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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262344, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025948

RESUMO

The use of surgical-type face masks has become increasingly common during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent findings suggest that it is harder to categorise the facial expressions of masked faces, than of unmasked faces. To date, studies of the effects of mask-wearing on emotion recognition have used categorisation paradigms: authors have presented facial expression stimuli and examined participants' ability to attach the correct label (e.g., happiness, disgust). While the ability to categorise particular expressions is important, this approach overlooks the fact that expression intensity is also informative during social interaction. For example, when predicting an interactant's future behaviour, it is useful to know whether they are slightly fearful or terrified, contented or very happy, slightly annoyed or angry. Moreover, because categorisation paradigms force observers to pick a single label to describe their percept, any additional dimensionality within observers' interpretation is lost. In the present study, we adopted a complementary emotion-intensity rating paradigm to study the effects of mask-wearing on expression interpretation. In an online experiment with 120 participants (82 female), we investigated how the presence of face masks affects the perceived emotional profile of prototypical expressions of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. For each of these facial expressions, we measured the perceived intensity of all six emotions. We found that the perceived intensity of intended emotions (i.e., the emotion that the actor intended to convey) was reduced by the presence of a mask for all expressions except for anger. Additionally, when viewing all expressions except surprise, masks increased the perceived intensity of non-intended emotions (i.e., emotions that the actor did not intend to convey). Intensity ratings were unaffected by presentation duration (500ms vs 3000ms), or attitudes towards mask wearing. These findings shed light on the ambiguity that arises when interpreting the facial expressions of masked faces.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Emoções/fisiologia , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
2.
Appetite ; 168: 105779, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756937

RESUMO

Research has shown that seeing positive facial expressions (FEs) towards food increased children's desire to eat foods rated as disliked. However, the effect of adults' positive FEs whilst eating a raw vegetable on children's acceptance and intake of nutritious foods that are less preferred (e.g., vegetables) remains to be established. This study aimed to examine the effect of models' FEs eating raw broccoli on children's acceptance and intake of raw broccoli. 111 children aged 4-6 years (64 male, 47 female) were randomised to watch a video of unfamiliar adult models eating raw broccoli with a positive or neutral facial expression (FE), or a non-food control video. Children's acceptance and intake of raw broccoli was assessed. Data about parent and child characteristics was provided by parents. There was a main effect of FE type on children's frequency of tastes (p = .03) and intake of broccoli (p = .02). Children who were exposed to models eating broccoli with positive FEs had greater frequency of tastes (p = .04) and intake of broccoli (p = .03), than children in the control condition, but not compared to children in the neutral FE condition (p > .05). There was no effect of positive FEs on children's willingness to try broccoli (p > .05). These findings suggest that observing others enjoy a commonly disliked vegetable can encourage children's tastes and intake of the vegetable. Thus, exposing children to others enjoying vegetables could be a useful strategy for encouraging healthier eating in children. Further work is needed to determine whether a single exposure is sufficient and whether these effects are sustained over time.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Verduras , Adulto , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Pais , Paladar
3.
Perception ; 51(1): 37-50, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904869

RESUMO

Face mask is now a common feature in our social environment. Although face covering reduces our ability to recognize other's face identity and facial expressions, little is known about its impact on the formation of first impressions from faces. In two online experiments, we presented unfamiliar faces displaying neutral expressions with and without face masks, and participants rated the perceived approachableness, trustworthiness, attractiveness, and dominance from each face on a 9-point scale. Their anxiety levels were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. In comparison with mask-off condition, wearing face masks (mask-on) significantly increased the perceived approachableness and trustworthiness ratings, but showed little impact on increasing attractiveness or decreasing dominance ratings. Furthermore, both trait and state anxiety scores were negatively correlated with approachableness and trustworthiness ratings in both mask-off and mask-on conditions. Social anxiety scores, on the other hand, were negatively correlated with approachableness but not with trustworthiness ratings. It seems that the presence of a face mask can alter our first impressions of strangers. Although the ratings for approachableness, trustworthiness, attractiveness, and dominance were positively correlated, they appeared to be distinct constructs that were differentially influenced by face coverings and participants' anxiety types and levels.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Máscaras , Ansiedade , Atitude , Medo , Humanos , Confiança
4.
Riv Psichiatr ; 56(6): 334-339, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927629

