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1.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(6): 335-337, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719564

RESUMO

Laboratory work is an essential part of natural science education because it provides students with a valuable opportunity to experience practical scientific research firsthand. In laboratory work in pharmacology, students generally learn about biological mechanisms and drug action mechanisms by analyzing drug actions using laboratory animals. Actual experience with hands and eyes is an important factor in the laboratory work. Under the COVID-19 epidemic, however, we were forced to conduct the laboratory work online. For the laboratory work using isolated organs, we used simulation software, in which students can examine effects of a range of drugs on the smooth muscle within the guinea pig ileum. For the behavioral observation practice, we showed the video of the experiments conducted by the instructors beforehand to the students, and asked them to observe and analyze the behavior. In this review, we will share our challenges to online laboratory work.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Farmacologia , Animais , Cobaias , Humanos , Laboratórios , Aprendizagem , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(6): 364-369, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719571

RESUMO

In vivo cardiovascular experiments as part of safety pharmacology studies have been developed for small molecule drug candidates to maximize detection power for potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of a drug candidate on physiological functions, and have been established with appropriate expertise. Conscious freely-moving telemeterized non-rodents are generally used for the in vivo cardiovascular experiments. The technology and evaluation best practices for the experiments have been optimized by multiple researchers and as a result, the experiments considerably contribute to the estimation of cardiovascular risks for humans. In addition, as described in ICH E14&S7B Q&A draft, non-clinical studies are gaining importance in the integrated risk assessment for QT prolongation in humans, and high quality data obtained in non-clinical studies are being required. This manuscript introduces actual technology and evaluation for in vivo cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies based on Japan activity for Improvement of Cardiovascular Evaluation by Telemetry system (J-ICET), which is one of the working groups hosted by Japanese Safety Pharmacology Society.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Síndrome do QT Longo , Farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Tecnologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e26643, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guiqi huoxue capsule (GQHXC) is a patented Chinese medicine used for treating a liver and kidney deficiency and blood stasis syndrome due to qi deficiency. It is caused by cervical spondylosis (cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR), mixed cervical spondylosis mainly composed of nerve root type). Its underlying mechanisms need, however, to be further clarified. METHODS: In this study, collecting compounds, predicting therapeutic targets, constructing networks, and analyzing biological functions and pathways were based on network pharmacology analysis. In addition, molecular docking verification was engaged to assess the binding potential of selected target-compound pairs. RESULTS: We established 5 networks: compound-putative target network of GQHXC, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network related to CSR, compound-CSR target network, potential therapeutic targets PPI network, and herb-compound-target-pathway network. Network analysis indicated that 7 targets (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], interleukin 6 [IL6], nitric oxide synthase 3 [NOS3], Interleukin-8 [CXCL8], prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 [PTGS2], vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGFA], and AP-1 transcription factor subunit [JUN]) might be the therapeutic targets of GQHXC in CSR. Moreover, molecular docking verification showed that TNF, IL6, NOS3, CXCL8, PTGS2, VEGFA, and JUN had a good is interaction with the corresponding compounds. Furthermore, enrichment analysis indicated that GQHXC might exert a curative role in CSR by regulating some important pathways, such as TNF signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, and so on. CONCLUSION: Our study preliminarily explained the underlying mechanisms of GQHXC for treating CSR, and molecular docking verification was adopted as an additional verification. These findings laid a valuable foundation for experimental research and further application of GQHXC in the clinical treatment of CSR.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Espondilose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Farmacologia/métodos
5.
J Nurs Educ ; 60(9): 529-533, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although pharmacology serves as a foundation for health care professions, a gap exists between education and the clinical application. Experiential learning has demonstrated benefit when integrated into pharmacology courses; however, professors struggle with the challenge of incorporating active learning modalities into traditional lecture courses. METHOD: Active learning and high-impact educational practices, based on cognitive theory, were incorporated into a pharmacology course sequence. After course completion and entry into the clinical setting, qualitative data were collected from students and clinical preceptors. RESULTS: Students and clinical preceptors reported an improvement in students' ability to recall and apply concepts clinically. Students identified the creation of cognitive aids as the most advantageous measure. CONCLUSION: Integrating active learning and high-impact educational practices into pharmacology courses could potentially aid in the ability to recall and apply concepts clinically, reduce medication errors and expenditures, and increase student confidence when entering clinical education. [J Nurs Educ. 2021;60(9):529-533.].


