Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 37.070
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249104, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339389

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the strength of association of raised plasma homocysteine concentration as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factor. It was a case control study conducted at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. A total of 210 subjects aged 25 to 60 years comprising of 105 newly admitted patients of CHD as cases and 105 age and sex matched healthy individuals with no history of CHD as control were recruited for the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from cases and controls. Plasma homocysteine was analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method on automated immunoassay analyzer (Abbott IMX). Total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were analyzed using calorimetric kit methods. The concentration of LDL cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. The patients were also assessed for traditional risk factors such as age, sex, family history of CVD, hypertension, smoking and physical activity, and were compared with control subjects. The collected data was entered in SPSS version 24 for analysis and interpretation.The mean age in controls and experimental groups were 43.00± 8.42 years and 44.72± 8.59 years with statistically same distribution (p- value= 0.144). The mean plasma homocysteine for cases was 22.33± 9.22 µmol/L where as it was 12.59±3.73 µmol/L in control group. Highly significant difference was seen between the mean plasma level of homocysteine in cases and controls (p˂0.001).Simple logistic regression indicates a strong association of coronary heart disease with hyperhomocysteinemia (OR 7.45), which remained significantly associated with coronary heart disease by multivariate logistic regression (OR 7.10, 95%C1 3.12-12.83, p=0.000). The present study concludes that elevated levels of Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factors and can be used as an indicator for predicting the future possibility for the onset of CVD.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a força da associação da concentração elevada de homocisteína no plasma como um fator de risco para doença cardíaca coronária independente do fator de risco convencional. Foi um estudo de caso-controle realizado no Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. Um total de 210 indivíduos com idade entre 25 e 60 anos, compreendendo 105 pacientes recém-admitidos de CHD como casos e 105 indivíduos saudáveis ​​pareados por idade e sexo sem histórico de CHD como controle, foi recrutado para o estudo. Amostras de sangue em jejum foram obtidas de casos e controles. A homocisteína plasmática foi analisada pelo método de imunoensaio de polarização de fluorescência (FPIA) em analisador de imunoensaio automatizado (Abbott IMX). Colesterol total, triglicerídeos e colesterol HDL foram analisados ​​usando métodos de kit calorimétrico. A concentração de colesterol LDL foi calculada pela fórmula de Friedewald. Os pacientes também foram avaliados para fatores de risco tradicionais, como idade, sexo, história familiar de DCV, hipertensão, tabagismo e atividade física, e foram comparados com indivíduos de controle. Os dados coletados foram inseridos no SPSS versão 24 para análise e interpretação. A média de idade nos grupos controles e experimentais foi de 43,00 ± 8,42 anos e 44,72 ± 8,59 anos com distribuição estatisticamente igual (p-valor = 0,144). A homocisteína plasmática média para os casos foi de 22,33 ± 9,22 µmol / L, enquanto no grupo controle foi de 12,59 ± 3,73 µmol / L. Diferença altamente significativa foi observada entre o nível plasmático médio de homocisteína em casos e controles (p ˂ 0,001). A regressão logística simples indica uma forte associação de doença cardíaca coronária com hiper-homocisteinemia (OR 7,45), que permaneceu significativamente associada com doença cardíaca coronária por multivariada regressão logística (OR 7,10, 95% C1 3,12-12,83, p = 0,000). O presente estudo conclui que níveis elevados de homocisteína plasmática são fator de risco independente para doença cardíaca coronária, independentemente dos fatores de risco convencionais, e pode ser usado como um indicador para prever a possibilidade futura de aparecimento de DCV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença das Coronárias/embriologia , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/diagnóstico , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores de Risco , Jejum
2.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 11(2): 165-172, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453416

