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1.
Food Chem ; 406: 135053, 2023 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527986

RESUMO

The present study attempts to characterise Fagaceae kernels as a promising source of nutritional compounds for potential use as novel food ingredients. Thus, the proximate and mineral composition of some kernels (beech achene-BA, sessile oak acorn-SOA, turkey oak acorn-TOA, and red oak acorn-ROA), total phenolic content, individual polyphenols, and cytotoxicity of their aqueous extracts, respectively, the fatty acid composition of kernel oils were investigated using physicochemical and analytical techniques. Results revealed that BAK is rich in lipid and protein, OAKs in carbohydrates. All tested kernels contain high oleic-linoleic acid oils. BAK is abundant in phenolic acids, OAKs in hydrolysable tannins. Only BA and SOA kernels exert cytotoxicity against human fibroblasts. In all kernels, macroelements are dominated by K and microelements by Cu, Mn, and Fe. In conclusion, BA and OA kernels could be alternatively used as protein-rich, respectively, starch-rich ingredients in food.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Quercus , Humanos , Alimentos , Carboidratos , Óleos
2.
Biomolecules ; 12(12)2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36551228

RESUMO

The inner shell of the chestnut (Castanea crenata) has long been used in Asia as a medicinal herb for improving digestion and blood circulation, and treating diarrhea. However, most chestnut shells are now treated as waste materials in industrial peeling processes. In this study, we examined the metabolite variation among major cultivars of C. crenata shells using mass spectrometry. Among five representative cultivars, Okkwang, Porotan, and Ishizuuchi had higher levels of bioactive compounds, such as ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, flavonoids, and gallic acid derivatives. Their antioxidant capacity was positively correlated with their chemical composition. The byproducts (whole shells) from the industrial peeling process were re-evaluated in comparison with the inner shell, a rich source of phenolic compounds. The phenolic acids and flavonoid glucoside derivatives were significantly higher in the whole shells, whereas the levels of flavonoids were higher in the inner shells. In addition, the whole shell extracts significantly reduced cellular reactive oxygen species production compared to the inner shell extracts. This study demonstrated the different biochemical benefits of different C. crenata cultivars through metabolic profiling and suggests that the whole shell could be used as a functional ingredient, as it has the highest levels of bioactive products and antioxidant effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Fagaceae , Antioxidantes/química , Nozes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fenóis/análise , Flavonoides/química , Fagaceae/química
3.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557796

RESUMO

Castanea sativa Mill. (Fagaceae) is a deciduous tree grown for its wood and edible fruits. Chestnut processing produces residues (burs, shells, and leaves) exploitable for their diversity in bioactive compounds in animal nutrition. In fact, plant-specialized metabolites likely act as rumen modifiers. Thus, the recovery of residual plant parts as feed ingredients is an evaluable strategy. In this context, European chestnut leaves from northern Germany have been investigated, proving to be a good source of flavonoids as well as gallo- and ellagitannins. To this purpose, an alcoholic extract was obtained and an untargeted profiling carried out, mainly by means of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR MS/MS) techniques. To better unravel the polyphenol constituents, fractionation strategies were employed to obtain a lipophilic fraction and a polar one. This latter was highly responsive to total phenolic and flavonoid content analyses, as well as to antiradical (DPPH● and ABTS+●) and reducing activity (PFRAP) assays. The effect of the alcoholic extract and its fractions on rumen liquor was also evaluated in vitro in terms of fermentative parameter changes and impact on methanogenesis. The data acquired confirm that chestnut leaf extract and the fractions therefrom promote an increase in total volatile fatty acids, while decreasing acetate/propionate ratio and CH4 production.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Rúmen , Flavonoides , Fagaceae/química
4.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558057