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study analyzed the effectiveness of a training course on the recognition of subtle facial emotions in health and social workers, especially those who work in contact with difficult and aggressive patients in psychiatric wards and emergency departments. METHODS: A total of 177 health and social workers were involved in the training course (138 females and 39 men, mean age was 53.3 years). The training was implemented in three different editions of the course (a three day course each) on the prevention and management of violence and the learning achieved has been evaluated in each edition. During the second and third day of training, 14 photographs from the Ekman SETT Test, representing the seven universal emotions (anger, fear, sadness, disgust, contempt, surprise, happiness), were administered to all participants. Participants selected the emotion demonstrated in each photograph on a response sheet. Differences in the answers between these two days were tested. RESULTS: The participants in the three editions showed a statistically significant improvement in the subtle facial emotion expressions recognition ability. Female health and social workers recognized significantly better facial emotion expressions than their colleagues (difference in the two days for the emotions= 0,205; p=0.006). Considering the professional qualifications, physicians have shown less ability in recognizing facial expression of anger, compared to nurses and other health and social workers (difference in the scores for anger of the third and the second day= 0.213; p=0.024). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the ability to recognize subtle facial expressions of emotions can be trained. The skills acquired during the training can be used to enhance communication with patients, especially with difficult and aggressive ones and their family members in emergency and psychiatric settings. The course on prevention and management of violence should possibly include training on the recognition of subtle facial emotions.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Assistentes Sociais , Ira , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948881

RESUMO

Recognizing a person's identity is a fundamental social ability; facial expressions, in particular, are extremely important in social cognition. Individuals affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display impairment in the recognition of emotions and, consequently, in recognizing expressions related to emotions, and even their identity. The aim of our study was to compare the performance of participants with ADHD, ASD, and typical development (TD) with regard to both accuracy and speed in the morphing task and to determine whether the use of pictures of digitized cartoon faces could significantly facilitate the process of emotion recognition in ASD patients (particularly for disgust). This study investigated the emotion recognition process through the use of dynamic pictures (human faces vs. cartoon faces) created with the morphing technique in three pediatric populations (7-12 years old): ADHD patients, ASD patients, and an age-matched control sample (TD). The Chi-square test was used to compare response latency and accuracy between the three groups in order to determine if there were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the recognition of basic emotions. The results demonstrated a faster response time in neurotypical children compared to ASD and ADHD children, with ADHD participants performing better than ASD participants on the same task. The overall accuracy parameter between the ADHD and ASD groups did not significantly differ.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criança , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
6.
Neuroimage Clin ; 32: 102894, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911198