RESUMO

Tadalafil is an effective, reversible, and competitive phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor mainly used to treat erectile dysfunction. This study investigated the bioequivalence of generic and marketed formulations of 10-mg tadalafil tablets under fasted and fed conditions. This open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover study included 53 healthy Chinese men (aged 20-43 years). Plasma samples were collected from 0.5 hours before treatment to 72 hours after each dose and analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Safety assessments were performed throughout the study. For the fasted state, the 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios between the generic and marketed formulations were 86.1% to 99.1% for the maximum plasma concentration and 88.4% to 100.3% for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity, and the corresponding values under the fed state were and 99.9% to 108.4% and 95.7% to 104.3%, respectively. All data were within the accepted bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. After consuming high-fat, high-calorie meals in the fed condition, the time to the maximum plasma concentration was similar between the formulations, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity and maximum plasma concentration were 10.2% and 6.55% higher, respectively, for the marketed formulation. Thus, food had no clinically relevant effect on tadalafil exposure following a single oral dose in healthy Chinese men. No serious adverse reactions were reported. These results indicated that the analyzed generic and marketed tadalafil tablets were bioequivalent with similar safety profiles.


Assuntos
Jejum , Adulto , China , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Comprimidos , Tadalafila/efeitos adversos , Equivalência Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
4.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 84-93, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130569

RESUMO

Long-term glycemic fluctuation has been associated with cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the findings are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the association between parameters of long-term glycemic variability and risk of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients. Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for longitudinal follow-up studies comparing the incidence of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients with higher or lower long-term glycemic variability. A random-effect model incorporating the potential heterogeneity among the included studies was used to pool the results. Twelve follow-up studies with 146 653 T2DM patients were included. The mean follow-up duration was 4.9 years. Pooled results showed that compared to those with the lowest glycemic variability, patients with the highest glycemic variability had significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events, as evidenced by the standard deviation of glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c-SD: relative risk (RR)=1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23 to 1.69, p<0.001; I2=70%], HbA1c coefficient of variation (HbA1c-CV: RR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.79. p<0.001; I2=83%), standard deviation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG-SD: RR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.65, p=0.009; I2=0%), and FPG coefficient of variation (FPG-CV: RR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.64, p=0.04; I2=47%). In conclusion, increased long-term glycemic variability may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 22(3): 16-24, sep.-dic. 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-396

RESUMO

Attention is a very important aspect for school and physic performance and, regular breakfast consumption has been associated with better student performance. In addition, adequate glycemia levels are related to better quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of breakfast consumption andglycemia levels on concentrated and distributed attention levels of high school students. This is a quantitative and cross-sectional research. The sample was composed by 54 students with average ages of 16±0.89, regularly enrolled in high school at an institution of the public school system. For this research we used the following data collection instruments: I) food records; II) capillary blood glucose testing with electronic device; III) Toulouse-Piéron's concentrated attention test, and; IV) Grid-type test. The data was collected on visits to the research site from 8:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. The sample was divided into fed group (who had breakfast) and fasting group (who had no breakfast). The fed group showed statistically better results for glycemia levels (87.25±14.76 mg/dl), concentrated attention (116.21±36.49 points), and distributed attention (20.89±4.08 points). Mild correlations between the glycemia and attention levels were found. The results suggest a positive association between breakfast consumption and glycemia levels adequate to health with concentrated and distributed attention levels. (AU)