RESUMO

Nowadays, chestnut by-products are gaining a lot of interest as a low-cost raw material, exploitable for developing added-value products. This is in line with suitable chestnut by-products' management, aimed at reducing the environmental impact, thus improving the chestnut industry's competitiveness and economic sustainability. In this context, with the aim of valorizing local cultivars of European chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.), our attention focused on the Verdole cultivar, which has been characterized by using the UPOV guidelines for its distinctness, homogeneity, and stability. After harvesting, Verdole chestnuts were properly dissected to collect the outer and inner shells, and episperm. Each chestnut part, previously crushed, shredded, and passed through diverse sieves, underwent ultrasound-assisted extraction. The extracts obtained were evaluated for their total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content. The antiradical capacity by DPPH and ABTS assays, and the Fe(III) reducing power, were also evaluated. Although all the samples showed dose-dependent antioxidant efficacy, plant matrix size strongly impacted on extraction efficiency. LC-HRMS-based metabolic profiling highlighted the occurrence of different polyphenol subclasses, whose quantitative ratio varied among the chestnut parts investigated. The outer shell was more chemically rich than inner shell and episperm, according to its pronounced antioxidant activity. The polyphenol diversity of Verdole by-products is a resource not intended for disposal, appliable in the nutraceutical sector, thus realizing a new scenario in processing chestnut waste.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Compostos Férricos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fagaceae/química
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553650

RESUMO

Castanopsis hystrix is a valuable native, broad-leaved, and fast-growing tree in South China. In this study, 15 phenotypic traits and 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of a natural population of C. hystrix and to construct a core germplasm collection by a set of 232 accessions. The results showed that the original population of C. hystrix had relatively high genetic diversity, with the number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), Shannon's information index (I), and polymorphism information content (PIC) averaging at 26.188, 11.565, 0.863, 0.897, 2.660, and 0.889, respectively. Three sub-populations were identified based on a STRUCTURE analysis, indicating a strong genetic structure. The results from the phylogenetic and population structures showed a high level of agreement, with 232 germplasms being classified into three main groups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test indicated that 96% of the total variance was derived from within populations, which revealed a low differentiation among populations. A core collection composed of 157 germplasms was firstly constructed thereafter, of which the diversity parameters non-significantly differed from the original population. These results revealed the genetic diversity and population structure of C. hystrix germplasms, which have implications for germplasm management and genome-wide association studies on C. hystrix, as well as for core collection establishment applications in other wood-producing hardwood species.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Variação Genética , Variação Genética/genética , Filogenia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo Genético , Fenótipo , Biomarcadores , Fagaceae/genética
6.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080239

RESUMO

Natural defensive substances synthesized by plants that could replace synthetic pesticides in the protection of plants against insect invasions are constantly being sought. The study assessed changes in the qualitative and quantitative composition of secondary metabolites in horse chestnut leaves collected in different locations and differing in the sensitivity of the plant to the invasion by the horse-chestnut leaf miner. An attempt was made to identify compounds that are most responsible for the increased plant resistance to this threat. Additionally, changes in the anatomy of chestnut leaves affected by the pest were presented. It was noticed that the trees differed in the composition of secondary metabolites already in the initial growing season, which should be related to the influence of habitat conditions. The analysis of the profile of the compounds in non-infested and infested horse chestnut leaves revealed a clear response of the plant to the stress factor, i.e., the foraging of the horse-chestnut leaf miner. Catechins seem to be compounds involved in plant resistance. The leaf anatomy showed enhanced accumulation of phenolic compounds at the pest foraging sites. Hypertrophy and thickened and cracked cell walls of the spongy parenchyma were visible in the vicinity of the mines.


