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1.
F1000Res ; 11: 486, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903418

RESUMO

Background: Overall child health depends on nutrition and its related practices. At the family level, responsibility of child feeding lies with both parents. There is no uniform and systematic way to determine and assess the practices of fathers in infant and young child feeding (IYCF). Also, there is a paucity of evidence related to interventions for fathers in improving their practices and involvement in the feeding of their infant or young child (aged less than two years). Methods: This was a community-based randomized control trial, conducted among 120 fathers with infants and/or young children in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka. Fathers with poor level of involvement and practices towards IYCF, during the initial assessment, were included as the study participants. For the intervention, a module in the flipchart format was developed. Simple randomization technique was used to allot the participants into two groups - intervention and control. Participants in the intervention group received module intervention, in addition to the care which they received routinely, and the control group received only routine care. The participants in the intervention group were paid a monthly visit to implement the module, for six months. The post-intervention assessment was done at the end of 6 months. Results: A total of 117 participants provided post-intervention data. The mean age was 34.7 (+/- 5.48) years in the intervention group and 34.36 years (+/- 5.26) in the control group. The intervention group had a significant improvement in knowledge, attitude, and practice components at 6 months. We noted higher change scores for the intervention group (p<0.05). Conclusions: The extent of increase in practice and involvement in child feeding was clearly higher among the intervention group. The module developed was successful in improving the practices of fathers in feeding their infants and young children. Clinical Trials Registry India: CTRI/2017/06/008936 (29/06/2017).


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pai , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino , Pais
2.
Health Promot Int ; 37(3)2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788301

RESUMO

This study examines social determinants impacting the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men in Australia. Social determinants prevent many men from thriving in community environments which also impacts on their social, work and family lives. We examine the impact on men's health and identify how men who participate in Men's Sheds/groups engage in learning about health interventions. Our study extends the work of Percival et al. and their Indigenous health promotion model. A qualitative case study approach conducted 'gatherings' and 'yarning circles' (focus groups) with men from urban, regional and remote areas of the country. We argue that men's groups can serve as a central intervention to support men to build their confidence to learn about health and wellbeing and how to thrive through activities in community life. Findings support health interventions delivered through training and mentoring around various health and other services, healthy eating, sport and fathering programmes (to name a few) to enhance awareness and men's vitality for learning. There are implications for our healthcare system to better understand the conditions of Aboriginal men's health and support these vulnerable groups. Our study proposes men's groups as culturally safe environments to promote and deliver central health promotion interventions that support men to thrive in all facets of their lives.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas , Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico , Pai , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Homem , Grupos Raciais
3.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2093912, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35786409

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The family environment is crucial in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity; however, there is a lack of knowledge concerning paternal perceptions and experiences in childhood weight management. The aim of this study was to explore (i) perceptions of contributing factors to childhood overweight and obesity among fathers of children with overweight or obesity and (ii) the fathers' experiences of their parental role caring for a child with overweight or obesity. METHOD: A qualitative content analysis was conducted of data from semi-structured in-depth interviews with eight Norwegian fathers of ten children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. RESULTS: The analysis identified one overall theme; Feeling uncertain and struggling to understand their own responsibility for the child's overweight or obesity, which consists of two themes; 1)Trying hard to figure out the child's obesity as a complex interaction of factors and 2)Family functioning-negotiating roles and responsibility in parenthood. CONCLUSION: Fathers must be met with understanding about their uncertainty and their struggle to understand their individual responsibility for their child's weight excess. It can be necessary to address the significance of family functioning, collaboration, responsibility within the familiy in addition to structural responsibility in clinical dialogues and counselling in order to help with weight management.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Criança , Emoções , Pai , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle
4.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(5): e20210243, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to build and validate an educational booklet to promote the involvement of parents in labor and birth. METHODS: methodological study developed in five stages: situational diagnosis; bibliographic survey; construction of illustrations, layout, design and texts; content and appearance validation by judges (25 experts) and calculation of the Flesch Readability Index; and validation with the target audience (12 parents). A minimum Content Validity Index of 0.80 was considered. RESULTS: the booklet was entitled "Father Presence" and was developed in 11 topics. In Content and Appearance Validation, the Validity Index obtained an overall score of 0.97. Cronbach's alpha was 0.92, indicating excellent reliability of its content. A global score of 74% for readability was obtained, considered easy to understand. CONCLUSIONS: the material was successful in the validation process, and it can be recommended for parents to use it during the prenatal period, promoting the inclusion of the partner and preparing them for labor and birth.