La atención es un aspecto muy importante para el desempeño escolary,el consumo regular de desayuno se ha asociado con un mejor desempeño de los estudiantes. Además, los niveles adecuados de glucemia están relacionados con una mejor calidad de vida. Por lo tanto, el propósito de este estudio es analizar los efectos del consumo de desayuno y los niveles de glucemia en los niveles de atención concentrada y distribuida de los estudiantes de secundaria. Se trata de una investigación cuantitativa y transversal. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 54 estudiantes con edad promedio de 16 ± 0.89, matriculadosregularmente en la escuela secundaria en una institución del sistema escolar público. Para esta investigación utilizamos los siguientes instrumentos de recolección de datos: I) registros de alimentos; II) prueba de glucosa en sangre capilar con dispositivo electrónico; III) Prueba de atención concentrada de Toulouse-Piéron, y; IV) Ensayo tipo cuadrícula. Los datos se recolectaron en visitas al sitio de investigación de 8:00 a.m. a 9:00 a.m. La muestra se dividió en grupo alimentado (que desayunó) y grupo en ayunas (que no desayunó). El grupo alimentado mostró estadísticamente mejores resultados para los niveles de glucemia (87,25 ± 14,76 mg / dl), atención concentrada (116,21 ± 36,49 puntos) y atención distribuida (20,89 ± 4,08 puntos). Se encontraron levescorrelaciones entre la glucemia y los niveles de atención. Los resultados sugieren una asociación positiva entre el consumo de desayuno y los niveles de glucemia adecuados a la salud con los niveles de atención concentrada y distribuida. (AU)


A atenção é um aspecto bastante relevante para o rendimento físico e escolar, do mesmo modo, o consumo regular do café da manhã tem sido associado ao melhor desempenho de estudantes. Em complemento, índices adequados de glicemia estão relacionados a melhor qualidade de vida. Portanto, a presente pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar o impacto do consumo do café da manhã e dos índices de glicemia nos níveis de atenção concentrada e distributiva de escolares do ensino médio. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como quantitativa e transversal. A amostra foi composta por 54 escolares com idade média de 16±0,89, regularmente matriculados no ensino médio de uma instituição da rede pública de ensino. Foram utilizados como instrumentos de coleta de dados: I) recordatório alimentar; II) teste de glicemia capilar por dispositivo eletrônico; III) teste de atenção concentrada de Toulouse-Piéron e; IV) teste do tipo Grelha. Os dados foram coletados em visitas ao local de pesquisaentre às 08h00min e 09h00min. A amostra foi dicotomizada em grupo alimentado (que consumiu café da manhã) e grupo jejum (sem consumo de café da manhã). O grupo alimentado apresentou resultados estatisticamente melhores de índice de glicemia (87,25±14,76 mg/dl), atenção concentrada (116,21±36,49 pontos) e atenção distributiva (20,89±4,08 pontos). Foram identificadas correlações leves entre o índice de glicemia e os níveis de atenção. Os resultados sugerem uma associação positiva entre o consumo do café da manhã e índices de glicemia adequados à saúde com os níveis de atenção concentrada e distributiva. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Desjejum , Atenção , Estudantes , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Brasil , Jejum
6.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst ; 34(1): 38, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies prove that short-term fasting secures healthy cells against chemotherapy side effects and makes malignant cells more vulnerable to them. This study aimed to examine the effects of intermittent fasting (IF) during adjuvant chemotherapy AC (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide) protocol in breast cancer (BC) patients. METHODS: Forty-eight newly diagnosed human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2 negative) BC patients were divided equally into two groups (24 each). The first group was recruited to fast intermittently for three consecutive days around chemotherapy for 18 h a day from 12 am to 6 pm and eats through 6 h a day from 6 pm to 12 am with permission of drinking water during fasting hours (IF group). This IF was repeated every 3 weeks for four cycles. The second group is a non-fasting (NF) group that was allowed to eat regularly. Toxicity in the two groups was compared. Hematologic, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters were measured and compared. RESULTS: Toxicity related to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was reduced in the IF group. Hematologic parameters showed no significant variations between the two studied groups after cycle 4. There was a significant increase in median glucose and median insulin levels (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) in the NF group between baseline and after cycle 4. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the median insulin level (P = 0.002) in the IF group between the two time points. CONCLUSION: IF throughout chemotherapy was well tolerated and decreased the toxicity of chemotherapy. Additionally, IF-improved metabolic profiles of patients may have a positive impact on the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Insulinas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Insulinas/uso terapêutico
7.
FASEB J ; 36(10): e22533, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065711

