions, mostly flavonoids, that might be involved in their antiproliferative activity.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Plantas Medicinais/química , Ulex , Fabaceae/química , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espanha , Cloreto de Metileno , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(2): e2201886120, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595678

RESUMO

Crop diversification has been put forward as a way to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture without penalizing its productivity. In this context, intercropping, the planned combination of two or more crop species in one field, is a promising practice. On an average, intercropping saves land compared with the component sole crops, but it remains unclear whether intercropping produces a higher yield than the most productive single crop per unit area, i.e., whether intercropping achieves transgressive overyielding. Here, we quantified the performance of intercropping for the production of grain, calories, and protein in a global meta-analysis of several production indices. The results show that intercrops outperform sole crops when the objective is to achieve a diversity of crop products on a given land area. However, when intercropping is evaluated for its ability to produce raw products without concern for diversity, intercrops on average generate a small loss in grain or calorie yield compared with the most productive sole crop (-4%) but achieve similar or higher protein yield, especially with maize/legume combinations grown at moderate N supply. Overall, although intercropping does not achieve transgressive overyielding on average, our results show that intercropping performs well in producing a diverse set of crop products and performs almost similar to the most productive component sole crop to produce raw products, while improving crop resilience, enhancing ecosystem services, and improving nutrient use efficiency. Our study, therefore, confirms the great interest of intercropping for the development of a more sustainable agricultural production, supporting diversified diets.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fabaceae , Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Grão Comestível
10.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112216, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596145

RESUMO

Utilization of common beans is greatly hampered by the hard-to-cook (HTC) defect induced by ageing of the beans under adverse storage. Large bean-to-bean variations exist in a single batch of beans. Therefore, a texture-based bean classification approach was applied in this detailed study on beans with known textures, to gain in-depth insights into the role of the pectin-cation-phytate mechanism in relation to the texture changes during subsequent cooking of Red haricot fresh and aged beans. For the first time, a correlation between the texture (exhibited after cooking) of a single bean seed before ageing (fresh) and its texture after ageing was established. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) based in situ cell wall associated mineral quantification revealed that the cell wall associated Ca concentration was significantly positively correlated with the texture of both fresh and aged cooked Red haricot bean cotyledons, with ageing resulting in a significant enrichment of Ca at the cell wall. These additional Ca cations originate from intracellular phytate hydrolysis during ageing, which was shown to affect the texture distribution of aged beans during cooking significantly. The relocation of the mineral cations from the cell interior to the cell wall occurs mainly during storage rather than subsequent soaking of the cotyledons. In addition, the pectin-cation-phytate hypothesis of HTC was further confirmed by demethylesterification of the cell wall pectin and increased pectin-Ca interactions upon ageing of the cotyledons, finally leading to HTC development of the cotyledon tissue.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Pectinas , Pectinas/química , Ácido Fítico/análise , Temperatura Alta , Culinária/métodos , Fabaceae/química , Minerais/análise , Cátions , Verduras , Parede Celular/química
11.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112265, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596176

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-power sonication (HPS) and atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) on gelling and rheological properties of mung bean protein dispersions. HPS at 250 J/mL for 2 min and ACP at 80 kV for 5 min were applied to different concentrations of mung bean protein isolate (MBPI). Control and HPS-treated MBPI dispersions showed a minimum gelling concentration (MGC) of 16% w/v, while ACP-treated dispersions started to gel at 14% w/v. Dynamic rheology of dispersions at 16 % concentrations showed that HPS and ACP treatments could reduce the initial gelling temperature to 52° and 65 °C, respectively, from 75 °C for no-treatment control. ACP-treated 16% protein dispersions showed a six-fold higher storage modulus (G') than the control. In addition, ACP treatment resulted in significantly more hydrophobic bonds (∼5.0 g/L) than control (∼1.4 g/L) and HPS-treated (∼1.1 g/L) MBPI gels; however, the net interaction of ionic, hydrogen, hydrophobic, and disulfide bonds was higher in HPS-treated MBPI gels. Thus, both ACP and HPS treatments altered the gelling characteristics of mung bean protein dispersions- ACP reduced MGC and improved firmness, whereas HPS improved the springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the gels.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Gases em Plasma , Vigna , Vigna/química , Sonicação , Géis/química , Reologia
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1990): 20222153, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598018

