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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1383774, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947126

RESUMO

Silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae are expected to be useful as an ingredient in entomophagy. They are full of nutrients, including indigestible proteins; however, there have been few studies on the effects of the consumption of the entire body of silkworms on the intestinal microflora. We prepared a customized diet containing silkworm larval powder (SLP), and investigated the effects of ad libitum feeding of the SLP diet on the intestinal microbiota and the amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in mice. We found that the diversity of the cecal and fecal microbiota increased in the mice fed the SLP diet (SLP group), and that the composition of their intestinal microbiota differed from that of the control mice. Furthermore, a genus-level microbiota analysis showed that in the SLP group, the proportions of Alistipes, Lachnospiraceae A2, and RF39, which are associated with the prevention of obesity, were significantly increased, while the proportions of Helicobacter and Anaerotruncus, which are associated with obesity, were significantly decreased. Additionally, the level of butyrate was increased in the SLP group, and Clostridia UCG 014 and Lachnospiraceae FCS020 were found to be associated with the level of butyrate, one of the major SCFAs. These findings indicated that silkworm powder may be useful as an insect food that might also improve obesity.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Larva , Animais , Bombyx/microbiologia , Bombyx/metabolismo , Larva/microbiologia , Camundongos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Pós , Dieta , Ceco/microbiologia , Ceco/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ração Animal
2.
J Vis Exp ; (208)2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975757

RESUMO

Gut microbial products are known to act both locally within the intestine and get absorbed into circulation, where their effects can extend to numerous distant organ systems. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are one class of metabolites produced by gut microbes during the fermentation of indigestible dietary fiber. They are now recognized as important contributors to how the gut microbiome influences extra-intestinal organ systems via the gut-lung, gut-brain, and other gut-organ axes throughout the host. SCFAs are absorbed from the colon, through intestinal tissue, into the portal vein (PV). They then pass through the liver, and are consumed in various organs such as the brain, muscle, adipose tissue, and lungs. SCFAs are most easily measured in the expelled fecal material however, more accurate measurements have been obtained from intra-colonic fecal contents. Here we propose that sampling PV and systemic circulating plasma of a single subject may be preferable for studying the absorption, transport, and systemic levels of SCFAs in mice. We present a new technique for efficient blood sampling from the PV and inferior vena cava (IVC) that allows for the collection of relatively large volumes of blood from the portal and systemic circulations. This is accomplished by ligating the PV, thereby allowing for the dilation or enlargement of the PV as it backfills from the mesenteric veins that drain into it. Using this method, we were able to improve the rate of successful collection as well as the total amount of blood collected (up to 0.3 mL from IVC and 0.5 mL from PV).


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Veia Porta , Veia Cava Inferior , Animais , Camundongos , Veia Porta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Veia Cava Inferior/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Masculino
3.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 293, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976012

RESUMO

The function of astrocytes in response to gut microbiota-derived signals has an important role in the pathophysiological processes of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. However, the specific effects of microbiota-derived metabolites on astrocyte activation have not been elucidated yet. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in female C57BL/6 mice as a classical MS model. The alterations of gut microbiota and the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were assessed after EAE induction. We observed that EAE mice exhibit low levels of Allobaculum, Clostridium_IV, Clostridium_XlVb, Lactobacillus genera, and microbial-derived SCFAs metabolites. SCFAs supplementation suppressed astrocyte activation by increasing the level of tryptophan (Trp)-derived AhR ligands that activating the AhR. The beneficial effects of SCFAs supplementation on the clinical scores, histopathological alterations, and the blood brain barrier (BBB)-glymphatic function were abolished by intracisterna magna injection of AAV-GFAP-shAhR. Moreover, SCFAs supplementation suppressed the loss of AQP4 polarity within astrocytes in an AhR-dependent manner. Together, SCFAs potentially suppresses astrocyte activation by amplifying Trp-AhR-AQP4 signaling in EAE mice. Our study demonstrates that SCFAs supplementation may serve as a viable therapy for inflammatory disorders of the CNS.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4 , Astrócitos , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Transdução de Sinais , Triptofano , Animais , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Camundongos , Triptofano/metabolismo , Triptofano/farmacologia , Feminino , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Aquaporina 4/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Water Environ Res ; 96(7): e11072, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961619

