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1.
Psychosom Med ; 83(7): 679-692, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review sought to comprehensively summarize gut microbiota research in psychiatric disorders following PRISMA guidelines. METHODS: Literature searches were performed on databases using keywords involving gut microbiota and psychiatric disorders. Articles in English with human participants up until February 13, 2020, were reviewed. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for microbiota studies. RESULTS: Sixty-nine of 4231 identified studies met the inclusion criteria for extraction. In most studies, gut microbiota composition differed between individuals with psychiatric disorders and healthy controls; however, limited consistency was observed in the taxonomic profiles. At the genus level, the most replicated findings were higher abundance of Bifidobacterium and lower abundance of Roseburia and Faecalibacterium among patients with psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Gut bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, such as Roseburia and Faecalibacterium, could be less abundant in patients with psychiatric disorders, whereas commensal genera, for example, Bifidobacterium, might be more abundant compared with healthy controls. However, most included studies were hampered by methodological shortcomings including small sample size, unclear diagnostics, failure to address confounding factors, and inadequate bioinformatic processing, which might contribute to inconsistent results. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations to improve quality and comparability of future microbiota studies in psychiatry.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transtornos Mentais , Bactérias , Bifidobacterium , Faecalibacterium , Humanos
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11340, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059761

RESUMO

Exploiting a pure culture strategy to investigate the composition of the human gut microbiota, two novel anaerobes, designated strains AF52-21T and CM04-06T, were isolated from faeces of two healthy Chinese donors and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The two strains were observed to be gram-negative, non-motile, and rod-shaped. Both strains grew optimally at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the two strains clustered with species of the genus Faecalibacterium and were most closely related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ATCC 27768T with sequence similarity of 97.18% and 96.87%, respectively. The two isolates shared a 16S rRNA gene sequence identity of 98.69%. Draft genome sequencing was performed for strains AF52-21T and CM04-06T, generating genome sizes of 2.85 Mbp and 3.01 Mbp. The calculated average nucleotide identity values between the genomes of the strains AF52-21T and CM04-06T compared to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ATCC 27768T were 83.20% and 82.54%, respectively, and 90.09% when comparing AF52-21T and CM04-06T. Both values were below the previously proposed species threshold (95-96%), supporting their recognition as novel species in the genus Faecalibacterium. The genomic DNA G + C contents of strains AF52-21T and CM04-06T calculated from genome sequences were 57.77 mol% and 57.51 mol%, respectively. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, we conclude that both strains represent two new Faecalibacterium species, for which the names Faecalibacterium butyricigenerans sp. nov. (type strain AF52-21T = CGMCC 1.5206T = DSM 103434T) and Faecalibacterium longum sp. nov. (type strain CM04-06T = CGMCC 1.5208T = DSM 103432T) are proposed.


Assuntos
Faecalibacterium/genética , Faecalibacterium/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Criança , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250423, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914799

