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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2546: 149-163, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127586

RESUMO

Quantitation of long-chain fatty acids in serum/plasma and red blood cells is a useful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of nutritional status and assessment of risk for essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Serum/plasma has been the traditional sample type for this method, yet it requires prolonged fasting which is not compatible with some patient populations. More recently, red blood cells have become an important sample type due to less intraindividual variability and obviating the need for fasting. Here we present a method for the quantitation of 22 fatty acids in serum/plasma or red blood cells. Fatty acids are hydrolyzed and extracted from the biological matrix, followed by derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS).


Assuntos
Eritrócitos , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35618185

RESUMO

Diet quality is crucial for the development of offspring. Here, we examined how the nutritional quality of prey affects somatic growth and the lipid, carbohydrate, protein, amino acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid content of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry using a three-trophic-level experimental setup. Diets differed especially in their content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are physiologically essential polyunsaturated fatty acids for a fish fry. Trout were fed with an artificial diet (fish feed, DHA-rich), marine zooplankton diet (krill/Mysis, DHA-rich), or freshwater zooplankton diet (Daphnia, Cladocera, DHA-deficient). The Daphnia were grown either on a poor, intermediate, or high-quality algal/microbial diet simulating potential changes in the nutritional prey quality (EPA-content). Trout fed with the fish feed or marine zooplankton entirely replaced their muscle tissue composition with compounds of dietary origin. In contrast, fish tissue renewal was only partial in fish fed any Daphnia diet. Furthermore, fish grew five times faster on marine zooplankton than on any of the Daphnia diets. This was mainly explained by the higher dietary contents of arachidonic acid (ARA), EPA, and DHA, but also by the higher content of some amino acids in the marine zooplankton than in the Daphnia diets. Moreover, fatty acid-specific carbon isotopes revealed that trout fry could not biosynthesize ARA, EPA, or DHA efficiently from their precursors. Our results suggest that changes in the zooplankton and macroinvertebrate communities' structure in freshwater habitats from DHA-rich to DHA-poor species may reduce the somatic growth of fish fry.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo
3.
J Anim Sci ; 100(6)2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531991

RESUMO

Mixed parity sows (n = 3,451; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; parities 2 through 9) and their litters were used to evaluate the effects of essential fatty acid (EFA) intake on sow reproductive performance, piglet growth and survivability, and colostrum and milk composition. Our hypothesis, like observed in earlier research, was that increasing linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) would improve sow and litter performance. At approximately day 112 of gestation, sows were randomly assigned within parity groups to 1 of 4 corn-soybean meal-wheat-based lactation diets that contained 0.5 (Control) or 3% choice white grease (CWG), 3% soybean oil (SO), or a combination of 3% soybean oil and 2% choice white grease (Combination). Thus, sows were provided diets with low LA and ALA in diets with CWG or high LA and ALA in diets that included soybean oil. Sows received their assigned EFA treatments until weaning and were then fed a common gestation and lactation diet in the subsequent reproductive cycle. Average daily feed intake during the lactation period increased (P < 0.05) for sows fed the Combination and CWG diets compared with sows fed the Control or SO diet. However, daily LA and ALA intakes of sows fed the Combination and SO diets were still greater (P < 0.05) than those of sows fed 0.5 or 3% CWG. Overall, sows consuming high EFA from the Combination or SO diets produced litters with heavier (P < 0.05) piglet weaning weights and greater (P < 0.05) litter ADG when compared with litters from sows fed diets with CWG that provided low EFA. Despite advantages in growth performance, there was no impact of sow EFA intake on piglet survivability (P > 0.10). Additionally, lactation diet EFA composition did not influence sow colostrum or milk dry matter, crude protein, or crude fat content (P > 0.10). However, LA and ALA content in colostrum and milk increased (P < 0.05) in response to elevated dietary EFA from SO. There was no evidence for differences (P > 0.10) in subsequent sow reproductive or litter performance due to previous lactation EFA intake. In conclusion, increased LA and ALA intake provided by soybean oil during lactation increased overall litter growth and pig weaning weights, reduced sow ADFI, but did not affect piglet survivability or subsequent performance of sows.