RESUMO

In mutualism, hosts select symbionts via partner choice and preferentially direct more resources to symbionts that provide greater benefits via sanctions. At the initiation of symbiosis, prior to resource exchange, it is not known how the presence of multiple symbiont options (i.e. the symbiont social environment) impacts partner choice outcomes. Furthermore, little research addresses whether hosts primarily discriminate among symbionts via sanctions, partner choice or a combination. We inoculated the legume, Acmispon wrangelianus, with 28 pairs of fluorescently labelled Mesorhizobium strains that vary continuously in quality as nitrogen-fixing symbionts. We find that hosts exert robust partner choice, which enhances their fitness. This partner choice is conditional such that a strain's success in initiating nodules is impacted by other strains in the social environment. This social genetic effect is as important as a strain's own genotype in determining nodulation and has both transitive (consistent) and intransitive (idiosyncratic) effects on the probability that a symbiont will form a nodule. Furthermore, both absolute and conditional partner choice act in concert with sanctions, among and within nodules. Thus, multiple forms of host discrimination act as a series of sieves that optimize host benefits and select for costly symbiont cooperation in mixed symbiont populations.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Simbiose/genética , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Genótipo , Nitrogênio
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613117

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution has become aggravated during the past decades of industrialization, severely endangering human health through its entry into the food chain. While it is well understood that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a strong ability to regulate plant growth and Cd uptake, studies investigating how they affect soil Cd speciation and influence Cd uptake are limited. We designed a pot experiment comprising two AMF-inoculant groups (inoculation with Diversispora eburnea or no inoculation), three Cd concentration levels (0, 5, and 15 mg/kg), and two plant species (Lolium perenne and Amorpha fruticosa) to study the effect of AMF Diversispora eburnea on plant growth, Cd uptake, and Cd speciation in the soil. The results revealed that L. perenne exhibited higher productivity and greater Cd uptake than A. fruticosa, regardless of AMF D. eburnea inoculation. However, AMF D. eburnea significantly altered soil Cd speciation by increasing the proportion of exchangeable Cd and decreasing residual Cd, resulting in Cd enrichment in the plant root organs and the elimination of Cd from the polluted soils. Our experiments demonstrate that inoculating plants with AMF D. eburnea is an effective alternative strategy for remediating Cd-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Lolium , Micorrizas , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Cádmio/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química
14.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279491, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630378

RESUMO

Many tropical wet forests are species-rich and have relatively even species frequency distributions. But, dominance by a single canopy species can also occur in tropical wet climates and can remain stable for centuries. These are uncommon globally, with the African wet tropics supporting more such communities than the Neotropics or Southeast Asia. Differences in regional evolutionary histories are implied by biogeography: most of Africa's monodominance-forming species are Amherstieae-tribe legumes; monodominance in Neotropical forests occur among diverse taxonomic groups, often legumes, but rarely Amherstieae, and monodominance in Southeast Asian forests occurs mostly among Dipterocarpaceae species. African monodominant forests have been characterized ecologically and taxonomically, but their deep-time history is unknown despite their significant presence and bottom-up ecological influence on diversity. Herein we describe fossil leaflets of Englerodendron mulugetanum sp. nov., an extinct species of the extant genus Englerodendron (Berlinia Clade, Amherstieae, Detarioideae) from the 21.73 Ma Mush Valley site in Ethiopia. We also document a detailed study of associated legume pollen, which originate from a single taxon sharing characters with more than one extant descendant. Taxonomically, the pollen is most comparable to that from some extant Englerodendron species and supports a likely affiliation with the Englerodendron macrofossils. The Mush Valley site provides the first fossil evidence of a monodominant tropical forest in Africa as represented by leaflets and pollen. Previous studies documented >2400 leaves and leaflets from localities at six stratigraphic levels spanning 50,000-60,000 years of nearly continuous deposition within seven meters of section; all but the basal level contain ≥ 50% E. mulugetanum leaflets. Modern leaf litter studies in African mixed vs. monodominant forests indicates the likelihood of monodominance in the forests that surrounded the Mush paleolake, particularly after the basal level. Thus, we provide an early case for monodominance within the Amherstieae legumes in Africa.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Etiópia , Árvores , Florestas , Evolução Biológica , Verduras , Clima Tropical
15.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 32, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650149