RESUMO

During animal fasting, the nutrient supply and metabolism switch from carbohydrates to a new reliance on the catabolism of energy-dense lipid stores. Assembled under tight regulation, ßγ-CAT (a complex of non-lens ßγ-crystallin and trefoil factor) is a pore-forming protein and trefoil factor complex identified in toad Bombina maxima. Here, we determined that this protein complex is a constitutive component in toad blood, that actively responds to the animal fasting. The protein complex was able to promote cellular albumin and albumin-bound fatty acid (FA) uptake in a variety of epithelial and endothelial cells, and the effects were attenuated by a macropinocytosis inhibitor. Endothelial cell-derived exosomes containing largely enriched albumin and FAs, called nutrisomes, were released in the presence of ßγ-CAT. These specific nutrient vesicles were readily taken up by starved myoblast cells to support their survival. The results uncovered that pore-forming protein ßγ-CAT is a fasting responsive element able to drive cell vesicular import and export of macromolecular nutrients.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Fatores Trefoil , Albuminas/metabolismo , Animais , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Jejum , Nutrientes , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Fatores Trefoil/metabolismo
8.
Cell Rep ; 40(13): 111417, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170815

RESUMO

The effects of fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) cycles in reducing many aging and disease risk factors indicate it could affect Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we show that FMD cycles reduce cognitive decline and AD pathology in E4FAD and 3xTg AD mouse models, with effects superior to those caused by protein restriction cycles. In 3xTg mice, long-term FMD cycles reduce hippocampal Aß load and hyperphosphorylated tau, enhance genesis of neural stem cells, decrease microglia number, and reduce expression of neuroinflammatory genes, including superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox2). 3xTg mice lacking Nox2 or mice treated with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin also display improved cognition and reduced microglia activation compared with controls. Clinical data indicate that FMD cycles are feasible and generally safe in a small group of AD patients. These results indicate that FMD cycles delay cognitive decline in AD models in part by reducing neuroinflammation and/or superoxide production in the brain.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Jejum , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , NADPH Oxidases , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Superóxidos , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274327, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36149854

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the eating behaviours of many people, especially Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. This study aimed to determine the level of mindful eating and its associated factors among T2DM patients at a primary care clinic near Kuala Lumpur. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 18th December 2020 to 5th March 2021 during the movement control order in Malaysia. Respondents were recruited using systematic random sampling via an electronic appointment system. They completed a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic, clinical profiles, and a Malay-translated Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ-M). Their blood pressure and body mass index were taken during the appointment day while the remaining clinical profiles such as fasting blood sugar (FBS) were obtained from the medical record. Two hundred respondents were recruited with a mean (SD) age of 57.0 (10.90) years. More than half of them were female (54%). Two-thirds of them had uncontrolled diabetes based on elevated FBS of >7 mmol/L (61.5%) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of >7% (67%), respectively. The mean (SD) score for mindful eating was 2.9 (0.25). Multiple logistic regression revealed that older respondents had a higher level of mindful eating [(AOR = 1.05, p-value 0.01, 95% CI = 1.01-1.09)]. In addition, elevated FBS level was also associated with a greater level of mindful eating [(AOR = 2.55, p-value 0.01, 95% CI = 1.28-5.07)]. Therefore, healthcare providers should promote mindful eating during the consultation, especially among younger patients. Blood glucose monitoring is also recommended to instil awareness of the importance of healthy eating habits.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5677, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167809

RESUMO

Fasting exerts beneficial effects in mice and humans, including protection from chemotherapy toxicity. To explore the involved mechanisms, we collect blood from humans and mice before and after 36 or 24 hours of fasting, respectively, and measure lipid composition of erythrocyte membranes, circulating micro RNAs (miRNAs), and RNA expression at peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Fasting coordinately affects the proportion of polyunsaturated versus saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids at the erythrocyte membrane; and reduces the expression of insulin signaling-related genes in PBMCs. When fasted for 24 hours before and 24 hours after administration of oxaliplatin or doxorubicin, mice show a strong protection from toxicity in several tissues. Erythrocyte membrane lipids and PBMC gene expression define two separate groups of individuals that accurately predict a differential protection from chemotherapy toxicity, with important clinical implications. Our results reveal a mechanism of fasting associated with lipid homeostasis, and provide biomarkers of fasting to predict fasting-mediated protection from chemotherapy toxicity.