Supplemental fat sources are an effective and widely accepted strategy to increase energy density of sow lactation diets that can also provide essential fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA). Currently, the effects of supplemental LA and ALA provided shortly before farrowing on colostrum and milk composition are not fully understood. Additionally, the influence of elevated LA and ALA provided in sow lactation diets on litter growth and survivability responses has not been extensively evaluated. Therefore, this trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of fat sources providing low and high LA and ALA intake on sow performance, litter growth and survivability, colostrum and milk composition, and subsequent reproductive performance. Overall, sows consuming diets with high LA and ALA provided by soybean oil produced litters with heavier piglet weaning weights and greater litter average daily gain when compared with sows consuming diets with low LA and ALA content. Increasing LA and ALA by added soybean oil also increased their content in colostrum and milk. However, there was no influence of sow LA and ALA intake on litter survivability or subsequent reproductive performance of sows.


Assuntos
Colostro , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Colostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/farmacologia , Feminino , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , Óleo de Soja/farmacologia , Suínos
4.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268778, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617322

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence supports that pentadecanoic acid (C15:0), an odd-chain saturated fat found in butter, is an essential fatty acid that is necessary in the diet to support long-term metabolic and heart health. Here, dose dependent and clinically relevant cell-based activities of pure C15:0 (FA15TM) were compared to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a leading omega-3 fatty acid, as well as to an additional 4,500 compounds. These studies included 148 clinically relevant biomarkers measured across 12 primary human cell systems, mimicking various disease states, that were treated with C15:0 at four different concentrations (1.9 to 50 µM) and compared to non-treated control systems. C15:0 was non-cytotoxic at all concentrations and had dose dependent, broad anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities involving 36 biomarkers across 10 systems. In contrast, EPA was cytotoxic to four cell systems at 50 µM. While 12 clinically relevant activities were shared between C15:0 and EPA at 17 µM, C15:0 had an additional 28 clinically relevant activities, especially anti-inflammatory, that were not present in EPA. Further, at 1.9 and 5.6 µM, C15:0 had cell-based properties similar to bupropion (Pearson's scores of 0.78), a compound commonly used to treat depression and other mood disorders. At 5.6 µM, C15:0 mimicked two antimicrobials, climabazole and clarithromycin (Pearson's scores of 0.76 and 0.75, respectively), and at 50 µM, C15:0 activities matched that of two common anti-cancer therapeutics, gemcitabine and paclitaxel (Pearson's scores of 0.77 and 0.74, respectively). In summary, C15:0 had dose-dependent and clinically relevant activities across numerous human cell-based systems that were broader and safer than EPA, and C15:0 activities paralleled common therapeutics for mood disorders, microbial infections, and cancer. These studies further support the emerging role of C15:0 as an essential fatty acid.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Anti-Inflamatórios , Biomarcadores , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Humanos
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5648, 2022 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383209

RESUMO

Essential fatty acids (EFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are unsaturated fatty acids with immune-modulatory effects, yet their synergistic effect is poorly understood in dairy cows. This study aimed at identifying differentially abundant proteins (DAP) and their associated pathways in dairy cows supplied with a combination of EFA and CLA during the transition from antepartum (AP) to early postpartum (PP). Sixteen Holstein cows were abomasally infused with coconut oil as a control (CTRL) or a mixture of EFA (linseed + safflower oil) and CLA (Lutalin, BASF) (EFA + CLA) from - 63 to + 63 days relative to parturition. Label-free quantitative proteomics was performed on plasma samples collected at days - 21, + 1, + 28, and + 63. During the transition time, DAP, consisting of a cluster of apolipoproteins (APO), including APOE, APOH, and APOB, along with a cluster of immune-related proteins, were related to complement and coagulation cascades, inflammatory response, and cholesterol metabolism. In response to EFA + CLA, specific APO comprising APOC3, APOA1, APOA4, and APOC4 were increased in a time-dependent manner; they were linked to triglyceride-enriched lipoprotein metabolisms and immune function. Altogether, these results provide new insights into metabolic and immune adaptation and crosstalk between them in transition dairy cows divergent in EFA + CLA status.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Leite/metabolismo , Proteômica
6.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215502