RESUMO

The tight association between malnutrition and gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis enables microbiota-targeting intervention to be a promising strategy. Thus, we used a malnourished pig model to investigate the host response and GM alterations under different diet supplementation strategies. Pigs at age of 4 weeks were fed with pure maize diet to induce malnutrition symptoms, and followed by continuous feeding with maize (Maize, n = 8) or re-feeding using either corn-soy-blend (CSB+, n = 10) or millet-soy-blend based (MSB+, n = 10) supplementary food for 3 weeks. Meanwhile, 8 pigs were fed on a standard formulated ration as control (Ref). The effect of nutritional supplementation was assessed by the growth status, blood chemistry, gastrointestinal pathology, mucosal microbiota composition and colon production of short-chain fatty acids. Compared with purely maize-fed pigs, both CSB+ and MSB+ elevated the concentrations of total protein and globulin in blood. These pigs still showed most malnutrition symptoms after the food intervention period. MSB+ had superior influence on the GM development, exhibiting better performance in both structural and functional aspects. MSB+ pigs were colonized by less Proteobacteria but more Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Lachnospira spp. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated a strong correlation between the abundance of mucosal e.g., Faecalibacterium and Lachnospira spp. and body weight, crown-rump length and total serum protein. In conclusion, the malnutrition symptoms were accompanied by an aberrant GM, and millet-based nutritional supplementation showed promising potentials to restore the reduced GM diversity implicated in pig malnutrition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/métodos , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Milhetes/química , Animais , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Proteínas Sanguíneas/agonistas , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Clostridiales/genética , Clostridiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/patologia , Faecalibacterium/genética , Faecalibacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Faecalibacterium/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Feminino , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Desnutrição/microbiologia , Desnutrição/patologia , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Soja/química , Suínos , Verrucomicrobia/genética , Verrucomicrobia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verrucomicrobia/isolamento & purificação , Zea mays/química
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 60, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the potential beneficial effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on gastrointestinal symptoms, gut dysbiosis and immune status in discharged COVID-19 patients. CASE PRESENTATION: A total of 11 COVID-19 patients were recruited in April, 2020, about one month on average after they were discharged from the hospital. All subjects received FMT for 4 consecutive days by oral capsule administrations with 10 capsules for each day. In total, 5 out of 11 patients reported to be suffered from gastrointestinal symptoms, which were improved after FMT. After FMT, alterations of B cells were observed, which was characterized as decreased naive B cell (P = 0.012) and increased memory B cells (P = 0.001) and non-switched B cells (P = 0.012).The microbial community richness indicated by operational taxonomic units number, observed species and Chao1 estimator was marginally increased after FMT. Gut microbiome composition of discharged COVID-19 patients differed from that of the general population at both phylum and genera level, which was characterized with a lower proportion of Firmicutes (41.0%) and Actinobacteria (4.0%), higher proportion of Bacteroidetes (42.9%) and Proteobacteria (9.2%). FMT can partially restore the gut dysbiosis by increasing the relative abundance of Actinobacteria (15.0%) and reducing Proteobacteria (2.8%) at the phylum level. At the genera level, Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium had significantly increased after FMT. CONCLUSIONS: After FMT, altered peripheral lymphocyte subset, restored gut microbiota and alleviated gastrointestinal disorders were observe, suggesting that FMT may serve as a potential therapeutic and rehabilitative intervention for the COVID-19.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B , COVID-19/complicações , Disbiose/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Idoso , Bacteroidetes , Bifidobacterium , COVID-19/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Faecalibacterium , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Proteobactérias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1074, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441865

RESUMO

The alga Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) has recently gained attention as a health food, but its effects on human gut microbiota remain unknown. This study aimed to determine the effect of E. gracilis on gut microbiota and defecation due to modulation of microbiota composition in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro model simulating human colonic microbiota revealed that E. gracilis addition stimulated the growth of commensal Faecalibacterium. Further, E. gracilis addition enhanced butyrate production by Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Paramylon, an insoluble dietary fibre that accumulates in E. gracilis and is the main component of E. gracilis, did not stimulate Faecalibacterium growth in vitro. Daily ingestion of 2 g of E. gracilis for 30 days increased bowel movement frequency as well as stool volume in 28 human participants. Collectively, these findings indicate that E. gracilis components other than paramylon, stimulate the growth of Faecalibacterium to improve digestive health as well as promote defecation by increasing butyrate production.