Assuntos
Folhetos , Parto , Tecnologia Educacional , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Andes Pediatr ; 93(3): 336-342, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857004

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study of Paternal-fetal attachment is a recent research area, which has become relevant due to its correlation with the postnatal paternal bond and its impact on the cognitive and socio-emotional de velopment of the child. OBJECTIVE: to characterize Paternal-fetal attachment, based on maternal pers pective, in puerperal women treated in a public hospital in the Metropolitan Region. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out. Hospitalized puerperal women were interviewed by applying a questionnaire with sociodemographic variables of both parents. In addi tion, the Paternal-fetal attachment Scale from the maternal perspective was applied, previously adap ted and validated. A descriptive and association analysis was performed to determine the behavior of the link indicator with respect to the sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: The mean Paternal-fetal attachment score from the maternal perspective was 41.5 (range 10-50), which is significantly higher in cases where parents live together, the couple's relationship is longer than two years, and in plan ned and controlled pregnancies before twelve weeks. There were no differences in the Paternal-fetal attachment score from the maternal perspective in relation to the number of children, nationality, or educational level. DISCUSSION: The Paternal-fetal attachment is mainly determined by characteristics of the parental relationship and not by the individual characteristics of the parents, therefore, the attachment must be seen from the triad.


Assuntos
Pai , Apego ao Objeto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal
7.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1858): 20210060, 2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858109

RESUMO

How do hormonal levels in men change from pregnancy to after the birth of their firstborn child, and what is the role of oxytocin, alone or in interplay with other hormones, in explaining variance in their parenting quality? We explored in 73 first-time fathers the development of five hormones that have been suggested to play a role in parenting: oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (AVP), testosterone (T), oestradiol (E2) and cortisol (Cort). In an extended group of fathers (N = 152) we examined associations with fathers' behaviour with their 2-month-old infants. OT and E2 showed stability from the prenatal to the postnatal assessments, whereas AVP and T decreased significantly, and Cort decreased marginally. OT on its own or in interplay with other hormones was not related to paternal sensitivity. Using an exploratory approach, the interaction between T and E2 emerged as relevant for fathers' sensitive parenting. Among fathers with high E2, high T was associated with lower sensitivity. Although we did not find evidence for the importance of OT as stand-alone hormone or in interplay with other hormones in this important phase in men's lives, the interaction between T and E2 in explaining variation in paternal behaviour is a promising hypothesis for further research. This article is part of the theme issue 'Interplays between oxytocin and other neuromodulators in shaping complex social behaviours'.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Ocitocina , Estradiol , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Gravidez , Testosterona , Vasopressinas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805368

RESUMO

Parents tend to internalize the coparenting model they experienced during childhood and enact it in their coparenting relationships as adults. These interactive patterns may, in turn, shape their children's internal working models of attachment relationships. The present study recruited 31 gay and 28 heterosexual single-father families through surrogacy to examine family alliance quality and the mediating role of observed supportive and conflictual coparenting in the association between the coparenting quality single fathers experienced in their families of origin and the attachment security of their children. All single fathers lived in Italy, were cisgender and White, and had a child aged 6-12 years (M = 97.73 months; SD = 20.48; 47.5% girls) who they coparented with nonparental caregivers (i.e., 33 grandparents, 18 babysitters, 8 uncles/aunts). Families did not differ in family alliance dimensions based on fathers' sexual orientation. Additionally, single fathers who experienced greater coparenting quality in their families of origin demonstrated lower levels of conflictual coparenting, which, in turn, were associated with greater child attachment security. In contrast, observed supportive coparenting did not mediate this relation. The results emphasize the need to reconceptualize the dyadic coparental unit in single-father surrogacy families to include extended family members and nonrelatives.