RESUMO

This work assessed the performance of a pilot-scale cascade anaerobic digestion (AD) system when treating mixed municipal wastewater treatment sludges. The cascade system was compared with a conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) digester (control) in terms of process performance, stability, and digestate quality. The results showed that the cascade system achieved higher volatile solids removal (VSR) efficiencies (28-48%) than that of the reference (25-41%) when operated at the same solids residence time (SRT) in the range of 11-15 days. When the SRT of the cascade system was reduced to 8 days the VSR (32-36%) was only slightly less than that of the reference digester that was operated at a 15-day SRT (39-43%). Specific hydrolysis rates in the first stage of the cascade system were 66-152% higher than those of the reference. Additionally, the cascade system exhibited relatively stable effluent concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs: 100-120 mg/l), while the corresponding concentrations in the control effluent demonstrated greater fluctuations (100-160 mg/l). The cascade system's effluent pH and VFA/alkalinity ratios were consistently maintained within the optimal range. During a dynamic test when the feed total solids concentration was doubled, total VFA concentrations (85-120 mg/l) in the cascade system were noticeably less than those (100-170 mg/l) of the control, while the pH and VFA/alkalinity levels remained in a stable range. The cascade system achieved higher total solids (TS) content in the dewatered digestate (19.4-26.8%) than the control (17.4-22.1%), and E. coli log reductions (2.0-4.1 log MPN/g TS) were considerably higher (p < 0.05) than those in the control (1.3-2.9 log MPN/g TS). Overall, operating multiple CSTRs in cascade mode at typical SRTs and mixed sludge ratios enhanced the performance, stability digesters, and digestate quality of AD. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Enhanced digestion of mixed sludge digestion with cascade system. Increased hydrolysis rates in the cascade system compared to a reference CSTR. More stable conditions for methanogen growth at both steady and dynamic states. Improved dewaterability and E. coli reduction of digestate from the cascade system.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Águas Residuárias/química , Esgotos/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos
5.
Immunol Lett ; 268: 106883, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852888

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is a system of microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal (GI) system, consisting of trillions of microorganisms residing in epithelial surfaces of the body. Gut microbiota are exposed to various external and internal factors and form a unique gut-associated immunity maintained through a balancing act among diverse groups of microorganisms. The role of microbiota in dysbiosis of the gut in aiding prostate cancer development has created an urgency for extending research toward comprehension and preventative measures. The gut microbiota varies among persons based on diet, race, genetic background, and geographic location. Bacteriome, mainly, has been linked to GI complications, metabolism, weight gain, and high blood sugar. Studies have shown that manipulating the microbiome (bacteriome, virome, and mycobiome) through the dietary intake of phytochemicals positively influences physical and emotional health, preventing and delaying diseases caused by microbiota. In this review, we discuss the wealth of knowledge about the GI tract and factors associated with dysbiosis-mediated compromised gut immunity. This review also focuses on the relationship of dysbiosis to prostate cancer, the impact of microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on host health, and the phytochemicals improving health while inhibiting prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Disbiose/imunologia , Masculino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Animais , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo
6.
J Environ Manage ; 363: 121434, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861886