RESUMO

Deficits in emotion processing are a core feature of schizophrenia, but their neurobiological bases are poorly understood. Previous research, mainly focused on emotional face processing and emotion recognition deficits, has shown controverted results. Furthermore, the use of faces has been questioned for not entailing an appropriate stimulus to study emotional processing. This highlights the importance of investigating emotional processing abnormalities using evocative stimuli. For the first time, we have studied the brain responses to scenic stimuli in patients with schizophrenia. We selected scenes from the IAPS that elicit fear, disgust, happiness, and sadness. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and thirty age-, sex- and premorbid IQ-matched healthy controls were included. Behavioral task results show that patients tended to misclassify disgust and sadness as fear. Brain responses in patients were different from controls in images eliciting disgust and fear. In response to disgust images, patients hyperactivated the right temporal cortex, which was not activated by the controls. With fear images, hyperactivation was observed in brain regions involved in fear processing, including midline regions from the medial frontal cortex to the anterior cingulate cortex, the superior frontal gyrus, inferior and superior temporal cortex, and visual areas. These results suggest that schizophrenia is characterized by hyper-responsivity to stimuli evoking high-arousal, negative emotions, and a bias towards fear in emotion recognition.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Felicidade , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
7.
Neuroimage Clin ; 32: 102902, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficits in emotional processing are conceptualized in prevailing models of anxiety to underpin key symptoms of panic disorder (PD). Neuroimaging studies show evidence of aberrant neural functioning in PD patients during emotional processing, however little is understood about how non-conscious emotional processing impacts neural processes. METHOD: We examined activation and functional connectivity differences in brain regions involved in emotional processing between PD and healthy controls (HC) during subliminal and supraliminal presentations of facial emotions. Twenty-two PD and 33 HC participants were shown happy, sad, neutral, fear, anger and disgust facial expressions during functional magnetic resonance imaging using a 3T MRI scanner. We performed voxelwise ROI analyses at FWE-corrected p < 0.05 for main effects of group and group*emotion interactions. RESULTS: There was less pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) activation to subliminal presentations of happy and sad faces in PD compared to HC participants (group*emotion). In addition, PD patients had less pgACC - right amygdala connectivity than HC participants during sad and fear subliminal processing (group*emotion). PD patients also exhibited lower right cerebellum activity across all supraliminal presentations of facial expressions compared to HC. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that there is aberrant neural processing in PD patients during both conscious and preconscious processing of both positive and negative stimuli, suggesting impaired recruitment of implicit regulatory networks during affective processing. It appears that PD patients may experience deficits in key regulatory connections between inhibitory and emotional neural networks at very early stages of processing of negative affective states.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Pânico , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Trials ; 22(1): 755, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facial expression muscles atrophy is one kind of sequelae after peripheral facial paralysis. It causes critical problems in facial appearance of patient as well as social and psychological problems. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Thread-embedding acupuncture (TEA) for the management of facial expression muscles atrophy after peripheral facial paralysis. METHODS: This is a patient-assessor blinded, randomized, sham-controlled trial. A total of fifty-six eligible patients will be randomly divided into TEA (n=28) and sham TEA (STEA) (n=28) groups. Both groups will receive TEA or STEA treatment at the frontal muscle and the depressor anguli oris muscle, at one predefined points once a week for eight weeks. Additionally, both groups will receive traditional acupuncture treatment at ten acupoints (GB20, LI4, LR3, GB12, ST7, SI18, LI20, BL2, SJ23, ST4) twice a week for eight weeks as a concurrent treatment. B-mode ultrasonography will be used to assess the changes in facial expression muscle thickness ratio of the affected/healthy side at baseline and at 10 weeks after screening, as the primary outcome. House-Brackmann Grade and lip mobility score will be measured and analyzed at baseline and 4, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after screening, as secondary outcomes. DISCUSSION: The study will compare TEA with sham TEA to explore the feasibility for TEA in improving facial expression muscles atrophy after peripheral facial paralysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1900027170. Registered on 3 November 2019, http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=45173&htm=4.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Paralisia Facial , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Atrofia , Expressão Facial , Paralisia Facial/diagnóstico , Paralisia Facial/terapia , Humanos , Músculos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(8): e784-e787, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727455

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This review aims to introduce the role of facial expression in communication, the areas involved in facial expression especially the eye and eyebrow, the "Poem of the Eyebrow" (Blason du Sourcil), and preferred brow archetypes.The ability to interpret and respond properly to facial expressions contributes to emotional self-competence and satisfactory social and cognitive development. Certain areas may intensify the emotional message, clarifying the expression and reducing ambiguity. Specific facial areas might make expressions more difficult to interpret. The region of the eye is the most prominent facial region for emotion interpretation. Roles of eyebrow density and position in the interpretation of facial expression of emotion depend, at least in part, upon the emotion being expressed. For face recognition, the eyebrows may be at least as influential as the eyes.French poet Maurice Sceve wrote "Poem to the Eyebrow." This poem contains some noteworthy verses about the function of the eyebrow: Eyebrow that makes the boldest fearful, and gives courage to even cowards.Among brow archetypes, "Anastasia type" (brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye) was the most preferred. The middle brow height was most preferred (the distance from the lateral canthus to the lateral end of eyebrow is two-thirds of the eye width).