RESUMO

Nutrition is important in cystic fibrosis (CF) because the disease is associated with a higher energy consumption, special nutritional deficiencies, and malabsorption mainly related to pancreatic insufficiency. The clinical course with deterioration of lung function has been shown to relate to nutrition. Despite general recommendation of high energy intake, the clinical deterioration is difficult to restrain suggesting that special needs have not been identified and specified. It is well-known that the CF phenotype is associated with lipid abnormalities, especially in the essential or conditionally essential fatty acids. This review will concentrate on the qualitative aspects of fat metabolism, which has mainly been neglected in dietary fat recommendations focusing on fat quantity. For more than 60 years it has been known and confirmed that the patients have a deficiency of linoleic acid, an n-6 essential fatty acid of importance for membrane structure and function. The ratio between arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, conditionally essential fatty acids of the n-6 and n-3 series, respectively, is often increased. The recently discovered relations between the CFTR modulators and lipid metabolism raise new interests in this field and together with new technology provide possibilities to specify further specify personalized therapy.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Ácido Araquidônico , Fibrose Cística/genética , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Humanos , Ácido Linoleico
7.
Food Funct ; 13(5): 2475-2490, 2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147628

RESUMO

Acer truncatum Bunge seed oil (ASO) is rich in ω-9 (53.93%) and ω-6 (30.7%) fatty acids (FAs) and characterized by 3-7% nervonic acid (NA, C24:1ω-9). Evidence suggests that ω-9 FAs such as NA participate in processes of cognitive improvement; however, their mechanism remains ambiguous. In this study, we investigated the effect of ASO on rat memory and the change in lipid profiling and underlying metabolism. After ASO was administrated to rats for one, three and seven days, their capacity for learning and memory significantly increased via the MWM test. Lipid profiling showed alterations in a wide range of metabolic features after ASO was administrated to the rats, in which sphingolipids (SP) in the serum and glycerophospholipids (GP) in the brain were regulated significantly. The changes in the fatty acids in the serum and brain showed the synergetic effects of NA, EA, OA and DHA, where NA, EA and OA exhibited similar change trends. The enrichment analysis based on KEGG indicated that ASO supplementation evoked the pathways of neurotrophin signaling, glycerophospholipid metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism, which are related to memory and cognition improvement. Among the metabolites with different molecular forms, the biomarkers with C24:1ω-9 chains exhibited a positive correlation with others both in the serum SP and brain GP. These results suggest the synergistic effects of ω-9 FAs and that their conversion into each other may result in enhanced cognition in rats ingesting Acer truncatum Bunge seed oil.


Assuntos
Acer , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(4): 843-851, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978102

RESUMO

Essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) has most commonly been reported in parenterally fed individuals but may also present in patients receiving fat-restricted diets and in patients with fat-malabsorption disorders. This article reviews the physical and biochemical assessment for EFAD in clinical practice and disorders of fat malabsorption as potential risk factors for EFAD. A case report is included to describe the fatty acid profile of a patient with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency receiving low-dose pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy after a self-imposed fat-restricted diet. The current challenges with laboratory interpretation of essential fatty acid status are also discussed.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/etiologia , Humanos , Pâncreas , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Nutr ; 152(1): 286-301, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543432