RESUMO

Despite benefits such as lower water and working volume requirements, thermophilic high solids anaerobic digestion (THSAD) often fails due to the rapid build-up of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the associated drop in pH. Use of conductive materials (CM) can promote THSAD through stimulation of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET), while the need for their constant dosing due to poor separation from effluent impairs economic feasibility. This study used an approach of spatially separating magnetite and granular activated carbon (GAC) from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in a single reactor for THSAD. GAC and magnetite addition could both mitigate the severe inhibition of methanogenesis after VFAs build-up to ∼28-30 g/L, while negligible methane production was observed in the control group. The highest methane yield (286 mL CH4/g volatile solids (VS)) was achieved in magnetite-added reactors, while the highest maximum CH4 production rates (26.38 mL CH4/g VS/d) and lowest lag-phase (2.83 days) were obtained in GAC-added reactors. The enrichment of GAC and magnetite biofilms with various syntrophic and potentially electroactive microbial groups (Ruminiclostridium 1, Clostridia MBA03, Defluviitoga, Lentimicrobiaceae) in different relative abundances indicates the existence of specific preferences of these groups for the nature of CM. According to predicted basic metabolic functions, CM can enhance cellular processes and signals, lipid transport and metabolism, and methane metabolism, resulting in improved methane production. Rearrangement of metabolic pathways, formation of pili-like structures, enrichment of biofilms with electroactive groups and a significant improvement in THSAD performance was attributed to the enhancement of the DIET pathway. Promising results obtained in this work due to the spatial separation of the bulk OFMSW and CM can be useful for modeling larger-scale THSAD systems with better recovery of CM and cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Resíduos Sólidos , Anaerobiose , Metano/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química
7.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 22(6): 265-271, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823009

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study is to analyze the data indicating an association between high salt intake and the gastrointestinal microbiota in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension in animals and men. It is also, to discuss the preventive effects of exercise on gut-induced hypertension by favorably modifying the composition of gut microbiota. AREAS COVERED: Salt sensitivity is quite common, accounting for 30%-60% in hypertensive subjects. Recently, a novel cause for salt-sensitive hypertension has been discovered through the action of gut microbiota by the secretion of several hormones and the action of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In addition, recent studies indicate that exercise might favorably modify the adverse effects of gut microbiota regarding their effects on BP. To identify the role of gut microbiota on the incidence of hypertension and CVD and the beneficial effect of exercise, a Medline search of the English literature was conducted between 2018 and 2023 and 42 pertinent papers were selected. EXPERT OPINION: The analysis of data from the selected papers disclosed that the gut microbiota contribute significantly to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension and that exercise modifies their gut composition and ameliorates their adverse effects on BP.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Exercício Físico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Animais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo
8.
J Sep Sci ; 47(12): e2400032, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38937913

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are organic acids with carbon atoms less than six, released through fermentation products by intestinal microbiome, having multiple physiological activities. Considering weak acidity and high volatility, derivatization or liquid-liquid extraction is essential, which is time consuming. Headspace-solid-phase dynamic extraction (HS-SPDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is automated and effortless to determine SCFAs in rat feces. The extraction procedure is performed by aspirating and discharging the headspace cyclically through a steel needle, coated with an inner polyethylene glycol sorbent. The key parameters of SPDE were optimized including coating type, incubation time and temperature, and number of extraction strokes. Besides, salting-out was conducted. Then, a method by HS-SPDE-GC-MS was established and validated. It only took 3-min incubation time, 4.5 min extraction time, and 13 min chromatographic separation in a run. The recovery, linearity, limit of quantification, and stability were evaluated. Then, the proposed method was applied to analyze rat feces including 18 rats with liver injury and 23 normal controls. Mann-Whitney U test indicated that the concentrations of six SCFAs in normal rat feces were higher than those with liver injury. This method provides a choice for fast, solvent-free, automated, and high-throughput analysis of SCFAs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Extração em Fase Sólida , Animais , Fezes/química , Ratos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Ren Fail ; 46(2): 2367700, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38938191