Assuntos
Currículo , Farmacologia , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Farmacologia/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e26929, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477124

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Yu-Ping-Feng powder (YPFP) has been used to treat allergic rhinitis (AR) for centuries. However, the mechanisms underlying its effects or its molecular targets in AR treatment are yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the active compounds of YPFP and their targets were collected and identified from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology database. Moreover, AR-associated targets were acquired from the GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database. Proteins interactions network of YPFP presumed targets and AR-associated targets were examined and merged to reveal the candidate YPFP targets against AR.Cytoscape software and BisoGenet Database were employed to perform the Visualization and Integrated Discovery (Cluster Profiler R package, version: 3.8.1). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and genome pathway analyses. To identify the key target genes, a gene-pathway network has been constructed.We identified 44 effective active compounds and 622 YPFP targets. Also 1324 target genes related to AR were identified. Twenty pathways, including those of AGE-RAGE signaling, fluid shear stress, atherosclerosis, PI3K-Akt signaling, and tumor necrosis factor signaling was enriched significantly. MAPK1 was identified as the core gene, while others including RELA, AKT1, NFKBIA, IL6, and JUN, were also important in the gene-pathway network. Clearly, network pharmacology can be applied in revealing the molecular targets and mechanisms of action of complex herbal preparations.These findings suggested that YPFP could treat AR by regulating immunological functions, diminishing inflammation, and improving immunity through different pathways.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Farmacologia/métodos , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178 Suppl 1: S246-S263, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529827

RESUMO

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22 is the fifth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews, mostly in tabular format, of the key properties of nearly 1900 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide constitutes over 500 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/bph.15540. Nuclear hormone receptors are one of the six major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid-2021, and supersedes data presented in the 2019/20, 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (NC-IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Farmacologia , Humanos , Ligantes , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G
8.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178 Suppl 1: S264-S312, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529829

RESUMO

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22 is the fifth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews, mostly in tabular format, of the key properties of nearly 1900 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide constitutes over 500 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/bph.15541. Catalytic receptors are one of the six major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid-2021, and supersedes data presented in the 2019/20, 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (NC-IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Farmacologia , Humanos , Canais Iônicos , Ligantes , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G
9.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178 Suppl 1: S1-S26, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529830

RESUMO

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22 is the fifth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews, mostly in tabular format, of the key properties of nearly 1900 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide constitutes over 500 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/bph.15537. In addition to this overview, in which are identified 'Other protein targets' which fall outside of the subsequent categorisation, there are six areas of focus: G protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid-2021, and supersedes data presented in the 2019/20, 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (NC-IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Farmacologia , Humanos , Canais Iônicos , Ligantes , Transporte Proteico , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares
10.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178 Suppl 1: S412-S513, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529826

RESUMO

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22 is the fifth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews, mostly in tabular format, of the key properties of nearly 1900 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide constitutes over 500 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/bph.15543. Transporters are one of the six major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid-2021, and supersedes data presented in the 2019/20, 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (NC-IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Farmacologia , Humanos , Canais Iônicos , Ligantes , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G
11.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178 Suppl 1: S313-S411, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529828

RESUMO

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22 is the fifth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews, mostly in tabular format, of the key properties of nearly 1900 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide constitutes over 500 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/bph.15542. Enzymes are one of the six major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid-2021, and supersedes data presented in the 2019/20, 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (NC-IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Farmacologia , Humanos , Canais Iônicos , Ligantes , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G
12.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178 Suppl 1: S157-S245, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529831

RESUMO

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22 is the fifth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews, mostly in tabular format, of the key properties of nearly 1900 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide constitutes over 500 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/bph.15539. Ion channels are one of the six major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid-2021, and supersedes data presented in the 2019/20, 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (NC-IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Farmacologia , Humanos , Canais Iônicos , Bases de Conhecimento , Ligantes , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G
13.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178 Suppl 1: S27-S156, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529832