Assuntos
Sobrancelhas , Expressão Facial , Pálpebras , Face , Humanos , Nariz
10.
Clin Ter ; 172(6): 547-551, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821350

RESUMO

Objective: Observing others facial expressions to pain effects person's own facial expression empathetically. Fibromyalgia (FM) patients can be more sensitive to negative moods. We hypothesize that fibromyalgia patient recognize negative emotions more than positive emotions. Method: . Thirty one patients who met the classification criteria of FM according to American College of Rheumatology 1990 were included to the study. Age and sex matched 24 healthy woman included as a control group. All of the participants full filled the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). All of them evaluated with Facial Emotion Recognition Test. Results: The mean age was not significantly different between fibromyalgia and healthy controls (46.04±10.78 vs 41.43±11.64, re-spectively and p=0.137). There were no significant differences among occupational status (p=0.347) and education (p=0.946) between groups. The mean scores according to Beck Depression Scale (16.56±9.81 vs 14.89±8.22) and Beck Anxiety Scale (21.32±13.94 vs 18.36±16.18) were significantly higher in patients with FM than healthy controls (p>0.05, for both). Patients with FM had significantly lesser rate of recognizing sad facial emotions (p=0.012). The patients with FM needed more time while recognizing happy (p=0.017), surprised (p= 0.043), neutral (p<0.001) and angry facial emotions (p=0.003). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of impairment in sad facial emotions and more response time for happy, angry, neutral and surprised facial emotions. These may cause poor interpersonal relationship and insuf-ficient social functioning and leading to chronicity of the disease.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Fibromialgia , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833572

RESUMO

In recent times, as interest in stress control has increased, many studies on stress recognition have been conducted. Several studies have been based on physiological signals, but the disadvantage of this strategy is that it requires physiological-signal-acquisition devices. Another strategy employs facial-image-based stress-recognition methods, which do not require devices, but predominantly use handcrafted features. However, such features have low discriminating power. We propose a deep-learning-based stress-recognition method using facial images to address these challenges. Given that deep-learning methods require extensive data, we constructed a large-capacity image database for stress recognition. Furthermore, we used temporal attention, which assigns a high weight to frames that are highly related to stress, as well as spatial attention, which assigns a high weight to regions that are highly related to stress. By adding a network that inputs the facial landmark information closely related to stress, we supplemented the network that receives only facial images as the input. Experimental results on our newly constructed database indicated that the proposed method outperforms contemporary deep-learning-based recognition methods.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Reconhecimento Facial , Bases de Dados Factuais , Face , Expressão Facial
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833713

RESUMO

New and emerging non-invasive digital tools, such as eye-tracking, facial expression and physiological biometrics, have been implemented to extract more objective sensory responses by panelists from packaging and, specifically, labels. However, integrating these technologies from different company providers and software for data acquisition and analysis makes their practical application difficult for research and the industry. This study proposed a prototype integration between eye tracking and emotional biometrics using the BioSensory computer application for three sample labels: Stevia, Potato chips, and Spaghetti. Multivariate data analyses are presented, showing the integrative analysis approach of the proposed prototype system. Further studies can be conducted with this system and integrating other biometrics available, such as physiological response with heart rate, blood, pressure, and temperature changes analyzed while focusing on different label components or packaging features. By maximizing data extraction from various components of packaging and labels, smart predictive systems can also be implemented, such as machine learning to assess liking and other parameters of interest from the whole package and specific components.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Aplicativos Móveis , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Aprendizado de Máquina
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770262

RESUMO

In recent years, the importance of catching humans' emotions grows larger as the artificial intelligence (AI) field is being developed. Facial expression recognition (FER) is a part of understanding the emotion of humans through facial expressions. We proposed a robust multi-depth network that can efficiently classify the facial expression through feeding various and reinforced features. We designed the inputs for the multi-depth network as minimum overlapped frames so as to provide more spatio-temporal information to the designed multi-depth network. To utilize a structure of a multi-depth network, a multirate-based 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) based on a multirate signal processing scheme was suggested. In addition, we made the input images to be normalized adaptively based on the intensity of the given image and reinforced the output features from all depth networks by the self-attention module. Then, we concatenated the reinforced features and classified the expression by a joint fusion classifier. Through the proposed algorithm, for the CK+ database, the result of the proposed scheme showed a comparable accuracy of 96.23%. For the MMI and the GEMEP-FERA databases, it outperformed other state-of-the-art models with accuracies of 96.69% and 99.79%. For the AFEW database, which is known as one in a very wild environment, the proposed algorithm achieved an accuracy of 31.02%.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695939