Assuntos
Heterossexualidade , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805429

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between media addiction levels among early school-aged children and their health status, self-esteem, and their fathers' parenting practices. Therefore, we analyzed the data from a total of 1149 fathers and children from the 10th year (2017) survey of the Panel Study on Korean Children (PSKC), by the Korean Children's Panel Research Institute. Specifically, a multinomial logistic analysis was conducted to identify the factors affecting children's media addiction. The media addiction levels were 68.8%, 24.9%, and 6.3%, in general, high-risk, and potential-risk users, respectively. When media addiction levels were used as the reference group for general users, the pattern observed in the data revealed a direct positive association between media use time and the probability of becoming a potential-risk user (79.4%, OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.68). Furthermore, when general users were used as the reference group, the male gender accounted for the majority of high-risk users, at 99% (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.46, 2.71). Within this group, the children's body mass index (BMI) was high (5%, OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.11), their media use time increased by 1 h a day (145%, OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.93, 3.11), their self-esteem decreased (32%, OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.95), the fathers' authoritative parenting practices were low (37%, OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.92), and the permissive parenting practices were high (92%, OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.37). Therefore, the results of this study highlight children's media use time and the risk factors related to high BMIs in order to prevent media addiction among early school-aged children. Our findings also suggest appropriate parenting practices and highlight the need to strengthen children's self-esteem.


Assuntos
Pai , Poder Familiar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805599

RESUMO

Mothers, fathers, or guardians of children and adolescents who do not identify with the gender they were assigned at birth face barriers in their social network to recognize their children's gender identity. This study aimed to analyze the scientific evidence on the dynamics of primary social networks to support mothers, fathers, or guardians of transgender children and adolescents. This is a systematic review of qualitative studies guided by the PRISMA guidelines. Controlled and free vocabulary were used to survey the studies in the EMBASE, Scopus, MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycInfo, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), and Web of Science databases. A total of 21 studies composed the final sample. Primary social networks were described as fragile and conflicting family/blood relationship ties with disapproval, isolation, rejection, a lack of understanding, and feelings of exclusion were expressed. Some have lost friends, reported tension in marriage and with relatives, and were commonly treated with hostility and harassment. Social transition does take place in the mutual context of struggle and resistance which demands a support network for parents or guardians.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Rede Social
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805604

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the psychological welfare, as indicated by postnatal depressive symptomatology, life satisfaction, and posttraumatic growth (growth after contending with stressful birth events), of Israeli gay fathers through surrogacy in comparison to heterosexual fathers. For that purpose, a sample of 167 Israeli fathers (M = 35.6, SD = 4.4) was recruited (68 identified as gay fathers through surrogacy and 99 as heterosexual fathers). Participants completed questionnaires assessing their postnatal depressive symptomatology, life satisfaction, and sense of posttraumatic growth after becoming fathers. Results indicated that gay fathers through surrogacy reported higher levels of life satisfaction and posttraumatic growth than heterosexual fathers. Yet, gay fathers also reported higher levels of postnatal depressive symptomatology than heterosexual fathers when life satisfaction or posttraumatic growth values were low or medium. The findings were interpreted in light of the hardships associated with cross-border surrogacy and the psychological outcomes associated with succeeding to become fathers after contending with them. The study contributes to the limited literature on postnatal depressive symptomatology and posttraumatic growth among gay fathers through surrogacy and provides clinicians and policymakers with relevant information on the psychological strengths and potential difficulties associated with cross-border surrogacy among gay fathers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Gravidez , Mães Substitutas/psicologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805806

RESUMO

Prenatal organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) exposure has been associated with child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in agricultural communities and those that are exposed to residentially applied insecticides. To examine this association in populations that are exposed primarily through diet, we estimate the associations between prenatal OPP exposure and preschool ADHD in the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), and describe modification by paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene variants. We used participants from the MoBa Preschool ADHD Sub-study (n = 259 cases) and a random sample of MoBa sub-cohort participants (n = 547) with birth years from 2004 to 2008. Prenatal urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites (total diethylphosphate [∑DEP] and total dimethylphosphate [∑DMP]) were measured by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight system and summed by molar concentration. Maternal DNA was genotyped for coding variants of PON1 (Q192R and L55M). We used a multivariable logistic regression to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for maternal education, parity, income dependency, age, marital status, ADHD-like symptoms, pesticide use, produce consumption, and season. We found no associations between DAP metabolite concentrations and preschool ADHD. The adjusted ORs for exposure quartiles 2-4 relative to 1 were slightly inverse. No monotonic trends were observed, and the estimates lacked precision, likely due to the small sample size and variation in the population. We found no evidence of modification by PON1 SNP variation or child sex. Maternal urinary DAP concentrations were not associated with preschool ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Praguicidas , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Arildialquilfosfatase/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Compostos Organofosforados , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886189