RESUMO

Honey is not equivalent to sugar and possess a worldwide health promoting effects such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities. Nevertheless, the potential impacts of honey on high-fat diet induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and gut microbiota remain to be explored. Herein a high-fat diet was used to induce a mouse CKD model, and analysis was conducted on liver, kidney, spleen indices, tissue morphology, biochemical parameters, CKD related genes, and gut microbial diversity. The results indicated that significant inhibitory effects on renal damage caused by a high-fat diet in mice and improvement in disease symptoms were observed upon honey treatment. Significant changes were also found in serum TC, TG, UA, and BUN as well as the inflammation-related protein TNF-α and IL-6 levels in renal tissues. Gene expression analysis revealed that honey intake closely relates to gut microbiota diversity, which can regulate the composition of gut microbiota, increase microbial diversity, especially Bifidobacteriales and S24_7 and promote the synthesis of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In summary, this study suggests that honey has both preventive and therapeutic effects on CKD, which may be associated with its ability to improve microbial composition, increase microbial diversity, and regulate SCFAs levels.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mel , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polifenóis , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Camundongos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 29(12)2024 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38930817

RESUMO

With the aim to obtain controlled-release systems and to preserve the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and prebiotic activity of the bioactive compounds, microencapsulation of both honeydew honey and royal jelly into biopolymeric microparticles based on rye bran heteropolysaccharides (HPS) was successfully performed. Honeydew honey and royal jelly microcapsules were prepared by spray-drying method and were characterized in terms of morphology and biological properties. Due to the resistance of the obtained encapsulates to the acidic pH in the stomach and digestive enzymes, the microcapsules showed prebiotic properties positively influencing both the growth, retardation of the dying phase, and the pro-adhesive properties of probiotic bacteria, i.e., Bifidobacterium spp. and lactic acid bacteria. Moreover, as a result of fermentation of the microcapsules of bee products in the lumen of the large intestine, an increased synthesis of short-chain fatty acids, i.e., butyric acid, was found on average by 39.2% in relation to the SCFA concentrations obtained as a result of fermentation of native bee products, thus opening new perspectives for the exploitation of honeydew honey and royal jelly loaded microcapsules for nutraceutical applications.


Assuntos
Cápsulas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mel , Prebióticos , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Abelhas , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Fermentação , Probióticos , Ácidos Graxos
11.
Molecules ; 29(12)2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38930856

RESUMO

The extract of Dendrobium huoshanense, a traditional Chinese medicinal and food homologous plant belonging to the family Orchidaceae, was previously reported to have hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects. In this study, the direct effects of polysaccharide (DHP) and non-polysaccharide (NDHP) components of D. huoshanense, as well as its water extract (DHWE) were compared with that of metformin (an antidiabetic drug) on the gut microbiota (collected from fecal flora) of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes (T1D) using an in vitro fermentation method. The results showed that DHWE, DHP, and NDHP reduced pH and increased bacterial proliferation and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content in fermentation broth. DHWE, DHP, NDHP and metformin promoted the production of acetic and propionic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid, and propionic acid, respectively. DHWE, DHP, and NDHP reduced the abundance of Proteobacteria (subdominant pathogenic bacteria) and increased the abundance of Firmicutes (dominant beneficial gut bacteria). NDHP also reduced the abundance of Bacteroidetes (beneficial and conditional pathogenic). Metformin increased the abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. At the genus level, NDHP promoted the proliferation of Megamonas and Megasphaera and decreased harmful bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), and DHP increased the abundance of Prevotellaceae (opportunistic and usually harmless). By contrast, metformin increased the abundance of harmful bacteria (e.g., Citrobacter) and reduced the abundance of beneficial bacteria (e.g., Oscillospira). Our study indicates that DHWE, DHP, and NDHP are potentially more beneficial than metformin on the gut microbiota of T1D rats in vitro.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metformina , Polissacarídeos , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/farmacologia , Dendrobium/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Ratos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Nutrients ; 16(12)2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38931207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease increases uremic toxins concentrations, which have been associated with intestinal dysbiosis. Sorghum bicolor L. Moench has dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, while Bifidobacterium longum can promote beneficial health effects. METHODS: It is a controlled, randomized, and single-blind clinical trial. Thirty-nine subjects were randomly separated into two groups: symbiotic group (SG), which received 100 mL of unfermented probiotic milk with Bifidobacterium longum strain and 40 g of extruded sorghum flakes; and the control group (CG), which received 100 mL of pasteurized milk and 40 g of extruded corn flakes for seven weeks. RESULTS: The uremic toxins decreased, and gastrointestinal symptoms improved intragroup in the SG group. The acetic, propionic, and butyric acid production increased intragroup in the SG group. Regarding α-diversity, the Chao1 index was enhanced in the SG intragroup. The KEGG analysis revealed that symbiotic meal increased the intragroup energy and amino sugar metabolism, in addition to enabling essential amino acid production and metabolism, sucrose degradation, and the biosynthesis of ribonucleotide metabolic pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of symbiotic meal reduced BMI, improved short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) synthesis and gastrointestinal symptoms, increased diversity according to the Chao1 index, and reduced uremic toxins in chronic kidney disease patients.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Sorghum , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Idoso , Disbiose , Adulto , Intestinos/microbiologia
13.
Nutrients ; 16(12)2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38931277