RESUMO

To capture scientific evidence in elderly care, a user-defined facial expression sensing service was proposed in our previous study. Since the time-series data of feature values have been growing at a high rate as the measurement time increases, it may be difficult to find points of interest, especially for detecting changes from the elderly facial expression, such as many elderly people can only be shown in a micro facial expression due to facial wrinkles and aging. The purpose of this paper is to implement a method to efficiently find points of interest (PoI) from the facial feature time-series data of the elderly. In the proposed method, the concept of changing point detection into the analysis of feature values is incorporated by us, to automatically detect big fluctuations or changes in the trend in feature values and detect the moment when the subject's facial expression changed significantly. Our key idea is to introduce the novel concept of composite feature value to achieve higher accuracy and apply change-point detection to it as well as to single feature values. Furthermore, the PoI finding results from the facial feature time-series data of young volunteers and the elderly are analyzed and evaluated. By the experiments, it is found that the proposed method is able to capture the moment of large facial movements even for people with micro facial expressions and obtain information that can be used as a clue to investigate their response to care.


Assuntos
Face , Expressão Facial , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Movimento
15.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 2053795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621306

RESUMO

Objective: Alexithymia, as a fundamental notion in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, is characterized by deficits in emotional processing and, consequently, difficulties in emotion recognition. Traditional tools for assessing alexithymia, which include interviews and self-report measures, have led to inconsistent results due to some limitations as insufficient insight. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to propose a new screening tool that utilizes machine learning models based on the scores of facial emotion recognition task. Method: In a cross-sectional study, 55 students of the University of Tabriz were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and their scores in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Then, they completed the somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the facial emotion recognition (FER) task. Afterwards, support vector machine (SVM) and feedforward neural network (FNN) classifiers were implemented using K-fold cross validation to predict alexithymia, and the model performance was assessed with the area under the curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and F1-measure. Results: The models yielded an accuracy range of 72.7-81.8% after feature selection and optimization. Our results suggested that ML models were able to accurately distinguish alexithymia and determine the most informative items for predicting alexithymia. Conclusion: Our results show that machine learning models using FER task, SCL-90-R, BDI-II, and BAI could successfully diagnose alexithymia and also represent the most influential factors of predicting it and can be used as a clinical instrument to help clinicians in diagnosis process and earlier detection of the disorder.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
16.
Cogn Sci ; 45(10): e13042, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606110

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that the human visual system can detect a face and elicit a saccadic eye movement toward it very efficiently compared to other categories of visual stimuli. In the first experiment, we tested the influence of facial expressions on fast face detection using a saccadic choice task. Face-vehicle pairs were simultaneously presented and participants were asked to saccade toward the target (the face or the vehicle). We observed that saccades toward faces were initiated faster, and more often in the correct direction, than saccades toward vehicles, regardless of the facial expressions (happy, fearful, or neutral). We also observed that saccade endpoints on face images were lower when the face was happy and higher when it was neutral. In the second experiment, we explicitly tested the detection of facial expressions. We used a saccadic choice task with emotional-neutral pairs of faces and participants were asked to saccade toward the emotional (happy or fearful) or the neutral face. Participants were faster when they were asked to saccade toward the emotional face. They also made fewer errors, especially when the emotional face was happy. Using computational modeling, we showed that this happy face advantage can, at least partly, be explained by perceptual factors. Also, saccade endpoints were lower when the target was happy than when it was fearful. Overall, we suggest that there is no automatic prioritization of emotional faces, at least for saccades with short latencies, but that salient local face features can automatically attract attention.


Assuntos
Emoções , Movimentos Sacádicos , Atenção , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613976

RESUMO

Emotional sensations and inferring another's emotional states have been suggested to depend on predictive models of the causes of bodily sensations, so-called interoceptive inferences. In this framework, higher sensibility for interoceptive changes (IS) reflects higher precision of interoceptive signals. The present study examined the link between IS and emotion recognition, testing whether individuals with higher IS recognize others' emotions more easily and are more sensitive to learn from biased probabilities of emotional expressions. We recorded skin conductance responses (SCRs) from forty-six healthy volunteers performing a speeded-response task, which required them to indicate whether a neutral facial expression dynamically turned into a happy or fearful expression. Moreover, varying probabilities of emotional expressions by their block-wise base rate aimed to generate a bias for the more frequently encountered emotion. As a result, we found that individuals with higher IS showed lower thresholds for emotion recognition, reflected in decreased reaction times for emotional expressions especially of high intensity. Moreover, individuals with increased IS benefited more from a biased probability of an emotion, reflected in decreased reaction times for expected emotions. Lastly, weak evidence supporting a differential modulation of SCR by IS as a function of varying probabilities was found. Our results indicate that higher interoceptive sensibility facilitates the recognition of emotional changes and is accompanied by a more precise adaptation to emotion probabilities.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Felicidade , Interocepção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neuropsychologia ; 162: 108043, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600892