Assuntos
Defecação , Euglena gracilis/fisiologia , Faecalibacterium/fisiologia , Adulto , Butiratos/metabolismo , Defecação/fisiologia , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
6.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 147-155, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462482

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiome is implicated as an important modulating factor in multiple inflammatory1,2, neurologic3 and neoplastic diseases4. Recent genome-wide association studies yielded inconsistent, underpowered and rarely replicated results such that the role of human host genetics as a contributing factor to microbiome assembly and structure remains uncertain5-11. Nevertheless, twin studies clearly suggest host genetics as a driver of microbiome composition11. In a genome-wide association analysis of 8,956 German individuals, we identified 38 genetic loci to be associated with single bacteria and overall microbiome composition. Further analyses confirm the identified associations of ABO histo-blood groups and FUT2 secretor status with Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium spp. Mendelian randomization analysis suggests causative and protective effects of gut microbes, with clade-specific effects on inflammatory bowel disease. This holistic investigative approach of the host, its genetics and its associated microbial communities as a 'metaorganism' broaden our understanding of disease etiology, and emphasize the potential for implementing microbiota in disease treatment and management.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Bacteroides/genética , Faecalibacterium/genética , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
7.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 7253978, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062716

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and a common risk of several disorders. Identifying the microbial ecology changes is essential for disease prediction, therapy, and prevention. Thus, our study is aimed at investigating the intestinal microbiota among healthy and type 2 diabetes individuals and exploring the effect of antidiabetic agents on gut bacterial flora. 24 type 2 diabetes (metformin, glimepiride, and nontherapeutic subgroups; N = 8) and 24 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study, and intestinal bacterial microbiota was investigated by analyzing V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Numerous alterations were observed in the gut microbial community of diabetic individuals. These changes were characterized by a significant lowered abundance of Faecalibacterium, Fusobacterium, Dialister, and Elusimicrobium in the nontherapeutic subgroup compared to the healthy control group. Likewise, correlation analysis showed a substantial decline in gut microbiota richness and diversity with the duration of illness. Furthermore, antidiabetic agents restored to some extent the richness and diversity of gut microbiota and improved the abundance of many beneficial bacteria with a significant increase of Methanobrevibacter in the metformin subcategory compared to the nontherapeutic subgroup. In return, they decreased the abundance of some opportunistic pathogens. The findings of this study have added a novel understanding about the pathogenesis of the disease and the mechanisms underlying antidiabetic therapy, which are of potential interest for therapeutic lines and further studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Glicemia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA/análise , Faecalibacterium , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fusobacterium , Hemoglobina A Glicada/biossíntese , Humanos , Intestinos , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Risco , Sudão/epidemiologia
8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(22): 13356-13369, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058365

RESUMO

Alternations of gut microbiota (GM) in atrial fibrillation (AF) with elevated diversity, perturbed composition and function have been described previously. The current work aimed to assess the association of GM composition with AF recurrence (RAF) after ablation based on metagenomic sequencing and metabolomic analyses and to construct a GM-based predictive model for RAF. Compared with non-AF controls (50 individuals), GM composition and metabolomic profile were significantly altered between patients with recurrent AF (17 individuals) and non-RAF group (23 individuals). Notably, discriminative taxa between the non-RAF and RAF groups, including the families Nitrosomonadaceae and Lentisphaeraceae, the genera Marinitoga and Rufibacter and the species Faecalibacterium spCAG:82, Bacillus gobiensis and Desulfobacterales bacterium PC51MH44, were selected to construct a taxonomic scoring system based on LASSO analysis. After incorporating the clinical factors of RAF, taxonomic score retained a significant association with RAF incidence (HR = 2.647, P = .041). An elevated AUC (0.954) and positive NRI (1.5601) for predicting RAF compared with traditional clinical scoring (AUC = 0.6918) were obtained. The GM-based taxonomic scoring system theoretically improves the model performance, and the nomogram and decision curve analysis validated the clinical value of the predicting model. These data provide novel possibility that incorporating the GM factor into future recurrent risk stratification.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/microbiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metaboloma , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Bacillus , Faecalibacterium , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrosomonadaceae , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Curr Biol ; 30(24): 4932-4943.e4, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065016