RESUMO

Influenza, a severe respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus, has long been a prominent threat to human health. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that oral administration with probiotics may increase the immune response to lung infection via the gut-lung axis leading to the alleviation of the pulmonary disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of oral administration of Pediococcus pentosaceus MIANGUAN2 (MIANGUAN2) on influenza infection in a mouse model. Our results showed that oral administration of MIANGUAN2 significantly improved weight loss, lung index, and lung pathology, and decreased lung viral load of influenza-infected mice. Additionally, MIANGUAN2-treated mice showed significantly lower levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IFN-γ, and IL-12p70 and higher production of IL-4 in the lung. In accordance with this, the transcriptome analysis of the lung indicated that MIANGUAN2-treated mice had reduced expression of inflammation markers, such as TNF, apoptosis, and the NF-Kappa B pathway. Furthermore, the administration of MIANGUAN2 restored the SCFAs profiles through regulating the gut microbiota. SCFA-producing bacteria, such as p_Firmicutes, f_Lachnospiraceae, and f_Ruminococcaceae, were enriched in the MIANGUAN2-treated group compared with PBS-treated group. Consistently, the concentrations of SCFAs in the MIANGUAN2 group were significantly higher than those in the PBS-treated group. In addition, the concentrations of SCFAs were positively correlated with SCFA-producing bacteria, such as Ruminococcus, while being negatively correlated with the virial titers and proinflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, this animal study suggests that Pediococcus pentosaceus MIANGUAN2 may alleviate the influenza infection by altering the gut microbiota composition and increasing the levels of gut microbiota-derived SCFAs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pulmão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Pediococcus pentosaceus , Probióticos , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Camundongos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citocinas/metabolismo , Masculino
14.
Nutrients ; 16(12)2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38931307

RESUMO

Chronic stress (CS) endangers the physical and mental health of adolescents. Therefore, alleviating and preventing such negative health impacts are a top priority. This study explores the effect of feeding shrimp head hydrolysate (SHH) on gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and neurotransmitters in growing C57BL/6 mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress. Mice in the model group and three SHH groups were exposed to CS for 44 days, distilled water and SHH doses of 0.18, 0.45, 0.90 g/kg·BW were given respectively by gavage daily for 30 days from the 15th day. The results showed that SHH can significantly reverse depression-like behaviour, amino acids degradation, α diversity and ß diversity, proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidota, abundance of genera such as Muribaculaceae, Bacteroides, Prevotellaceae_UCG-001, Parabacteroides and Alistipes, concentration of five short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), 5-HT and glutamate induced by CS. Muribaculaceae and butyric acid may be a controlled target. This study highlights the potential and broad application of SHH as an active ingredient in food to combat chronic stress damage.