Assuntos
Jejum , MicroRNAs , Animais , Biomarcadores , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Jejum/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Homeostase , Humanos , Insulina , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Oxaliplatina
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100292

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With pre-diabetes and diabetes increasingly recognized as heterogeneous conditions, assessment of beta-cell function is gaining clinical importance to identify disease subphenotypes. Our study aims to comprehensively validate all types of surrogate indices based on oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and fasting measurements in comparison with gold standard methods. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The hyperglycemic clamp extended with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) infusion and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), as well as OGTT, was performed in two well-phenotyped cohorts. The gold standard-derived indices were compared with surrogate insulin secretion markers, derived from fasting state and OGTT, using both Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients. The insulin-based and C-peptide-based indices were analyzed separately in different groups of glucose tolerance and the entire cohorts. RESULTS: The highest correlation coefficients were found for area under curve (AUC) (I0-30)/AUC (G0-30), I30/G30, first-phase Stumvoll and Kadowaki model. These indices have high correlation coefficients with measures obtained from both insulin and C-peptide levels from IVGTT and hyperglycemic clamp. AUC (I0-120)/AUC (G0-120), BIGTT-AIR0-60-120, I30/G30, first-phase Stumvoll and AUC (I0-30)/AUC (G0-30) demonstrated the strongest association with incretin-stimulated insulin response. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified glucose-stimulated and GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion indices, derived from OGTT and fasting state, that have the strongest correlation with gold standard measures and could be potentially used in future researches and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Jejum , Insulina , Peptídeo C , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Glucose , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Insulina Regular Humana
12.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2617-2626, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36135935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As per the National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) requirements, the quality and efficacy of generic drugs must be consistent with those of the innovator drug. We aimed to evaluate the bioequivalence and safety of generic metformin hydrochloride sustained-release (MH-SR) tablets (Boke®) developed by Beijing Wanhui Double-crane Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., China and the innovator product metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets (Glucophage®-XR) manufactured by Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New York, NY, in healthy Chinese volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a bioequivalence and safety assessment of MH-SR (500 mg/tablet) and Glucophage®-XR (500 mg/tablet) tablets in a randomized, open-label, two-period, two-sequence crossover, single-dose oral study in 48 healthy Chinese adult participants under fasting conditions (Chinese Clinical Trial Registration No. CTR20171306). The washout period was seven days. Bioequivalence (80.00-125.00%) was assessed using adjusted geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) for each component. RESULTS: The 90% CIs of the test/reference preparation for key pharmacokinetic parameters were 97.36-108.30% for AUC0→t, 97.26-108.09% for AUC0→∞ and 96.76-111.37% for Cmax. No severe adverse events (AEs) were observed. However, 38 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurred, including metabolic or nutritional conditions (n = 8), infections (n = 2), gastrointestinal conditions (n = 10) and abnormal inspection (n = 18). No significant difference was observed between MH-SR (23 ADRs, 10 participants) and Glucophage®-XR (15 ADRs, 12 participants) (p = .500). Bioequivalence was concluded since the 90% CIs of the main pharmacokinetic parameters were within the equivalence interval (80.00-125.00%). CONCLUSIONS: MH-SR (500 mg/tablet) and Glucophage®-XR (500 mg/tablet) were found to be bioequivalent and safe under fasting conditions in healthy Chinese participants. Thus, the market demand for MH-SR tablets (500 mg/tablet) can be met using the generic alternative.KEY MESSAGESGeneric MH-SR tablets (500 mg, Beijing Wanhui Double-crane Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Beijing, China) and innovator MH-SR tablets (Glucophage®-XR, 500 mg, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New York, NY, USA) were bioequivalent and safe in healthy Chinese volunteers under single-dose administration and fasting conditions.The main goal of this study is to support an increase in the supply of MH-SR tablets in China by proving the efficacy and safety of a generic alternative.Although no sugar was administered in the BE trial of the MH-SR tablets under fasting conditions, no hypoglycaemic event occurred. The method used in this study is expected to serve as a reference for BE studies of different MH-SR formulations.