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Small-quantity (SQ) lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) may influence infants' plasma fatty acid (FA) profiles, which could be associated with short- and long-term outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the impact of SQ-LNS consumption on infants' plasma FA profiles in Ghana and Malawi. METHODS: Ghanaian (n = 1320) and Malawian (n = 1391) women ≤20 weeks pregnant were assigned to consume 60 mg iron and 400 µg folic acid daily until delivery [iron and folic acid (IFA) group], multiple-micronutrient supplements (MMNs) until 6 months postpartum (MMN group), or SQ-LNSs (∼7.8 linoleic acid:α-linolenic acid ratio) until 6 months postpartum (LNS group). LNS group infants received SQ-LNS from 6 to 18 months of age. We compared infant plasma FAs by intervention group in subsamples (n = 379 in Ghana; n = 442 in Malawi) at 6 and 18 months using ANOVA and Poisson regression models. Main outcomes were mean percentage compositions (%Cs; percentage of FAs by weight) of α-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid (AA). RESULTS: At 6 months, LNS infants had greater mean ± SD ALA %Cs in Ghana (0.23 ± 0.08; IFA, 0.21 ± 0.06; MMN, 0.21 ± 0.07; P = 0.034) and Malawi (0.42 ± 0.16; IFA, 0.38 ± 0.15; MMN, 0.38 ± 0.14; P = 0.034) and greater AA values in Ghana (6.25 ± 1.24; IFA, 6.12 ± 1.13; MMN, 5.89 ± 1.24; P = 0.049). At 18 months, LNS infants had a tendency towards greater ALA (0.32 ± 0.16; IFA, 0.24 ± 0.08; MMN, 0.24 ± 0.10; P = 0.06) and LA (27.8 ± 3.6; IFA, 26.9 ± 2.9; MMN, 27.0 ± 3.1; P = 0.06) in Ghana, and greater ALA (0.45 ± 0.18; IFA, 0.39 ± 0.18; MMN, 0.39 ± 0.18; P < 0.001) and LA (29.7 ± 3.5; IFA, 28.7 ± 3.3; MMN, 28.6 ± 3.4; P = 0.011) in Malawi. The prevalence of ALA below the population-specific 10th percentile was lower in the LNS group compared to the MMN group, but not the IFA group. Groups did not differ significantly in plasma EPA or DHA levels. CONCLUSIONS: SQ-LNS increased infants' plasma essential FA levels in Ghana and Malawi, which may have implications for health and developmental outcomes. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00970866 and NCT01239693.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Micronutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Lactente , Lipídeos , Malaui , Nutrientes , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
J Proteomics ; 252: 104435, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823037

RESUMO

Repeated measurements analysis of variance - simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) has been developed to handle complex longitudinal omics datasets and combine novel information with existing data. Herein, we aimed at applying ASCA to 64 liver proteomes collected at 4-time points (day -21, +1, +28, and + 63 relative to parturition) from 16 Holstein cows treated from 9 wk. antepartum to 9 wk. postpartum (PP) with coconut oil (CTRL) or a mixture of essential fatty acids (EFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (EFA + CLA). The ASCA modeled 116, 43, and 97 differentially abundant proteins (DAP) during the transition to lactation, between CTRL and EFA + CLA, and their interaction, respectively. Time-dependent DAP were annotated to pathways related to the metabolism of carbohydrates, FA, and amino acid in the PP period. The DAP between FA and the interaction effect were annotated to the metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, drug metabolism - cytochrome P450, retinol metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Collectively, ASCA provided novel information on molecular markers of metabolic adaptations and their interactions with EFA + CLA supplementation. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that supplemental EFA + CLA amplified hepatic FA oxidation; cytochrome P450 was enriched to maintain metabolic homeostasis by oxidation/detoxification of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. SIGNIFICANCE: This report is among the first ones applying repeated measurement analysis of variance-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) to deal with longitudinal proteomics results. ASCA separately identified differentially abundant proteins (DAP) in 'transition time', 'between fatty acid treatments', and 'their interaction'. We first identified the molecular signature of hepatic metabolic adaptations during postpartum negative energy balance; the enriched pathways were well-known pathways related to mobilizing fatty acids (FA) and amino acids to support continuous energy production through fatty acid oxidation, TCA cycle, and gluconeogenesis. Some of the DAP were not previously reported in transition dairy cows. Secondly, we provide novel information on the mechanisms by which supplemented essential FA and conjugated linoleic acids interact with hepatic metabolism. In this regard, FA amplified hepatic detoxifying and oxidation capacity through ligand activation of nuclear receptors. Finally, we briefly compared the strengths and weaknesses of the ASCA model with PLS-DA and outlined why these methods are complementary.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Proteoma , Análise de Variância , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação , Fígado/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteoma/metabolismo
11.
J Proteomics ; 252: 104436, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839038