Assuntos
Aesculus , Fagaceae , Mariposas , Animais , Ecossistema , Mariposas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta , Árvores
7.
Metabolomics ; 18(9): 74, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104635

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chestnut rot caused by the fungus Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi is a disease present in the world's major chestnut growing regions. The disease is considered a significant threat to the global production of nuts from the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa). Conventional fungicides provide some control, but little is known about the potential of biological control agents (BCAs) as alternatives to manage the disease. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether formulated BCAs and their secreted metabolites inhibit the in vitro growth of G. smithogilvyi. METHODS: The antifungal potential of BCAs was assessed against the pathogen through an inverted plate assay for volatile compounds (VOCs), a diffusion assay for non-volatile compounds (nVOCs) and in dual culture. Methanolic extracts of nVOCs from the solid medium were further evaluated for their effect on conidia germination and were screened through an LC-MS-based approach for antifungal metabolites. RESULTS: Isolates of Trichoderma spp., derived from the BCAs, significantly suppressed the pathogen through the production of VOCs and nVOCs. The BCA from which Bacillus subtilis was isolated was more effective in growth inhibition through the production of nVOCs. The LC-MS based metabolomics on the nVOCs derived from the BCAs showed the presence of several antifungal compounds. CONCLUSION: The results show that G. smithogilvyi can be effectively controlled by the BCAs tested and that their use may provide a more ecological alternative for managing chestnut rot. The in vitro analysis should now be expanded to the field to assess the effectiveness of these alternatives for chestnut rot management.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fagaceae , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Bactérias , Fagaceae/microbiologia , Metabolômica , Nozes , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15007, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056053

RESUMO

Gene flow between cultivated and wild gene pools is common in the contact zone between agricultural lands and natural habitats and can be used to study the development of adaptations and selection of novel varieties. This is likely the case in the northern Adriatic region, where centuries-old cultivated orchards of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) are planted within the natural distribution area of the species. Thus, we investigated the population structure of several orchards of sweet chestnuts. Furthermore, the genetic background of three toponymous clonal varieties was explored. Six genomic simple sequence repeat (gSSR) and nine EST-derived SSR (EST-SSR) loci were utilized in this research, and both grafted and non-grafted individuals were included in this study. Five closely related clones were identified, which represent a singular, polyclonal marron variety, found in all three cultivation areas. Furthermore, many hybrids, a result of breeding between cultivated and wild chestnuts, have been found. Analyzed semi-wild orchards defined by a diverse genetic structure, represent a hotspot for further selection and could result in creation of locally adapted, high-yielding varieties.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Fluxo Gênico , Fagaceae/genética , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Árvores/genética
9.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 64(11): 2126-2134, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083596

RESUMO

The dominant species of a biome can be regarded as its genuine indicator. Evergreen broadleaved forests (EBLFs) in subtropical East Asia harbor high levels of species biodiversity and endemism and are vital to regional carbon storage and cycling. However, the historical assembly of this unique biome is still controversial. Fagaceae is the most essential family in East Asian subtropical EBLFs and its dominant species are vital for the existence of this biome. Here, we used the dominant Fagaceae species to shed light on the dynamic process of East Asian subtropical EBLFs over time. Our results indicate high precipitation in summer and low temperature in winter are the most influential climatic factors for the distribution of East Asian subtropical EBLFs. Modern East Asian subtropical EBLFs did not begin to appear until 23 Ma, subsequently experienced a long-lasting development in the Miocene and markedly deteriorated at about 4 Ma, driven jointly by orogenesis and paleoclimate. We also document that there is a lag time between when one clade invaded the region and when its members become dominant species within the region. This study may improve our ability to predict and mitigate the threats to biodiversity of East Asian subtropical EBLFs and points to a new path for future studies involving multidisciplinary methods to explore the assembly of regional biomes.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Árvores , Clima Tropical , Florestas , Biodiversidade
10.
Zootaxa ; 5183(1): 273-281, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095445

RESUMO

A new aphid species, Stomaphis (Stomaphis) blackmani sp. nov., is described on the basis of specimens collected on the chestnut tree, Castanea crenata Siebold Zucc. (Fagaceae) from Korea. The apterous and alate viviparous female of the new species are described with biometric measurements and illustrations. Being the first report of Stomaphis on chestnut worldwide, a brief note on the biology of the new species, and a key to Stomaphis species in the Korea Peninsula is provided.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Fagaceae , Animais , República da Coreia
11.
Zootaxa ; 5161(1): 1-71, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095527