RESUMO

A fearful face as second visual target (T2) was detected better than a neutral T2 in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) task. The advantage of fear over neutral emotion was originally attributed to a limited-capacity mechanism, in which fearful stimuli are prioritized for attention over neutral stimuli. However, more recent studies have shown that the prioritization of the processing of fear is strongly dependent on the emotional task relevance. Combining the RSVP task and Garner's paradigm, by varying the expression (fearful and neutral faces) and the emotional task relevance of the T2 (relevance: emotion classification task; irrelevance: gender classification task), this study aims to investigate the role of emotional task relevance on the advantage of fear during an RSVP task in which participants have to identify two visual targets in a stream of distractors. The behavioral results revealed that there was no significant effect of the expression on the task performance in the gender classification task. Fearful faces were easier to detect than neutral faces, but the T2 accuracy of fearful faces was lower than that of neutral faces in the emotion classification task. Furthermore, we found that the vertex positive potential and P100 components were enhanced for fearful faces compared to neutral faces independent of the emotional task relevance. For the P300 component, there was no significant difference in the gender classification task, but fearful faces elicited enhanced P300 amplitudes compared to neutral faces in the emotion classification task. These results indicated that the early processing of fear is automatic, while the late processing of fear is dependent on the emotional task relevance under limited attentional resources.


Assuntos
Intermitência na Atenção Visual , Emoções , Potenciais Evocados , Expressão Facial , Medo , Humanos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639297

RESUMO

Existing behavioral studies have suggested that individuals with early life stress usually show abnormal emotional processing. However, limited event-related brain potentials (ERPs) evidence was available to explore the emotional processes in children orphaned by parental HIV/AIDS ("AIDS orphans"). The current study aims to investigate whether there are behavioral and neurological obstacles in the recognition of emotional faces in AIDS orphans and also to further explore the processing stage at which the difference in facial emotion recognition exists. A total of 81 AIDS orphans and 60 non-orphan children were recruited through the local communities and school systems in Henan, China. Participants completed a computer version of the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task while recording ERPs. Behavioral results showed that orphans displayed higher response accuracy and shorter reaction time than the control (ps < 0.05). As for the ERPs analysis, the attenuated amplitude of N170 (i.e., an early component sensitive to facial configuration) was observed in AIDS orphans compared to the non-orphan control with happy and neutral faces; P300 (i.e., an endogenous component for affective valence evaluation in emotional processing) also showed significant differences in parietal lobe between groups, the non-orphan control group produced larger P300 amplitudes than orphans (p < 0.05). The results suggested that compared to the control group, AIDS orphans showed impaired facial emotion recognition ability with reduced brain activation.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Crianças Órfãs , Estudos Transversais , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639857

RESUMO

This study investigates age and cultural differences in the negative effects of senders' wearing masks on receivers' readabilities of senders' facially expressed emotions in interpersonal interactions. An online experiment was thus conducted with Koreans and Americans aged over 20 years. Based on sampling quotas by nationality, age group and gender, Korean (n = 240) and American (n = 273) participants were recruited from panel members of a Korean research company and Amazon's Mechanical Turk via email and the website, respectively. The participants played receiver roles to infer senders' facially expressed emotions presented in photos in the experiment. They judged emotions facially expressed by the senders without masks and with masks are shown in photos. The results revealed that the senders' wearing masks reduced the readabilities of the senders' facially expressed anger among participants aged 30-49 years more than among participants aged 20-29 years. The senders' wearing masks decreased the readabilities of the senders' facially expressed fear for participants in their 50's more than for participants in their 20's. When the senders wore masks, the readabilities of the senders' facially expressed happiness dropped among participants aged over 60 years more than among participants aged 20-49 years. When senders wore masks, American participants' readabilities of disgust, fear, sadness and happiness expressed in the senders' faces declined more than Korean participants' readabilities of those emotions. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Ira , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , República da Coreia , Estados Unidos
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