RESUMO

Background: A total of 450 million children are now living in active conflict zones. The negative consequences for children are significant and long lasting. In response to the urgent need for sustainable interventions for children and families, the current study evaluated a brief (12 hr, 8 session) family-based coping and support program, Promoting Positive Family Futures (PPFF), in Gaza. Methods: Families (n = 68, mother/father/adolescent triads) were randomized into the PPFF intervention or another lengthier (50 hr, 25 session) locally well-established psychosocial support program (treatment as usual; TAU). Results: Improvements were found for both conditions for paternal and maternal depression, emotion regulation using cognitive reappraisal, family-wide emotional security, and adolescent adjustment. Effect sizes were medium to large (d = 0.35-1.27). Fathers in the PPFF condition reported lower depression and higher emotion regulation using cognitive reappraisal at post-test than did fathers in the TAU condition. Mothers in the PPFF condition reported higher levels of emotion regulation using cognitive reappraisal at post-test than did mothers in the TAU condition. PPFF was also indirectly associated with improved depression at post-test for both mothers and fathers via improvements in emotion regulation using cognitive reappraisal and with adolescent adjustment at six months via improvements in maternal emotion regulation using cognitive reappraisal. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the PPFF intervention has many benefits comparable with a longer and locally well-established program. PPFF was also associated with unique positive implications for family-wide adjustment over time. Support was also identified for transdiagnostic processes of improvement associated with the PPPF intervention consistent with the theoretical models informing the approach.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Pai , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886503