RESUMO

Recent years have seen rapid advances in the study of Fagaceae-associated gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) of the Eastern Palaearctic and the Oriental (EPO) regions, for both the gall inducing Cynipini (commonly termed oak gall wasps though many species gall non-oak Fagaceae) and the predominantly inquiline tribes Synergini and Ceroptresini. This process has propagated some taxonomic errors and involves many taxa whose taxonomic status is uncertain. To provide a stable foundation for further advance, here we review the taxonomic status of the 212 species (133 oak gall wasps and 79 oak cynipid inquilines) that have been described or recorded in these regions. Of this total, we treat 171 as valid species names (103 oak gall wasps and 68 oak cynipid inquilines) in 20 genera; 22 as synonym names, 13 as incertae sedis, three as nomen dubium, and three as species inquirenda. Callirhytis kunugicola Shinji, 1944 is proposed as syn. nov. of C. kunugicola Shinji, 1943, as Shinji described the same species twice. For all valid species names, we provide taxonomic references, synonyms, and geographical distributions. We summarize what is known of host plant associations and gall locations for gall inducers, and host associations for inquilines. We discuss geographic patterns in the known richness of currently valid species for both groups of organisms, and place this in the context of the biogeography of available Fagaceae host plants. We provide a brief historical review of the study of oak gall wasps and their inquilines in the EPO regions.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Vespas , Animais , Plantas
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(8): 2121-2128, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043818

RESUMO

To assess the dynamics and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter of twig litter in continuous increase stage, peak stage, and continuous decrease stage of twig litter production in different types of Castanopsis carlesii forest in middle subtropical China, a field experiment was conducted in C. carlesii natural forest, secondary forest and plantation. The results showed that litter production stage and forest type significantly affected the content and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter of twig litter were . Compared with the secondary forest and plantation, natural forest had higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and lower special ultraviolet-visible absorption values at 254, 260 and 280 nm (SUVA254, SUVA260, SUVA280) at the continuous decrease stage of twig litter production, indicating high twig litter quality of natural forest and high cycling efficiency with dissolved organic matter in the natural forest at this stage. In contrast, the higher contents of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and lower DOC:TDP and TDN:TDP ratios of twig litter in the plantation were observed at the peak stage of twig litter production, while no differences were detected in dissolved organic matter contents and spectral values in the secondary forest among the stages. In addition, the DOC, TDN, TDP of twig litter were negatively correlated with temperature and precipitation in the natural forests and secondary forests, but TDN and TDP of twig litter were positively correlated with temperature and precipitation in the plantations. These results suggested that the higher nutrient content at the peak stage of twig litter production in the C. carlesii plantation might lead to more efficient material cycling and that there would be a higher efficiency of material cycling for twig litter dissolved organic matter in C. carlesii natural forest at reduction stage of twig litter production.


Assuntos
Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Fagaceae , Carbono/análise , China , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Florestas , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo , Solo
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(8): 2129-2138, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043819