RESUMO

Faecalibacterium is prevalent in the human gut and a promising microbe for the development of next-generation probiotics (NGPs) or biotherapeutics. Analyzing reference Faecalibacterium genomes and almost 3,000 Faecalibacterium-like metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) reconstructed from 7,907 human and 203 non-human primate gut metagenomes, we identified the presence of 22 different Faecalibacterium-like species-level genome bins (SGBs), some further divided in different strains according to the subject geographical origin. Twelve SGBs are globally spread in the human gut and show different genomic potential in the utilization of complex polysaccharides, suggesting that higher SGB diversity may be related with increased utilization of plant-based foods. Moreover, up to 11 different species may co-occur in the same subject, with lower diversity in Western populations, as well as intestinal inflammatory states and obesity. The newly explored Faecalibacterium diversity will be able to support the choice of strains suitable as NGPs, guided by the consideration of the differences existing in their functional potential.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Faecalibacterium/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Probióticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Faecalibacterium/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Estilo de Vida , Macaca , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(9): e00232, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094959

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exocrine pancreatic function is a critical host factor in determining the intestinal microbiota composition. Diseases affecting the exocrine pancreas could therefore influence the gut microbiome. We investigated the changes in gut microbiota of patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: Patients with clinical and imaging evidence of CP (n = 51) were prospectively recruited and compared with twice the number of nonpancreatic disease controls matched for distribution in age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and exocrine pancreatic function (stool elastase). From stool samples of these 153 subjects, DNA was extracted, and intestinal microbiota composition was determined by bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Patients with CP exhibited severely reduced microbial diversity (Shannon diversity index and Simpson diversity number, P < 0.001) with an increased abundance of facultative pathogenic organisms (P < 0.001) such as Enterococcus (q < 0.001), Streptococcus (q < 0.001), and Escherichia.Shigella (q = 0.002). The CP-associated changes were independent of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Short-chain fatty acid producers, considered protective for epithelia such as Faecalibacterium (q < 0.001), showed reduced abundance in patients with CP. Of 4 additional patients with CP previously treated with antibiotics (ceftriaxone and metronidazole), 3 patients were characterized by distinct Enterococcus overgrowth. DISCUSSION: CP is associated with marked gut microbiota dysbiosis, greatly reduced diversity, and increased abundance of opportunistic pathogens, specifically those previously isolated from infected pancreatic necrosis. Taxa with a potentially beneficial role in intestinal barrier function are depleted. These changes can increase the probability of complications from pancreatitis such as infected fluid collections or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (see Graphical Abstract, Supplementary Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/CTG/A383).


Assuntos
Disbiose/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose/microbiologia , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia/genética , Escherichia/isolamento & purificação , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/fisiopatologia , Faecalibacterium/genética , Faecalibacterium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite Crônica/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Shigella/genética , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21788, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925716

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common neoplasms encountered, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. In this study, we explored the characteristics of gut microbiota in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma in advanced stage who received immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) based on a large population with hepatitis B virus infection. An initial cohort of 65 patients with metastatic melanoma were included in this study. All patients were treated with ICIs at Fujian provincial geriatric hospital between August 2016 and June 2018. The 16S rDNA V4 region was amplified by Polymerase chain reaction and sequenced on the MiSeq platform. We found that the diversities of the gut microbiota in HCC who received ICIs were obviously increased. Negative feedback, which is controlled by interplay between microbial metabolic activities and host pathways, is thought to promote high bacterial diversity. We focused on the Faecalibacterium genus in response group, and Bacteroidales order in non-response group, and stratified patients into high versus low categories based on the median relative abundance of these taxa in the gut microbiome. Patients with high Faecalibacterium abundance had a significantly prolonged PFS versus those with a low abundance. Conversely, patients with a high abundance of Bacteroidales had a shortened progressive free survival compared to those with a low abundance. In summary, the present study examined the oral and gut microbiome of HCC patients undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitors immunotherapy. Significant differences were observed in the diversity and composition of the patient gut microbiome of responders versus non-responders.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/microbiologia , Idoso , Bacteroides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , China , Faecalibacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Benef Microbes ; 11(6): 519-525, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885687