RESUMO

Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is a cool-season legume crop tolerant to drought, salinity, waterlogging, insects, and other biotic stresses. Despite these beneficial traits, this crop is not cultivated widely due to the accumulation of a neurotoxin - ß-N-oxalyl-L-α, ß-diaminopropionic acid (ß-ODAP) in the seeds and its association with neurolathyrism. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the genome of Lathyrus sativus cultivar Pusa-24, an elite Indian cultivar extensively used in breeding programs. The assembled genome of Lathyrus was 3.80 Gb in length, with a scaffold N50 of 421.39 Mb. BUSCO assessment indicated that 98.3% of highly conserved Viridiplantae genes were present in the assembly. A total of 3.17 Gb (83.31%) of repetitive sequences and 50,106 protein-coding genes were identified in the Lathyrus assembly. The Lathyrus genome assembly reported here thus provides a much-needed and robust foundation for various genetic and genomic studies in this vital legume crop.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos , Lathyrus , Fabaceae , Lathyrus/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes/genética , Genoma de Planta
16.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678331

RESUMO

There were three objectives: (1) evaluate the relationship between legume intake and weight change across the previous 10 years, (2) examine the cross-sectional associations between legume consumption, BMI, and abdominal adiposity, and (3) determine if the relationship between legume intake and the outcomes were influenced by multiple covariates, particularly fiber intake. The sample included 15,185 randomly selected adults representative of the U.S. population. Percent change in weight was used as the outcome measure for the 10-year analysis. BMI, and waist circumference, corrected for height, were employed as the outcomes for the cross-sectional analyses. Legume, fiber, and energy intakes were measured using the average of two 24-h dietary recalls. Legume intake was divided into three categories. Five demographic and five lifestyle covariates were controlled statistically. There was an inverse dose-response relationship between legume intake and percent weight change over the previous 10 years after adjusting for 9 of the covariates (F = 6.5, p = 0.0028). However, after controlling for fiber with the other covariates, there were no differences across the three legume intake groups (F = 1.9, p = 0.1626). The cross-sectional findings showed similar inverse dose-response results until fiber intake was controlled. Then the associations became non-significant. In conclusion, legume intake is a good predictor of percent weight change over the previous 10 years, and it is also a significant predictor of BMI and abdominal adiposity cross-sectionally. These relationships are strongly influenced by fiber consumption. Evidently, legumes have dietary advantages, especially high fiber levels, that seem to be valuable in the battle against weight gain and obesity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Fabaceae , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Verduras , Circunferência da Cintura , Peso Corporal
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672917