RESUMO

Mothers', fathers', or guardians' support for disclosures of diverse gender identity has significant relationships with decreased suicidality for transgender children and adolescents. They play an essential role in facing transphobia, protecting trans children, and strengthening the expression of their identity. These guardians need structural, emotional, and informative support; they need to be prepared to recognize and manage of their own feelings, as well as deal with the challenges that come with new social contexts of transphobia in schools, health institutions, and other community spaces. This study aimed to analyze the scientific evidence on the dynamics of secondary social networks to support mothers, fathers, or guardians of transgender children and adolescents. This is a systematic review of qualitative studies, guided by PRISMA guidelines. Controlled and free vocabularies were used to survey the primary studies in the following databases: EMBASE; Scopus; MEDLINE; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); PsycInfo; Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS); and Web of Science. A total of 28 articles made up the final sample of this review. Secondary social networks were described as fragile, characterized by conflicting and broken ties with healthcare services and professionals, isolation and unpreparedness from schools, and emotional and informational support from peer groups and some qualified healthcare professionals. The literature shows the potential of the dynamics of secondary social support networks; however, it presented the unpreparedness of professionals and institutional policies for welcoming transgender children and adolescents and their families, with the peer group being the main emotional and informative support network.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Criança , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Rede Social , Apoio Social
15.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221110421, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35818667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fast spread of COVID-19 can cause some psychological disorders for men. One of the psychological disorders is paternal postpartum depression (PPD). The aim of the present research was to review studies that have investigated paternal postpartum depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this narrative review, databases such as Google Scholar, Scientific Information Databases (SID), Magiran, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for the full texts of published studies in the Persian and English languages in the period of 2019 to 2021. Finally, 3 articles were selected and reviewed in this study. RESULTS: The results of this review study were classified into 3 main categories such as (1) The psychological status of men during the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) The effect of paternal PPD on children's development and family psychological status during the COVID-19 pandemic, and (3) The role of healthcare providers in the management of paternal PPD. The findings of the studies showed that paternal PPD increases the rate of child maltreatment, maternal depression, and domestic violence. The promotion of the interpersonal skills of healthcare providers with fathers suffering from depression or psychological problems is the determinant factor of successful results. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that paternal PPD has a wide range of consequences in this pandemic. Therefore, it would be recommended that healthcare staff have close contact with families and screen fathers for paternal PPD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão Pós-Parto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1331, 2022 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing number of employed women has been associated with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children. We sought to determine whether childhood overweight/obesity in Spain is associated with labour participation of mothers and fathers, and whether the identity of the main caregiver has an influence on child's weight and unhealthy behaviour. METHODS: We used microdata from the 2010 and 2014 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children surveys performed in Spain (n = 32,694). Logistic and linear multi-level regression models were applied to assess the association between parental employment and children's self-reported weight status, accounting for school effects and controlling for socioeconomic factors. Separated binary models were also fitted for consumption of fruit, sweets, screen viewing and sedentarism. RESULTS: In most cases, the significant associations between children's weight and their parents' work status disappeared once the models were adjusted for family wealth and education. However, we found persistent associations for some groups. Girls under 13 years-old living in households where the mother was the only employed parent were more likely to be affected by obesity and to report a higher body mass index value. Children in this type of household were more likely to show unhealthy lifestyles related to diet and leisure time activities. CONCLUSIONS: Parents' socioeconomic characteristics had a protective effect on their children's risk of obesity. Unhealthy behaviours were observed in households with a non-working father and a working mother, although the link with obesity was limited to girls. Our results suggest the need for a more equally shared burden of caregiving.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Criança , Emprego , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e056976, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Integrated early childhood development (ECD) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions rarely target fathers, a missed opportunity given existing research demonstrating that father involvement improves maternal and child outcomes. We aimed to explore mother's perceptions of fathers' buy-in to an integrated PMTCT-ECD programme, any impact the programme had on couple dynamics, and perceived barriers to fathers' involvement in ECD activities. DESIGN: Qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews with mothers participating in a PMTCT-ECD programme. Interviews assessed mothers' perceptions of father buy-in and engagement in the programme and ECD activities. Data were coded using inductive and deductive strategies and analysed using constant comparison methods in Atlas.ti V.1.6. SETTING: Four health facilities in Malawi where PMTCT services were provided. PARTICIPANTS: Study participants were mothers infected with HIV who were enrolled in the PMTCT-ECD programme for >6 months. INTERVENTIONS: The PMTCT-ECD intervention provided ECD education and counselling sessions during routine PMTCT visits for mothers infected with HIV and their infants (infant age 1.5-24 months). The intervention did not target fathers, but mothers were encouraged to share information with them. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted with 29 mothers. Almost all mothers discussed the PMTCT-ECD intervention with male partners. Most mothers reported that fathers viewed ECD as valuable and practised ECD activities at home. Several reported improved partner relationships and increased communication due to the intervention. However, most mothers believed fathers would not attend the PMTCT-ECD intervention due to concerns regarding HIV-related stigma at PMTCT clinics, time required to attend and perceptions that the intervention was intended for women. CONCLUSIONS: Fathers were interested in an integrated PMTCT-ECD programme and actively practised ECD activities at home, but felt uncomfortable visiting PMTCT clinics. Interventions should consider direct community outreach or implementing ECD programmes at facility entry points where men frequent, such as outpatient departments.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Pré-Escolar , Pai , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Malaui , Masculino , Mães
18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(8): 799-810, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793100