RESUMO

Compositional and functional alterations of the gut microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal diseases. Rifaximin is often used to induce disease remission due to its eubiotic effects on the gut microbiota. To investigate the correlation between changes in the gut microbiota composition and symptoms improvement in patients who present a clinical response to rifaximin treatment. Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and diverticular disease (DD) undergoing rifaximin treatment for clinical indication were enrolled in the study. Rifaximin was administered at the dose of 1,200 mg/day for 10 days. Faecal samples were collected at baseline and at the end of treatment; clinical improvement was assessed by Mayo score for UC, CD Activity Index (CDAI) for CD, IBS severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) for IBS and global symptomatic score (GSS) for DD. Twenty-five patients were included in the analysis and a clinical improvement was recorded for 10/25 (40%) of them. Microbial alpha diversity showed a slight increase in clinical responders (P=0.271), while it decreased in patients who did not improved (P=0.05). A significant post-treatment increase in Faecalibacterium abundance was observed in patients with a positive response (log2FC 1.959, P=0.042). Roseburia abundance decreased in both groups, whereas Ruminococcus decreased only in patients who clinically improved. Clinical improvement consequent to rifaximin treatment is associated with an increase in Faecalibacterium abundance. Achieving a positive shift in the gut microbiota composition seems a key event to obtain a clinical benefit from treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Diverticulares/tratamento farmacológico , Faecalibacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Rifaximina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Diverticulares/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12754, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728075

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder. Imbalance of gut microbial populations has been implicated in many diseases. We aimed to investigate whether there were differences in gut microbiota in psoriasis patients vs non-psoriasis controls and between psoriasis severity groups. 55 psoriasis patients and 27 controls were included. V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene of fecal samples were analyzed using Illumina MiSeq. Bioinformatic analysis was performed. We found changes in gut microbiome composition depending on their psoriasis status as determined by weighted unifrac (p < 0.05), in particular an increase in Firmicutes and depletion of Bacteroidetes in psoriasis patients. Additionally, the Faecalibacterium and Blautia genus were higher in psoriasis patients while Bacteroides and Paraprevotella in non-psoriasis controls (p < 0.05, LDA score > 2). Moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients had lower biodiversity than mild psoriatic patients (p = 0.049). No differences for beta-diversity were found. We developed a Psoriasis-Microbiota Index (PMI), which discriminated among psoriasis patients and controls with sensitivity: 0.78 and specificity: 0.79. Furthermore, we performed a meta-analysis with published data to validate this index. We demonstrated gut dysbiosis in psoriasis patients, suggesting a role in psoriasis pathophysiology. Furthermore, we developed a PMI with the potential to discriminate between psoriasis patients and controls across different populations, which could be used as a biomarker in the clinical practice.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenômica , Psoríase/diagnóstico , Psoríase/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bacteroides , Bacteroidetes , Biodiversidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Clostridiales , Biologia Computacional , Estudos Transversais , Faecalibacterium , Feminino , Firmicutes , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(24): 30615-30624, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472511

RESUMO

A dog-associated 16S rDNA genetic marker (ED-1) was designed to detect dog fecal contamination in water through a comparative bioinformatics analysis of Faecalibacterium sequences. For the dog fecal samples, ED-1 had 100% specificity, a high positive rate (89% in dog feces and 92.3% in dog fecal-contaminated water samples), and a low detection limit (107 copies/100 mL) in dog-contaminated water samples. Detection of water samples from seven provinces or cities of China showed that ED-1 was stable enough to be applied in practice. Furthermore, the abundance and diversity of dog gut microbiota from two private house pets (PHP) and Third Military Medical University (TMMU) dogs were estimated by using operational taxonomic units, and the significant differences of dog feces were found, as the PHP dogs have a more diverse diet and closer contact with human than dogs in TMMU. However, ED-1 could detect the feces from the two regions, indicating that ED-1 has good reliability.