RESUMO

Galega orientalis, a leguminous herb in the Fabaceae family, is an ecologically and economically important species widely cultivated for its strong stress resistance and high protein content. However, genomic information of Galega orientalis has not been reported, which limiting its evolutionary analysis. The small genome size makes chloroplast relatively easy to obtain genomic sequence for phylogenetic studies and molecular marker development. Here, the chloroplast genome of Galega orientalis was sequenced and annotated. The results showed that the chloroplast genome of G. orientalis is 125,280 bp in length with GC content of 34.11%. A total of 107 genes were identified, including 74 protein-coding genes, 29 tRNAs and four rRNAs. One inverted repeat (IR) region was lost in the chloroplast genome of G. orientalis. In addition, five genes (rpl22, ycf2, rps16, trnE-UUC and pbf1) were lost compared with the chloroplast genome of its related species G. officinalis. A total of 84 long repeats and 68 simple sequence repeats were detected, which could be used as potential markers in the genetic studies of G. orientalis and related species. We found that the Ka/Ks values of three genes petL, rpl20, and ycf4 were higher than one in the pairwise comparation of G. officinalis and other three Galegeae species (Calophaca sinica, Caragana jubata, Caragana korshinskii), which indicated those three genes were under positive selection. A comparative genomic analysis of 15 Galegeae species showed that most conserved non-coding sequence regions and two genic regions (ycf1 and clpP) were highly divergent, which could be used as DNA barcodes for rapid and accurate species identification. Phylogenetic trees constructed based on the ycf1 and clpP genes confirmed the evolutionary relationships among Galegeae species. In addition, among the 15 Galegeae species analyzed, Galega orientalis had a unique 30-bp intron in the ycf1 gene and Tibetia liangshanensis lacked two introns in the clpP gene, which is contrary to existing conclusion that only Glycyrrhiza species in the IR lacking clade (IRLC) lack two introns. In conclusion, for the first time, the complete chloroplast genome of G. orientalis was determined and annotated, which could provide insights into the unsolved evolutionary relationships within the genus Galegeae.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Galega , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Filogenia , Genômica
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245536, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339403

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) is a fast growing, rustic, pioneer species, with potential to fix nitrogen, and for programs to recover degraded areas. The objective was to evaluate the distribution and the functional diversity of interactions and the K-dominance of arthropod groups on A. mangium saplings. The number of individuals of eleven species of phytophagous insects, three bee species, and fourteen natural enemy species were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of this plant. Abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous insects and natural enemies, and abundance and species richness of pollinators were highest on the adaxial A. mangium leaf surface. The distribution of five species of sap-sucking hemipterans and six of protocooperating ants (Hymenoptera), with positive interaction between these groups, and three bee species (Hymenoptera) were aggregated on leaves of A. mangium saplings. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) and Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); and Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most dominant phytophagous insects, natural enemies, and pollinators, respectively, on A. mangium leaves. Knowledge of preferred leaf surfaces could help integrated pest management programs.


Resumo Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) é uma planta pioneira com rápido crescimento, rusticidade, potencial nitrificador e importante em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo foi avaliar a distribuição e a diversidade funcional das interações e a dominância-K de grupos de artrópodes em árvores jovens de A. mangium. Os números de indivíduos de onze espécies de insetos fitófagos, três de abelhas e quatorze de inimigos naturais foram maiores na superfície adaxial de folhas dessa planta. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies de insetos fitófagos e inimigos naturais, e a abundância e riqueza de espécies de polinizadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. mangium. A distribuição de cinco espécies de hemípteros sugadores de seiva e seis de formigas protocooperantes (Hymenoptera), com interação positiva entre esses grupos, e três de abelhas (Hymenoptera) foi agregada em folhas de plantas jovens de A. mangium. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) e Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. e Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); e Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foram os insetos fitófagos, inimigos naturais e polinizadores mais dominantes, respectivamente, em folhas de A. mangium. A definição da superfície foliar preferida pode auxiliar programas de manejo integrado de pragas.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes , Acacia , Fabaceae , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248305, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339359

RESUMO

Abstract Fertilization with dehydrated sewage sludge can speed up the recovery process of degraded areas due to nutrients concentration, favoring the development of pioneer plants such as Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) and the emergence of insects. This study aimed the evaluation of chewing, pollinating insects, predators, their ecological indices and relationships on A. auriculiformis plants fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (with and without dehydrated sewage sludge) and 24 repetitions. The prevalence of chewing insects Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae), and Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), defoliation, and ecological indices of abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera were observed on fertilized A. auriculiformis. Acacia auriculiformis plants, with a superior number of branches/tree, revealed greater abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera, species richness of pollinating insects, defoliation, numbers of Parasyphraea sp. and T. collaris. The ones with larger leaves/branches displayed greater abundance of species richness of Coleoptera and Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Therefore, the use of A. auriculiformis plants, fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge, is promising in the recovery of degraded areas due to the ecological indices increase of chewing and pollinators insects and spiders in the analyzed area.