RESUMO

This study aimed at investigating the synergistic effects of essential fatty acids (EFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on the liver proteome profile of dairy cows during the transition to lactation. 16 Holstein cows were infused from 9 wk. antepartum to 9 wk. postpartum into the abomasum with either coconut oil (CTRL) or a mixture of EFA (linseed + safflower oil) and CLA (EFA + CLA). Label-free quantitative proteomics was performed in liver tissue biopsied at days -21, +1, +28, and + 63 relative to calving. Differentially abundant proteins (DAP) between treatment groups were identified at the intersection between a multivariate and a univariate analysis. In total, 1680 proteins were identified at each time point, of which between groups DAP were assigned to the metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, drug metabolism - cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and glutathione metabolism. Cytochrome P450, as a central hub, enriched with specific CYP enzymes comprising: CYP51A1 (d - 21), CYP1A1 & CYP4F2 (d + 28), and CYP4V2 (d + 63). Collectively, supplementation of EFA + CLA in transition cows impacted hepatic lipid metabolism and enriched several common biological pathways at all time points that were mainly related to ω-oxidation of fatty acids through the Cytochrome p450 pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: In three aspects this manuscript is notable. First, this is among the first longitudinal proteomics studies in nutrition of dairy cows. The selected time points are critical periods around parturition with profound endocrine and metabolic adaptations. Second, our findings provided novel information on key drivers of biologically relevant pathways suggested according to previously reported performance, zootechnical, and metabolism data (already published elsewhere). Third, our results revealed the role of cytochrome P450 that is hardly investigated, and of ω-oxidation pathways in the metabolism of fatty acids with the involvement of specific enzymes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/farmacologia , Feminino , Lactação , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/metabolismo , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Leite , Gravidez , Proteoma/metabolismo
12.
Br J Nutr ; 127(4): 540-553, 2022 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858529

RESUMO

Linoleic acid (LA), an essential n-6 fatty acid (FA), is critical for fetal development. We investigated the effects of maternal high LA (HLA) diet on offspring cardiac development and its relationship to circulating FA and cardiovascular function in adolescent offspring, and the ability of the postnatal diet to reverse any adverse effects. Female Wistar Kyoto rats were fed low LA (LLA; 1·44 % energy from LA) or high LA (HLA; 6·21 % energy from LA) diets for 10 weeks before pregnancy and during gestation/lactation. Offspring, weaned at postnatal day 25, were fed LLA or HLA diets and euthanised at postnatal day 40 (n 6-8). Maternal HLA diet decreased circulating total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in females and decreased total plasma n-3 FA in males, while maternal and postnatal HLA diets decreased total plasma n-3 FA in females. α-Linolenic acid (ALA) and EPA were decreased by postnatal but not maternal HLA diets in both sexes. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets increased total plasma n-6 and LA, and a maternal HLA diet increased circulating leptin, in both male and female offspring. Maternal HLA decreased slopes of systolic and diastolic pressure-volume relationship (PVR), and increased cardiac Col1a1, Col3a1, Atp2a1 and Notch1 in males. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets left-shifted the diastolic PVR in female offspring. Coronary reactivity was altered in females, with differential effects on flow repayment after occlusion. Thus, maternal HLA diets impact lipids, FA and cardiac function in offspring, with postnatal diet modifying FA and cardiac function in the female offspring.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Ácido Linoleico , Adolescente , Animais , Colesterol , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
13.
J Hum Hypertens ; 36(3): 289-298, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758346

RESUMO

Flaxseed oil is an excellent source of alpha-linolenic acid ALA known for its antihypertensive action. Flaxseed oil is unstable and its dose is not achievable in our conventional diet hence blending of natural flaxseed oil with palm oil, containing high flavonoids may be a better strategy, to stabilize the blend and provide proper balance of essential fatty acids and potential antioxidant effects. Aim of this study was to access the effect of blended flaxseed oil on 24 h 7-day circadian variations of blood pressure in subjects with essential hypertension. Assessment of CHAT (circadian hyper amplitude tension) using ABPM is the best marker for cardiovascular function. We registered 50 subjects with CAD (Group 1) and 50 subjects with Essential hypertension HT (Group 2) and 52 control subjects with CAD/Hypertension. Group 1 and 2 participant was supplemented with blended flaxseed oil (BFO) (30 ml/day) for the period of 24 weeks, while control group administered available oils sunflower in identical containers, for a follow-up period of 24 weeks. Twenty four hour seven days continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was done initially and after six months of BFO supplementation. There were significant changes noted in lipid profile along with Ambulatory blood pressure parameters like MESOR, ACROPHASE, Hyperbaric Indexes, and CHAT. Circadian hyper amplitude tension (CHAT) incidence decreased after BFO supplementation. Study results suggest that blended flaxseed oil administration can be a potent natural vegetarian antihypertensive supplement which helps in synchronization of cardiac rhythms, and can be used as a preventive treatment of hypertension and as effective vegetarian source of maintaining Omega 3 and omega 6 ratios of essential fatty acids in the body.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hipertensão , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipertensão Essencial/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Óleo de Semente do Linho/uso terapêutico
14.
J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol ; 337(3): 206-220, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783186