Assuntos
Metformina , Adulto , China , Preparações de Ação Retardada/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos Genéricos/farmacocinética , Jejum , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Comprimidos , Equivalência Terapêutica
13.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079816

RESUMO

Lifestyle interventions can have a positive impact on quality of life and psychological parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this randomized controlled trial, 145 participants with MetS (62.8% women; 59.7 ± 9.3 years) were randomized to (1) 5-day fasting followed by 10 weeks of lifestyle modification (F + LM; modified DASH diet, exercise, mindfulness; n = 73) or (2) 10 weeks of lifestyle modification only (LM; n = 72). Outcomes were assessed at weeks 0, 1, 12, and 24, and included quality of life (Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire, SF-36), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS), stress (Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, CPSS), mood (Profile of Mood States, POMS), self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale, GSE), mindfulness (Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS), and self-compassion (Self-Compassion Scale, SCS). At week 1, POMS depression and fatigue scores were significantly lower in F + LM compared to LM. At week 12, most self-report outcomes improved in both groups-only POMS vigor was significantly higher in F + LM than in LM. Most of the beneficial effects within the groups persisted at week 24. Fasting can induce mood-modulating effects in the short term. LM induced several positive effects on quality of life and psychological parameters in patients with MetS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Qualidade de Vida , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
14.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079821

RESUMO

(Poly)phenols have anti-diabetic properties that are mediated through the regulation of the main biomarkers associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (IR)), as well as the modulation of other metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. A wide range of human and pre-clinical studies supports these effects for different plant products containing mixed (poly)phenols (e.g., berries, cocoa, tea) and for some single compounds (e.g., resveratrol). We went through some of the latest human intervention trials and pre-clinical studies looking at (poly)phenols against T2DM to update the current evidence and to examine the progress in this field to achieve consistent proof of the anti-diabetic benefits of these compounds. Overall, the reported effects remain small and highly variable, and the accumulated data are still limited and contradictory, as shown by recent meta-analyses. We found newly published studies with better experimental strategies, but there were also examples of studies that still need to be improved. Herein, we highlight some of the main aspects that still need to be considered in future studies and reinforce the messages that need to be taken on board to achieve consistent evidence of the anti-diabetic effects of (poly)phenols.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Jejum , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenóis/farmacologia
15.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079870

RESUMO

Ketone bodies are small compounds derived from fatty acids that behave as an alternative mitochondrial energy source when insulin levels are low, such as during fasting or strenuous exercise. In addition to the metabolic function of ketone bodies, they also have several signaling functions separate from energy production. In this perspective, we review the main current data referring to ketone bodies in correlation with nutrition and metabolic pathways as well as to the signaling functions and the potential impact on clinical conditions. Data were selected following eligibility criteria accordingly to the reviewed topic. We used a set of electronic databases (Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Web of Sciences (WOS), Cochrane Library) for a systematic search until July 2022 using MeSH keywords/terms (i.e., ketone bodies, BHB, acetoacetate, inflammation, antioxidant, etc.). The literature data reported in this review need confirmation with consistent clinical trials that might validate the results obtained in in vitro and in vivo in animal models. However, the data on exogenous ketone consumption and the effect on the ketone bodies' brain uptake and metabolism might spur the research to define the acute and chronic effects of ketone bodies in humans and pursue the possible implication in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Therefore, additional studies are required to examine the potential systemic and metabolic consequences of ketone bodies.