RESUMO

Importance: Several maternal exposures during pregnancy are considered predisposing factors for offspring neurodevelopmental conditions. However, many of these exposures may be noncausal and biased by maternal genetic liability. Objective: To assess whether pregnancy-related predisposing factors for offspring neurodevelopmental conditions are associated with maternal genetic liability for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and schizophrenia and to compare associations for maternal genetic liability with those for paternal genetic liability, which could indicate that paternal exposures are not suitable negative controls for maternal exposures. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a population-based pregnancy cohort that recruited parents from June 1999 to December 2008. Polygenic scores (PGS) for ADHD, autism, and schizophrenia were derived in mothers and fathers. The associations between maternal PGS and 37 pregnancy-related measures were estimated, and these results were compared with those from paternal PGS predicting paternal measures during the mother's pregnancy. Analysis took place between March 2021 and March 2022. Exposures: PGS for ADHD, autism, and schizophrenia, calculated (using discovery effect size estimates and threshold of P < .05) from the largest available genome-wide association studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported pregnancy-related measures capturing lifestyle behaviors, metabolism, infectious and autoimmune diseases, other physical health conditions, and medication use. Results: Data were available for up to 14 539 mothers (mean [SD] age, 30.00 [4.45] years) and 14 897 fathers (mean [SD] age, 32.46 [5.13] years) of European ancestry. Modest but robust associations were observed between specific pregnancy-related measures and maternal PGS, including ADHD PGS with asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.15 [95% CI, 1.06-1.25]), smoking (OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.19-1.33]), prepregnancy body mass index (ß, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.18-0.31]), pregnancy weight gain (ß, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.10-0.30]), taking folate (OR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.88-0.96]), and not taking supplements (OR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]). Schizophrenia PGS was associated with coffee consumption (OR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.05-1.12]), smoking (OR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.06-1.19]), prepregnancy body mass index (ß, -0.18 [95% CI, -0.25 to -0.11]), and pregnancy weight gain (ß, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.07-0.27]). All 3 PGSs associated with symptoms of depression/anxiety (ADHD: OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.09-1.22]; autism: OR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.06-1.19]; schizophrenia: OR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.07-1.20]). Associations were largely consistent for maternal and paternal PGS, except ADHD PGS and smoking (fathers: OR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.09-1.17]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, genetic liability to neurodevelopmental conditions that is passed from mothers to children was associated with several pregnancy-related factors and may therefore confound associations between these pregnancy-related factors and offspring neurodevelopment that have previously been thought to be causal. It is crucial that future study designs account for genetic confounding to obtain valid causal inferences so that accurate advice can be given to pregnant individuals.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno Autístico , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Causalidade , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Pai , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética
19.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to changing household types and weakening of family functions, children have fewer opportunities to develop healthy lifestyle patterns from contact with family members compared to the past. In this paper, we evaluate the association between household type and adolescents' fast-food consumption, focusing on whether they were living with their parents or not, and determine their reasons for not living with their parents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior web-based survey between 2017 and 2020. The subjects were students in grades 7-12. The outcome variable was a frequency of fast-food intake of ≥5 times per week. The main independent variable was the type of household: (1) living with both parents; (2) living with a single parent (one of father, mother, stepfather, stepmother); (3) not living together, but having parents; and (4) having no parents. RESULTS: Participants without parents were more likely to eat fast food frequently than those living with both parents. Among boys, not having parents and living in a dorm or boarding house or living with other family members or relatives were significantly associated with frequent fast-food intake; among girls, not having parents and living in a dorm or boarding house were significantly associated with frequent fast-food intake. CONCLUSION: Adolescents having no parents have a higher risk of frequent fast-food intake than those living with both parents. Further studies are needed to address household types in greater detail.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia
20.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 46, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid neurodevelopment that occurs during the first years of life hinges on adequate nutrition throughout fetal life and early childhood. Therefore, adhering to a dietary pattern based on healthy foods during pregnancy and the first years of life may be beneficial for future development. The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between adherence to a healthy and potentially sustainable Nordic diet during pregnancy and in early childhood and child development. METHODS: This study is based on the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and uses data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). In 83,800 mother-child pairs, maternal pregnancy diet and child diet at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years were scored according to adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND). NND scores were calculated both as a total score and categorized into low, medium, or high adherence. Child communication and motor development skills were reported by parents at 6 months, 18 months, 3 and 5 years, using short forms of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and the Child Development Inventory. Associations of NND adherence with child development were estimated with linear and logistic regression in crude and adjusted models. RESULTS: When examining the NND and child developmental scores as percentages of the total scores, we found positive associations between the NND scores (both maternal pregnancy diet and child diet) and higher scoring on child development (adjusted [Formula: see text] s [95% confidence intervals] ranging from 0.007 [0.004, 0.009] to 0.045 [0.040, 0.050]). We further found that low and medium adherence to NND were associated with higher odds of later emerging developmental skills compared to high NND adherence at nearly all measured timepoints (odds ratios [95% CI] ranging from significant values 1.15 [1.03-1.29] to 1.79 [1.55, 2.06] in adjusted analyses). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support that adherence to a healthy and potentially sustainable diet early in life is important for child development every step of the way from pregnancy until age 5 years.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Mães , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Gravidez
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