Resumo A fertilização com lodo de esgoto desidratado pode acelerar o processo de recuperação de áreas degradadas devido à concentração de nutrientes, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de plantas pioneiras tais como Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) e de seus insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e predadores e seus índices e relações ecológicas em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado, em área degradada, durante 24 meses. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizados com dois tratamentos (com e sem adubação com lodo de esgoto desidratado) e 24 repetições (uma repetição = uma planta). O maior número de insetos mastigadores Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae) e Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), de desfolha, e do índice ecológico abundância de Coleoptera e de Orthoptera foram maiores em plantas de A. auriculiformis fertilizadas do que nas não fertilizadas com lodo de esgoto desidratado. Plantas de A. auriculiformis, com maior quantidade de galhos/árvore, apresentaram maiores abundâncias de Coleoptera e Orthoptera, riqueza de espécies de insetos polinizadores, desfolha e números de Parasyphraea sp. e T. collaris, e as com maior folhas/galho os de riqueza de espécies de Coleoptera e Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Por tanto, a utilização de A. auriculiformis, adubada com lodo de esgoto desidratado, é promissora na recuperação de áreas degradadas devido ao aumento dos índices ecológicos de insetos mastigadores, polinizadores e aranhas na área.


Assuntos
Animais , Acacia , Fabaceae , Esgotos , Fertilização , Insetos
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242070, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278554

RESUMO

Abstract Interactions between endophytic fungi (EFs) and their host plants range from positive to neutral to negative. The results of such interactions can vary depending on the organ of the infected host plant. EFs isolated from the leaves of some species of plants have potential for use as agents to inhibit seed germination and control invasive plants. The objectives of this study were to identify EFs present in the leaves of Copaifera oblongifolia and to evaluate the role of these fungi in seed germination and seedling development. A total of 11 species of EFs were isolated, which were identified using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The isolated species of EFs are generalists and probably are transmitted horizontally. Laboratory tests revealed that filtrates of these fungal isolates differently affect seed germination and seedling development of C. oblongifolia. The species Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum and Phomopsis sp. negatively affected seed germination, with N. parvum standing out for its negative effects, inhibiting seedling germination and survival in 89 and 222%, respectively. In addition, Cochliobolus intermedius negatively affected seedling development. Thus, the combined use of N. parvum and C. intermedius, or products from the metabolism of these microorganisms, in the control of invasive plants deserves attention from future studies.


Resumo As interações entre fungos endofíticos (FEs) e suas plantas hospedeiras variam de positivas, neutras a negativas. Os resultados destas interações podem variar dependendo do órgão da planta hospedeira infectada. FEs isolados de folhas de algumas espécies de plantas têm potencial para serem usados como agentes inibidores da germinação de sementes e no controle de plantas invasoras. Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar os FEs presentes nas folhas de Copaifera oblongifolia e avaliar o papel destes fungos na germinação das sementes e no desenvolvimento das plântulas. Um total de 11 espécies de FEs foi isolado das folhas de C. oblongifolia e identificado através da sequência dos espaçadores internos transcritos do DNA ribossomal nuclear. As espécies de FEs isoladas são generalistas e provavelmente devem ser transmitidas horizontalmente. Os resultados dos testes de germinação mostraram que filtrados destes isolados fúngicos podem afetar diferentemente a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de C. oblongifolia. As espécies Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum e Phomopsis sp. afetaram negativamente a germinação das sementes de C. oblongifolia. Dentre estas espécies devemos destacar que N. parvum reduziu a germinação e a sobrevivência das plântulas em 89 e 222%, respectivamente. Além disso, Cochiliobolus intermedius afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Assim, o uso combinado de N. parvum e C. intermedius, ou de produtos do metabolismo destas espécies de fungos, têm potencial para serem usados no manejo de plantas invasoras.


Assuntos
Germinação , Fabaceae , Ascomicetos , Sementes , Folhas de Planta , Plântula , Fungos , Curvularia
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