RESUMO

This paper reports on the real-time imaging and developmental biochemistry of the freshwater caridean shrimp, Caridina pseudogracilirostris. The complete time-lapse development of a single embryo was recorded in an artificial mold, developed in our lab, and imaged under a stereomicroscope. It took 8 days to complete the 5 stages of embryonic development (1 cleavage stage, 2 gastrulation stage, 3 nauplius stage, 4 prehatching embryo, and 5 zoea stages). As the decapod eggs are enriched with dense yolk, biochemical determination of the major components was made to evaluate the yolk utilization during embryogenesis. The concentration of protein, lipid, and carbohydrate declined drastically from Stage I (cleavage) to Stage IV (Zoea), reflecting sustained yolk utilization during embryogenesis. The increase in the size of the embryo correlates with changes in water content. Lipids, being the principal organic substrate, changes in the fatty acid (FA) composition of embryos during development were determined by GC. The FA composition was observed within the range of 25%-60.87% for saturated, 22.57%-56.45% for monounsaturated, and 5.64%-18.51% for total polyunsaturated FAs. The essential polyunsaturated fatty acid were higher in Stages I, IV, and V, suggesting a major role in embryogenesis. The cellular proliferation and organogenesis as visualized in the real-time imaging correlate well with the biochemical variations observed in C. pseudogracilirostris.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(4): 1180-1188, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-oleic acid (OA) vegetable oils are replacing some traditional vegetable oils in the US food supply. This may lead to reduced intake of the essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in children, who need EFAs for growth and development and reduced risk for cardiometabolic disease into adulthood. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were the following: 1) to estimate trends in daily intake of EFAs among children aged 1-8 y, 2) identify top food sources of EFAs, and 3) evaluate the effects of replacing traditional oils with high-OA oils on meeting daily recommended intakes of EFAs. METHODS: Dietary data from 7814 children aged 1-8 y were acquired from the NHANES (2007-2016). Using a diet model, we evaluated the effect of replacing 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of traditional oils with high-OA oils on meeting adequate intakes (AIs) for EFAs. RESULTS: Major food sources of EFAs among all age-sex groups were grain dishes (35-40% of daily intake), meat and seafood dishes (17-21%), and fruit and vegetable dishes (12-14%). Replacing 40% or more of traditional oils with high-OA oil varieties will lead to inadequate daily intakes of EFAs. CONCLUSION: Replacement of traditional vegetable oils with high-OA varieties will place children at risk of not meeting the AI levels for EFAs. A balanced approach of including traditional oils and high-OA oils in the US food supply is needed to prevent inadequate intakes of EFAs in children.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Ácido Oleico , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Humanos , Lactente , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Óleos Vegetais
16.
J Nutr ; 152(3): 671-679, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice biofortification with Zinc (Zn) can improve the Zn status of rice-consuming populations. However, the metabolic impact in humans consuming Zn-biofortified rice is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of Zn-biofortified rice on lipid metabolism in normolipidemic men. METHODS: The men consumed a rice-based diet containing 6 mg Zn/d and 1.5 g phytate (phytate/Zn ratio = 44) for 2 wk followed by a 10-mg Zn/d diet without phytate for 4 wk. An ad libitum diet supplemented with 25 mg Zn/d was then fed for 3 wk. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and at the end of each metabolic period for measuring plasma zinc, glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG), LDL and HDL cholesterol, fatty acids, oxylipins, and fatty acid desaturase activities. Statistical differences were assessed by linear mixed model. RESULTS: Fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1 activity decreased by 29.1% (P = 0.007) when the 6-mg Zn/d diet was consumed for 2 wk. This change was associated with significant decreases in HDL and LDL cholesterol. The alterations in FADS1, HDL cholesterol, and TG remained unchanged when Zn intakes were increased to 10 mg/d for 4 wk. Supplementation with 25 mg Zn/d for 3 wk normalized these metabolic changes and significantly increased LDL cholesterol at the end of this metabolic period compared with baseline. FADS1 activity was inversely correlated with FADS2 (rmcorr = -0.52; P = 0.001) and TG (rmcorr = -0.55; P = 0.001) at all time points. CONCLUSIONS: A low-zinc, high-phytate rice-based diet reduced plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations and altered fatty acid profiles in healthy men within 2 wk. Consuming 10 mg Zn/d without phytate for 4 wk did not improve the lipid profiles, but a 25-mg Zn/d supplement corrects these alterations in lipid metabolism within 3 wk.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Essenciais , Ácido Fítico , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Triglicerídeos , Zinco
17.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944517