RESUMO

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22 is the fifth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews, mostly in tabular format, of the key properties of nearly 1900 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide constitutes over 500 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/bph.15538. G protein-coupled receptors are one of the six major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid-2021, and supersedes data presented in the 2019/20, 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (NC-IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Farmacologia , Humanos , Canais Iônicos , Ligantes , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G
17.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(9): 1099-1101, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Faculty everywhere are struggling to transition their on-campus courses to an online format due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We transitioned our graduate pathophysiology and clinical pharmacology courses for advanced practice providers from the classroom to completely online several years ago. These are content heavy courses with relatively high enrollment. PERSPECTIVE: Since transitioning we have identified challenges and gathered extensive student feedback that has guided substantial refinement of these courses. In this article we highlight how our approaches to online teaching focus on four basic pillars: organization, course content delivery, communication, and assessment. IMPLICATIONS: Examples of high-yield improvements that enhance learning are provided.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Educação à Distância/métodos , Farmacologia/educação , Currículo , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Biochemistry ; 60(29): 2275-2284, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259514

RESUMO

Scientific discoveries often start with an observation that does not quite make sense, within the framework of a well-established hypothesis. It is when researchers delve deeply to understand such perplexing data that established hypotheses are modified or replaced, and new and expanded knowledge of the system can be gained. This is often the case in the field of drug discovery. In this Perspective, case studies demonstrate how an understanding of perplexing data can lead to novel discoveries regarding the biological function of drug targets, or the mechanisms of compound-target interactions, that can ultimately result in new drugs entering the clinic. These case studies reinforce two interdependent themes: (1) that understanding the pathophysiological context in which drug targets function and the mechanistic details of drug-target interactions are critical to efficient and effective drug discovery and (2) that investing time and energy into following up on perplexing data can lead to novel discoveries that can drive the development of new and improved medicines.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Bioquímica/métodos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Farmacologia
19.
J. nurs. health ; 11(3): 2111320491, jun. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1342761

RESUMO

Objective: to assess the adherence of people with type 1 diabetes to self-care activities. Method: quantitative study with 60 diabetics, from Porto, Portugal. The Self-Care Scale for Diabetes in its version translated and adapted to Portuguese was applied in January to February 2019. Results: respondents are mostly young (36.7%), employed (63.4%), female (73.3%), married (36.7%), high educated (60.0%) and diagnosed with recent diabetes (50.0%). Most have good mean adherence to self-care behaviors related to food (5.0), blood glucose monitoring (6.8), foot care (5.6) and medication (6.4). Regarding physical activity (2.6) and smoking, 73.3% of respondents say they smoked a cigarette in the last seven days lower adherence was identified. Conclusions: there is a need to develop educational programs to ensure a higher adherence to healthy lifestyles.(AU)


Objetivo: avaliar a adesão de pessoas com diabetes tipo 1 às atividades de autocuidado. Método: estudo com 60 diabéticos, do Porto, Portugal. Foi aplicada a Escala de Autocuidado para Diabetes traduzida e adaptada para o português em janeiro a fevereiro de 2019. Resultados: os inquiridos são maioritariamente jovens (36,7%), empregados (63,4%), mulheres (36,7%), casados (36,7%), com ensino superior (60,0%) e com diagnóstico recente de diabetes (50,0%). A maioria tem boa adesão aos comportamentos de autocuidado relacionados à alimentação (5,0), monitoramento da glicemia (6,8), cuidados com os pés (5,6) e medicamentos (6,4). Em relação à atividade física (2,6) e ao tabagismo, 73,3% dos entrevistados afirmam que fumaram um cigarro nos últimos sete dias foi identificada menor adesão. Conclusões: há necessidade de desenvolvimento de programas educativos que garantam uma maior adesão aos estilos de vida saudáveis.(AU)


Objetivo: evaluar la adherencia de las personas con diabetes tipo 1 a las actividades de autocuidado. Método: estudio cuantitativo con 60 diabéticos, de Porto, Portugal. Se aplicó la Escala de Autocuidado de la Diabetes y se tradujo al portugués en enero a febrero de 2019. Resultados: los encuestados son principalmente jóvenes (36,7%), empleados (63,4%), mujeres (36,7%), casados (36,7%), con estudios superiores (60,0%) y con diagnóstico reciente de diabetes (50,0%). La mayoría tiene una buena adherencia al autocuidado relacionado con la alimentación (5,0), control de la glucosa en sangre (6,8), cuidado de los pies (5,6) y medicación (6,4). En cuanto a actividad física (2,6) y tabaquismo, 73,3% de los encuestados dice haber fumado un cigarrillo en los últimos siete días, se identificó menor adherencia. Conclusiones: hay necesidad de desarrollar programas educativos que aseguren una mayor adherencia a los estilos de vida saludables.(AU)


Assuntos
Farmacologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Complicações do Diabetes
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