Assuntos
Cetose , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Jejum , Humanos , Corpos Cetônicos/metabolismo , Cetose/metabolismo
16.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(9): 11-12, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, obesity has nearly tripled since 1975 and has become a major healthcare challenge today. Intermittent fasting (IF) is gaining popularity as a weight loss strategy in recent times. This study aimed to study the role of IF as a modern-day weight-loss strategy in obese adults through a real-world pilot experiment conducted at a nutrition clinic in Mumbai. METHODOLOGY: To understand the effects of IF on weight loss, 32 overweight/obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥23 kg/m2] adults from a nutrition clinic in Mumbai, were assigned consecutively to an IF plan and followed up for 3 months. Their demographic, anthropometric, and dietary assessments were done pre- and post-intervention. Qualitative interviews were done at the end of the study to record the participants' overall well-being, experience, and sustainability of IF. RESULTS: 56% of study participants were males and their mean age was 35.6 ± 8.9 years. 65.6% of participants were able to maintain 14-16 hours of fasting and 53% managed all 7 days of IF. Analysis of post-intervention data showed a significant reduction in mean body weight (88.5 ± 19 to 83.8 ± 17.6 kg), waist circumference (M: 108.2 ± 11.3 to 103.6 ± 4.4 cm, F: 98.9 ± 8.8 to 93.3 ± 3.3 cm), BMI (31.4 ± 5.3 to 29.6 ± 5.1 kg/m2), daily calories (1782 ± 237 to 1388 ± 243 kcal/day), carbohydrate intake (267 ± 18.4 to 164 ± 4.0 g/day), and an increase in protein intake (39 ± 11 to 55 ± 11 g/day). Participants reported positive experiences of practicing IF such as improved fitness, sleep cycle, and adoption of healthy eating habits. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that IF could aid in weight loss and adoption of a healthier lifestyle.


Assuntos
Jejum , Obesidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso , Redução de Peso
17.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0261803, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067168

RESUMO

Cells adapt their metabolism to physiological stimuli, and metabolic heterogeneity exists between cell types, within tissues, and subcellular compartments. The liver plays an essential role in maintaining whole-body metabolic homeostasis and is structurally defined by metabolic zones. These zones are well-understood on the transcriptomic level, but have not been comprehensively characterized on the metabolomic level. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be used to map hundreds of metabolites directly from a tissue section, offering an important advance to investigate metabolic heterogeneity in tissues compared to extraction-based metabolomics methods that analyze tissue metabolite profiles in bulk. We established a workflow for the preparation of tissue specimens for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI that can be implemented to achieve broad coverage of central carbon, nucleotide, and lipid metabolism pathways. Herein, we used this approach to visualize the effect of nutrient stress and excess on liver metabolism. Our data revealed a highly organized metabolic tissue compartmentalization in livers, which becomes disrupted under high fat diet. Fasting caused changes in the abundance of several metabolites, including increased levels of fatty acids and TCA intermediates while fatty livers had higher levels of purine and pentose phosphate-related metabolites, which generate reducing equivalents to counteract oxidative stress. This spatially conserved approach allowed the visualization of liver metabolic compartmentalization at 30 µm pixel resolution and can be applied more broadly to yield new insights into metabolic heterogeneity in vivo.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Jejum , Fígado , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 965890, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072930