RESUMO

When seeds fallen from the mother trees, their initial contact physical environment was litter or soil. The dispersal positions of seeds (seeds positioned on top of the litter, the soil surface and beneath the litter) determine the process of their natural regeneration. We simulated three different dispersal positions of Castanopsis kawakamii, including seeds positioned on top of the litter (2 and 4 cm litter was placed below the seed layer), soil surface (without litter), and seeds beneath the litter (2, 4, 6 and 8 cm litter covers in the upper layer of seeds). We examined the effects of seed dispersal position on the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, non-structural carbohydrate, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content and nutrient content of seedlings. The results showed that leaf nitrogen content per area of seedlings had significantly positive correlation with soluble sugar content, non-structural carbohydrate content, and negative correlation with specific leaf area across different dispersal positions. Seedlings of the moderate litter cover (2 and 4 cm) adopted resource acquisitive strategies by increasing relative chlorophyll content, soluble sugar content, non-structural carbohydrate content, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen content and phosphorus contents per area, and decreasing specific leaf area to achieve their demands for rapid growth. Seedlings grew on soil surface and beneath the deep litter (6 and 8 cm) adopted the resource conservative strategies with higher leaf nitrogen content per mass and specific leaf area, lower leaf dry matter content, and non-structural carbohydrate content to intercept more effective light resources to compensate for the shady environment brought by deep litter. This would further decrease the probability of seedling mortality due to 'carbon starvation'. Seedlings under litter layer stored starch in leaf, and reduced the energy consumption of photosynthetic tissues (low PSⅡ maximum photochemical efficiency) to maintain seedling growth. Comprehensive analysis of entropy method indicated that low amount of litter cover (2 cm) significantly promoted seedling growth of C. kawakamii. In the future, we could regulate the thickness of litter layer to promote the growth and regeneration of C. kawakamii seedlings in natural forest.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Dispersão de Sementes , Carboidratos , Clorofila , Fluorescência , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Plântula , Sementes , Solo , Açúcares/farmacologia
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2536: 167-177, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819605

RESUMO

Cryphonectria parasitica is a fungal pathogen that causes lethal bark necrosis in chestnut. A duplex qPCR allowing detection of the pathogen and its host, Castanea sativa, is described. The method can be used for early detection of the pathogen in chestnut bark tissues with an internal control of false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors and/or DNA extraction failure. A positive amplification control of qPCR that allows detection of any deviation from a normal qPCR run based on a control chart is also described. As C. parasitica is a regulated pathogen in Europe, the protocol also provides information on the way to collect and handle bark samples to fulfil biosecurity rules.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fagaceae , Ascomicetos/genética , Fagaceae/genética , Fagaceae/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
16.
Food Funct ; 13(15): 8243-8253, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35833660

RESUMO

"Económicos" are traditional Portuguese pastry products; although their production is low-cost, their nutritional value is equally low. Since it is a widely consumed product in the Trás-os-Montes region, it is important to add value to it without making significant changes to the traditional recipe. Thus, this work has the main objective to increase the nutritional power of "económicos" through the incorporation of chestnut (Castanea sativa) fruit flour. The influence of the incorporation of 9% of chestnut flour as a new ingredient was analysed in terms of physical parameters (texture, colour, pH, water activity and moisture), nutritional content (according to the official AOAC methodology) and chemical parameters (sugars, fatty acids and organic acids) and the ability to control the microbial load over shelf life (32 days). Overall, the addition of the chestnut flour did not drastically change the appearance of the chemical and physical profiles of the cakes, but resulted in a lighter crumb (L*), slight changes in the texture profile, reduction of fat, and most importantly, introduced healthier flour to this inexpensive cake. Moreover, it did not stimulate the growth of microorganisms (total aerobic mesophiles, coliforms, Bacillus cereus, molds, and yeasts) during the 32 days of storage.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Farinha , Fagaceae/química , Farinha/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Nozes , Portugal
17.
Food Chem ; 396: 133609, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839721

RESUMO

Chestnut (Castanea sativa) shells, generated from the peeling process of the fruit, contains appreciable amounts of lignin and cellulose. In this work, a starch-based film reinforced with these polysaccharides was developed. Response Surface Methodology was employed to optimize the composition of the film with improved elongation, tensile strength, and elasticity modulus properties. The optimal film was characterized regarding structural, optical barrier and thermal properties. The optimum composition was obtained with 10% (w/w) fibers and 50% (w/w) glycerol; the elongation responses, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity reached values of 34.19%, 7.31 N and 4.15 N, respectively. The values of tension strength and modulus of elasticity were approximately 3.5 times higher than those obtained for the control film. The reinforced film was opaque and exhibited improved water solubility, UV-barrier capacity, and thermal stability compared to control. The optimized starch film based on chestnut shells fibers' has the potential to produce biodegradable food packaging with improved properties.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Amido , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Permeabilidade , Solubilidade , Amido/química , Resistência à Tração , Água/química
18.
Mol Ecol ; 31(18): 4640-4655, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35880415