Assuntos
Animais , China , DNA Ribossômico , Cães , Faecalibacterium/genética , Fezes , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354152

RESUMO

(1) Background: Alterations in the structural composition of the human gut microbiota have been identified in various disease entities along with exciting mechanistic clues by reductionist gnotobiotic modeling. Improving health by beneficially modulating an altered microbiota is a promising treatment approach. Prebiotics, substrates selectively used by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit, are broadly used for dietary and clinical interventions. Herein, we sought to investigate the microbiota-modelling effects of the soluble fiber, partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG). (2) Methods: We performed a 9 week clinical trial in 20 healthy volunteers that included three weeks of a lead-in period, followed by three weeks of an intervention phase, wherein study subjects received 5 g PHGG up to three times per day, and concluding with a three-week washout period. A stool diary was kept on a daily basis, and clinical data along with serum/plasma and stool samples were collected on a weekly basis. PHGG-induced alterations of the gut microbiota were studied by 16S metagenomics of the V1-V3 and V3-V4 regions. To gain functional insight, we further studied stool metabolites using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. (3) Results: In healthy subjects, PHGG had significant effects on stool frequency and consistency. These effects were paralleled by changes in α- (species evenness) and ß-diversity (Bray-Curtis distances), along with increasing abundances of metabolites including butyrate, acetate and various amino acids. On a taxonomic level, PHGG intake was associated with a bloom in Ruminococcus, Fusicatenibacter, Faecalibacterium and Bacteroides and a reduction in Roseburia, Lachnospiracea and Blautia. The majority of effects disappeared after stopping the prebiotic and most effects tended to be more pronounced in male participants. (4) Conclusions: Herein, we describe novel aspects of the prebiotic PHGG on compositional and functional properties of the healthy human microbiota.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Galactanos/administração & dosagem , Galactanos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Mananas/farmacologia , Gomas Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Gomas Vegetais/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Acetatos/metabolismo , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Butiratos/metabolismo , Faecalibacterium/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrólise , Masculino , Ruminococcus/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade
16.
Nature ; 581(7808): 310-315, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433607

RESUMO

Microbiome community typing analyses have recently identified the Bacteroides2 (Bact2) enterotype, an intestinal microbiota configuration that is associated with systemic inflammation and has a high prevalence in loose stools in humans1,2. Bact2 is characterized by a high proportion of Bacteroides, a low proportion of Faecalibacterium and low microbial cell densities1,2, and its prevalence varies from 13% in a general population cohort to as high as 78% in patients with inflammatory bowel disease2. Reported changes in stool consistency3 and inflammation status4 during the progression towards obesity and metabolic comorbidities led us to propose that these developments might similarly correlate with an increased prevalence of the potentially dysbiotic Bact2 enterotype. Here, by exploring obesity-associated microbiota alterations in the quantitative faecal metagenomes of the cross-sectional MetaCardis Body Mass Index Spectrum cohort (n = 888), we identify statin therapy as a key covariate of microbiome diversification. By focusing on a subcohort of participants that are not medicated with statins, we find that the prevalence of Bact2 correlates with body mass index, increasing from 3.90% in lean or overweight participants to 17.73% in obese participants. Systemic inflammation levels in Bact2-enterotyped individuals are higher than predicted on the basis of their obesity status, indicative of Bact2 as a dysbiotic microbiome constellation. We also observe that obesity-associated microbiota dysbiosis is negatively associated with statin treatment, resulting in a lower Bact2 prevalence of 5.88% in statin-medicated obese participants. This finding is validated in both the accompanying MetaCardis cardiovascular disease dataset (n = 282) and the independent Flemish Gut Flora Project population cohort (n = 2,345). The potential benefits of statins in this context will require further evaluation in a prospective clinical trial to ascertain whether the effect is reproducible in a randomized population and before considering their application as microbiota-modulating therapeutics.