RESUMO

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism is critical in the initiation and resolution of inflammation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4/D4/E4 (LTB4/LD4/LTE4), derived from AA, are involved in the initiation of inflammation and regulation of immune response, hematopoiesis, and M1 (pro-inflammatory) macrophage facilitation. Paradoxically, PGE2 suppresses interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production and triggers the production of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) from AA to initiate inflammation resolution process and augment regeneration of tissues. LXA4 suppresses PGE2 and LTs' synthesis and action and facilitates M2 macrophage generation to resolve inflammation. AA inactivates enveloped viruses including SARS-CoV-2. Macrophages, NK cells, T cells, and other immunocytes release AA and other bioactive lipids to produce their anti-microbial actions. AA, PGE2, and LXA4 have cytoprotective actions, regulate nitric oxide generation, and are critical to maintain cell shape and control cell motility and phagocytosis, and inflammation, immunity, and anti-microbial actions. Hence, it is proposed that AA plays a crucial role in the pathobiology of ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, COVID-19, and other critical illnesses, implying that its (AA) administration may be of significant benefit in the prevention and amelioration of these diseases.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Lipoxinas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23006, 2021 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836998

RESUMO

Emerging studies are reporting associations between skeletal muscle abnormalities and survival in cancer patients. Cancer prognosis is associated with depletion of essential fatty acids in erythrocytes and plasma in humans. However the relationship between skeletal muscle membrane fatty acid composition and survival is unknown. This study investigates the relationship between fatty acid content of phospholipids in skeletal muscle and survival in cancer patients. Rectus abdominis biopsies were collected during cancer surgery from 35 patients diagnosed with cancer. Thin-layer and gas chromatography were used for quantification of phospholipid fatty acids. Cutpoints for survival were defined using optimal stratification. Median survival was between 450 and 500 days when patients had arachidonic acid (AA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in muscle phospholipid below the cut-point compared to 720-800 days for patients above. Cox regression analysis revealed that low amounts of AA, EPA and DHA are risk factors for death. The risk of death remained significant for AA [HR 3.5 (1.11-10.87), p = 0.03], EPA [HR 3.92 (1.1-14.0), p = 0.04] and DHA [HR 4.08 (1.1-14.6), p = 0.03] when adjusted for sex. Lower amounts of essential fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane is a predictor of survival in cancer patients. These results warrant investigation to restore bioactive fatty acids in people with cancer.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/análise , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Reto do Abdome/química , Idoso , Ácido Araquidônico/análise , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/química , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reto do Abdome/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 778, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During pregnancy a high amount of fatty acids (FA) is necessary to meet foetus demands, which vary during gestation. The present study describes the changes in maternal fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy in a sample of pregnant women. METHODS: This is a longitudinal study of 479 pregnant women who were monitored from the first trimester to third trimester of pregnancy. Data on maternal characteristics were recorded and a serum sample was collected in each trimester. The fatty acid profile (saturated (SFA: total, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid), monounsaturated (MUFA: total, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA: total omega-6 (n-6), linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), total omega-3 (n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) was analysed with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combination. RESULTS: From the first trimester to third trimester of pregnancy, a significant increase in total SFA, total MUFA and total n-6 PUFA was found. (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, the serum concentration of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and total n-3 PUFA decreased during gestation (p < 0.001). A statistically non-significant result was observed for the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) serum concentration between the first and third trimesters of pregnancy. Significant correlations were observed between each total fatty acid concentrations of the first and third trimesters. CONCLUSION: The circulating serum concentration of SFA, MUFA and n-6 PUFA increases during pregnancy, whereas essential fatty acids such as AA and EPA decrease, and DHA remains unchanged. Further research is necessary to understand the role played by FA throughout gestation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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