RESUMO

Background: There is still controversy surrounding the precise characterization of prediabetic population. We aim to identify and examine factors of demographic, behavioral, clinical, and biochemical characteristics, and obesity indicators (anthropometric characteristics and anthropometric prediction equation) for prediabetes according to different definition criteria of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in the Chinese population. Methods: A longitudinal study consisted of baseline survey and two follow-ups was conducted, and a pooled data were analyzed. Prediabetes was defined as either impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) according to the ADA criteria. Robust generalized estimating equation models were used. Results: A total of 5,713 (58.42%) observations were prediabetes (IGT, 38.07%; IGT, 26.51%; elevated HbA1c, 23.45%); 9.66% prediabetes fulfilled all the three ADA criteria. Among demographic characteristics, higher age was more evident in elevated HbA1c [adjusted OR (aOR)=2.85]. Female individuals were less likely to have IFG (aOR=0.70) and more likely to suffer from IGT than male individuals (aOR=1.41). Several inconsistency correlations of biochemical characteristics and obesity indicators were detected by prediabetes criteria. Body adiposity estimator exhibited strong association with prediabetes (D10: aOR=4.05). For IFG and elevated HbA1c, the odds of predicted lean body mass exceed other indicators (D10: aOR=3.34; aOR=3.64). For IGT, predicted percent fat presented the highest odds (D10: aOR=6.58). Conclusion: Some correlated factors of prediabetes under different criteria differed, and obesity indicators were easily measured for target identification. Our findings could be used for targeted intervention to optimize preventions to mitigate the obviously increased prevalence of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Intolerância à Glucose , Estado Pré-Diabético , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Jejum , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36143914

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The gut microbiota has been increasingly recognized as a relevant factor associated with metabolic diseases. However, directly measuring the microbiota composition is a limiting factor for several studies. Therefore, using genetic variables as proxies for the microbiota composition is an important issue. Landmark microbiome-host genome-wide association studies (mbGWAS) have identified many SNPs associated with gut microbiota. Our aim was to analyze the association between relevant microbiome-related genetic variants (Mi-RSNPs) and fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in a Mediterranean population, exploring the interaction with Mediterranean diet adherence. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in a high-cardiovascular-risk Mediterranean population (n = 1020), analyzing the association of Mi-RSNPs (from four published mbGWAS) with fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes. A single-variant approach was used for fitting fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes to a multivariable regression model. In addition, a Mendelian randomization analysis with multiple variants was performed as a sub-study. Results: We obtained several associations between Mi-RSNPs and fasting plasma glucose involving gut Gammaproteobacteria_HB, the order Rhizobiales, the genus Rumminococcus torques group, and the genus Tyzzerella as the top ranked. For type 2 diabetes, we also detected significant associations with Mi-RSNPs related to the order Rhizobiales, the family Desulfovibrionaceae, and the genus Romboutsia. In addition, some Mi-RSNPs and adherence to Mediterranean diet interactions were detected. Lastly, the formal Mendelian randomization analysis suggested combined effects. Conclusions: Although the use of Mi-RSNPs as proxies of the microbiome is still in its infancy, and although this is the first study analyzing such associations with fasting plasma glucose and type 2 diabetes in a Mediterranean population, some interesting associations, as well as modulations, with adherence to the Mediterranean diet were detected in these high-cardiovascular-risk subjects, eliciting new hypotheses.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genética Humana , Humanos
20.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145073

RESUMO

Accurate dietary analysis of energy, nutrient intake, and meal timing in human studies using traditional dietary assessment methods (e.g., food records) is challenging and time-consuming. The widespread use of smartphones, tablets, and nutrition applications (apps) can overcome some of these problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of an FDDB smartphone app and food database compared with PRODI®-a professional platform for nutritional counselling using the German Nutrient Database. Dietary records were collected from 10 subjects participating in the crossover intermittent fasting trial for 2 weeks at baseline and during the eating timeframe of 8 h (early or late in the course of the day). The FDDB app and database enabled a quicker and less sophisticated analysis of food composition and timing than the PRODI® software. Good agreement between the methods was found for energy and macronutrient intakes, while the FDDB data on most micronutrients and saturated/unsaturated fat intake were unreliable. In contrast to PRODI®, FDDB provided effective assessment of timely compliance, making it a promising tool for chrononutritional studies. Thus, the FDDB app is comparable to the traditional PRODI® dietary assessment method, and can be effectively used in human dietary trials and medical practice for specific goals.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Dieta/métodos , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Jejum , Gorduras Insaturadas , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Avaliação Nutricional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Smartphone
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...