Assuntos
Disbiose/epidemiologia , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Faecalibacterium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/microbiologia , Prevalência
17.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 37(6): 475-488, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427521

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer with high cure rates leading to rising numbers of long-term survivors. Adult survivors of childhood ALL are at increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic illnesses. We hypothesize that ALL therapy is associated with long-term gut microbiome alterations that contribute to predisposition to chronic medical conditions. We conducted a pilot study to test whether differences can be detected between stool microbiota of pediatric ALL survivors and their siblings. Stool samples were collected from 38 individuals under age 19 who were at least 1 year after completion of therapy for ALL. Stool samples collected from 16 healthy siblings served as controls. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was performed on the stool samples. Comparing microbiota of survivors to sibling controls, no statistically significant differences were found in alpha or beta diversity. However, among the top 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from component 1 in sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA) with different relative abundance in survivors versus siblings, OTUs mapping to the genus Faecalibacterium were depleted in survivors. Differences in gut microbial composition were found between pediatric survivors of childhood ALL and their siblings. Specifically, the protective Faecalibacterium is depleted in survivors, which is reminiscent of gut microbiota alteration found in adult survivors of childhood ALL and reported in obesity, suggesting that microbiota alterations in pediatric ALL survivors start in childhood and may play a role in predisposition to chronic illness in later years of survivorship.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Faecalibacterium , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/microbiologia , Irmãos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Faecalibacterium/classificação , Faecalibacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia
18.
J Crohns Colitis ; 14(11): 1547-1557, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease [CD] is associated with alterations in gut microbial composition and function. The present controlled-intervention study investigated the relationship between patterns of dietary intake and baseline gut microbiota in CD patients in remission and examined the effects of a dietary intervention in patients consuming a non-diversified diet [NDD]. METHODS: Forty outpatients with quiescent CD were recruited in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Based on 3-day food records, patients consuming a lower plant-based and higher red and processed meat-based diet were assigned to the NDD group [n = 15] and received a 12-week structured dietary intervention; all other patients were assigned to the diversified diet [DD] control group [n = 25] and received conventional management. Faecal microbiota composition, short chain fatty acids [SCFAs] and calprotectin were measured. RESULTS: At baseline the NDD and DD groups had a different faecal microbial beta-diversity [p = 0.003, permutational multivariate analysis of variance]. The NDD group had lower Faecalibacterium and higher Escherichia/Shigella relative abundances compared to the DD group [3.3 ±â€…5.4% vs. 8.5 ±â€…10.6%; 6.9 ±â€…12.2% vs. 1.6 ±â€…4.4%; p ≤ 0.03, analysis of covariance]. These two genera showed a strong negative correlation [rs = -0.60, q = 0.0002]. Faecal butyrate showed a positive correlation with Faecalibacterium [rs = 0.52, q = 0.002], and an inhibitory relationship with Escherichia/Shigella abundance [four-parameter sigmoidal model, R = -0.83; rs = -0.44, q = 0.01], respectively. After the 12 weeks of dietary intervention, no difference in microbial beta-diversity between the two groups was observed [p = 0.43]. The NDD group demonstrated an increase in Faecalibacterium [p < 0.05, generalized estimated equation model], and resembled the DD group at the end of the intervention [p = 0.84, t-test with permutation]. We did not find an association of diet with faecal SCFAs or calprotectin. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary patterns are associated with specific gut microbial compositions in CD patients in remission. A diet intervention in patients consuming a NDD modifies gut microbial composition to resemble that seen in patients consuming a DD. These results show that diet is important in shaping the microbial dysbiosis signature in CD towards a balanced community.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Dieta , Disbiose , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Indução de Remissão , Adulto , Correlação de Dados , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/dietoterapia , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Dieta/classificação , Dieta/métodos , Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Escherichia/isolamento & purificação , Faecalibacterium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Shigella/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4262-4274, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171510