RESUMO

American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once the most economically and ecologically important hardwood species in the eastern United States. In the first half of the 20th century, an exotic fungal pathogen-Cryphonectria parasitica-decimated the species, killing billions of chestnut trees. Two approaches to developing blight-resistant American chestnut populations show promise, but both will require introduction of adaptive genomic diversity from wild germplasm to produce diverse, locally adapted restoration populations. Here we characterize population structure, demographic history, and genomic diversity in a range-wide sample of 384 wild American chestnuts to inform conservation and breeding with blight-resistant varieties. Population structure analyses suggest that the chestnut range can be roughly divided into northeast, central, and southwest populations. Within-population genomic diversity estimates revealed a clinal pattern with the highest diversity in the southwest, which likely reflects bottleneck events associated with Quaternary glaciation. Finally, we identified genomic regions under positive selection within each population, which suggests that defence against fungal pathogens is a common target of selection across all populations. Taken together, these results show that American chestnut underwent a postglacial expansion from the southern portion of its range leading to three extant genetic populations. These populations will serve as management units for breeding adaptive genetic variation into the blight-resistant tree populations for targeted reintroduction efforts.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Doenças das Plantas , Demografia , Fagaceae/genética , Fagaceae/microbiologia , Genômica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Árvores/microbiologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(12)2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742833

RESUMO

Castanea henryi is a monoecious plant with a low female-to-male ratio, which limits its yield. The phytohormone cytokinin (CK) plays a crucial role in flower development, especially gynoecium development. Here, the feminizing effect of CK on the development of C. henryi was confirmed by the exogenous spraying of N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU). Spraying CPPU at 125 mg·L-1 thrice changed the male catkin into a pure female catkin, whereas at 5 mg·L-1 and 25 mg·L-1, only a part of the male catkin was transformed into a female catkin. A comparative transcriptome analysis of male catkins subjected to CPPU was performed to study the mechanism of the role of CKs in sex differentiation. Using Pearson's correlation analysis between hormone content and hormone synthesis gene expression, four key genes, LOG1, LOG3, LOG7 and KO, were identified in the CK and GA synthesis pathways. Moreover, a hub gene in the crosstalk between JA and the other hormone signaling pathways, MYC2, was identified, and 15 flowering-related genes were significantly differentially expressed after CPPU treatment. These results suggest that CK interacts with other phytohormones to determine the sex of C. henryi, and CK may directly target floral organ recognition genes to control flower sex.


Assuntos
Citocininas , Fagaceae , Citocininas/metabolismo , Fagaceae/genética , Feminização/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
20.
Food Chem ; 393: 133380, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688085

RESUMO

Castanea mollissima BL. is an outstanding species that represents a valuable woody food resource due to consumers' salient beliefs in the health benefits of chestnut consumption. Besides chestnut kernel, the discarded shells of chestnut were highlighted as remarkable sources of functional ingredients with promising applications in food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and industrial raw materials, mainly as natural antioxidants and effective prebiotics. Phytochemical studies reported not only antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but also anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and neuroprotective activities. This review aims to summarize the botanical characteristics, nutritional compositions, biological activities and comprehensive utilization of the whole C. mollissima, emphasizing the value of sustainable use in the recovery of bioactive compounds and their potential applications in food and other industries. It will provide a reference for the further development of C. mollissima in the field of multi-functional food and will inspiring investigations on the comprehensive utilization of chestnut and their by-products.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Antioxidantes , Fagaceae/química , Alimento Funcional/análise , Nozes , Compostos Fitoquímicos
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