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that dairy calves having access to drinking water since birth (W0) achieved greater body weight, fiber digestibility, and feed efficiency than those that first received drinking water at 17 d of age (W17). Since gut microbiota composition could be linked to growth and development of animals, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of offering drinking water to newborn calves on composition of bacteria in the gut using a fecal microbiota analysis. Fresh feces were collected directly from the rectum of calves in W0 (n = 14) and W17 (n = 15) at 2, 6, and 10 wk of age. All of the calves were fed pasteurized waste milk, weaned at 7 wk of age, and offered tap water according to the treatment. The DNA was sequenced using 16S rRNA gene-amplicon sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq system (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTU) with a 99% similarity threshold. Treatment effects on α-diversity indices and relative abundance of the 10 most abundant genera were analyzed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Statistical significance (q-value) of treatment effects on the 50 most abundant OTU was determined with a false discovery rate analysis. At 2 wk of age, W0 had a greater number of observed OTU (5,908 vs. 4,698) and species richness (Chao 1 index) than W17. The number of OTU and richness indices increased from wk 2 to 6, but the increment of W17 was greater than that of W0. The Shannon and inverse-Simpson indices increased linearly with age, but no difference was observed between W0 and W17 at any time point. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios were also similar at every time point but decreased markedly when calves were weaned. The relative abundance of genera Faecalibacterium and Bacteroides was greater in W0 than W17 at 2 wk of age. The genus Faecalibacterium continued to be more abundant in W0 than W17 at 6 wk of age but had similar abundance 3 wk after weaning (10 wk of age). The abundance of Faecalibacterium at wk 6 was positively correlated with apparent total-tract digestibility of acid detergent fiber at 10 wk of age. Calves receiving water since birth had greater abundance of OTU related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Bifidobacterium breve at 6 wk of age (q < 0.085). These species are known to improve growth in preweaned calves. The abundance of none of the genera and OTU was different between W0 at W17 at 10 wk of age (q > 0.100). Overall, beginning to offer drinking water at birth has a potential to modulate gut microbiota composition and thereby positively affect performance of young dairy heifer calves (≤10 wk of age).


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos , Água Potável , Faecalibacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bifidobacterium/genética , Biodiversidade , Peso Corporal , Fibras na Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Desmame
20.
Gut ; 69(3): 513-522, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is one of the malignant metabolic diseases that complicate pregnancy. Gut dysbiosis has been identified for causing metabolic diseases, but the role of gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of PE remains unknown. DESIGN: We performed a case-control study to compare the faecal microbiome of PE and normotensive pregnant women by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing. To address the causative relationship between gut dysbiosis and PE, we used faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in an antibiotic-treated mouse model. Finally, we determined the microbiome translocation and immune responses in human and mouse placental samples by 16S rRNA sequencing, quantitative PCR and in situ hybridisation. RESULTS: Patients with PE showed reduced bacterial diversity with obvious dysbiosis. Opportunistic pathogens, particularly Fusobacterium and Veillonella, were enriched, whereas beneficial bacteria, including Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia, were markedly depleted in the PE group. The abundances of these discriminative bacteria were correlated with blood pressure (BP), proteinuria, aminotransferase and creatinine levels. On successful colonisation, the gut microbiome from patients with PE triggered a dramatic, increased pregestational BP of recipient mice, which further increased after gestation. In addition, the PE-transplanted group showed increased proteinuria, embryonic resorption and lower fetal and placental weights. Their T regulatory/helper-17 balance in the small intestine and spleen was disturbed with more severe intestinal leakage. In the placenta of both patients with PE and PE-FMT mice, the total bacteria, Fusobacterium, and inflammatory cytokine levels were significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the gut microbiome of patients with PE is dysbiotic and contributes to disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Translocação Bacteriana , Disbiose/complicações , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Placenta/imunologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/microbiologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocinas/genética , Creatinina/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Faecalibacterium , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Reabsorção do Feto/microbiologia , Fusobactérias , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Camundongos , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Proteinúria/urina , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Células Th17 , Veillonella
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