Assuntos
Depressão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Masculino , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças
15.
Nutrients ; 16(12)2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38931315

RESUMO

Allergic dermatitis is a skin disease with growing prevalence worldwide that has been associated with diets high in fats and sugars. Regular consumption of sucrose-containing beverages may increase the risk for several health problems, including allergic diseases and particularly asthma, but the association between sucrose consumption and allergic dermatitis is understudied. We investigated the effects of sucrose solution intake on allergic contact dermatitis in rats and found early exacerbation of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced disease symptoms and altered composition of the gut microbiota after 14 d of intake. The levels of short-chain fatty acids-produced by fermentation by the intestinal microbiota-were not affected in the cecal contents and feces but decreased in the blood; this effect was especially notable for acetate. To restore blood acetate concentrations, triacetin was mixed with a 10% sucrose solution and fed to the rat model. This strategy prevented the early exacerbation of DNFB-induced symptoms. The decreased absorption of short-chain fatty acids from the intestinal lumen was not linked to the decreased expression of short-chain fatty acid transporters in the small intestine; instead, the mechanism involves a reduction in the sodium concentration in the intestinal lumen due to increased expression of sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1).


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Dinitrofluorbenzeno , Animais , Ratos , Masculino , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sacarose , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Acetatos , Sacarose Alimentar/efeitos adversos
16.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 222, 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38918717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used as an antineoplastic agent in distinct cancer types. Increasing evidence suggests that the gut microbiota might modulate 5-FU efficacy and toxicity, potentially affecting the patient's prognosis. The current experimental study investigated 5-FU-induced microbiota alterations, as well as the potential of prebiotic fibre mixtures (M1-M4) to counteract these shifts. METHODS: A pooled microbial consortium was derived from ten healthy donors, inoculated in an in vitro model of the colon, and treated with 5-FU, with or without prebiotic fibre mixtures for 72 h. Four different prebiotic fibre mixtures were tested: M1 containing short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (sc GOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS), and low viscosity pectin (lvPect), M2 consisting of arabinoxylan, beta-glucan, pectin, and resistant starch, M3 which was a mixture of scGOS and lcFOS, and M4 containing arabinoxylan, beta-glucan, pectin, resistant starch, and inulin. RESULTS: We identified 5-FU-induced changes in gut microbiota composition, but not in microbial diversity. Administration of prebiotic fibre mixtures during 5-FU influenced gut microbiota composition and taxa abundance. Amongst others, prebiotic fibre mixtures successfully stimulated potentially beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Anaerostipes, Weissella, Olsenella, Senegalimassilia) and suppressed the growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella, Enterobacter) in the presence of 5-FU. The short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate increased slightly during 5-FU, but even more during 5-FU with prebiotic fibre mixtures, while propionate was lower due to 5-FU with or without prebiotic fibre mixtures, compared to control. The SCFA butyrate and valerate did not show differences among all conditions. The branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) iso-butyrate and iso-valerate were higher in 5-FU, but lower in 5-FU + prebiotics, compared to control. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that prebiotic fibre mixtures represent a promising strategy to modulate 5-FU-induced microbial dysbiosis towards a more favourable microbiota, thereby possibly improving 5-FU efficacy and reducing toxicity, which should be evaluated further in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Colo , Fibras na Dieta , Disbiose , Fluoruracila , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Masculino , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Feminino , Adulto , Pectinas/farmacologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(12)2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38928432

RESUMO

During the adaptive evolution of animals, the host and its gut microbiota co-adapt to different elevations. Currently, there are few reports on the rumen microbiota-hepato-intestinal axis of Tibetan sheep at different altitudes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the regulatory effect of rumen microorganism-volatile fatty acids (VFAs)-VFAs transporter gene interactions on the key enzymes and genes related to gluconeogenesis in Tibetan sheep. The rumen fermentation parameters, rumen microbial densities, liver gluconeogenesis activity and related genes were determined and analyzed using gas chromatography, RT-qPCR and other research methods. Correlation analysis revealed a reciprocal relationship among rumen microflora-VFAs-hepatic gluconeogenesis in Tibetan sheep at different altitudes. Among the microbiota, Ruminococcus flavefaciens (R. flavefaciens), Ruminococcus albus (R. albus), Fibrobactersuccinogenes and Ruminobacter amylophilus (R. amylophilus) were significantly correlated with propionic acid (p < 0.05), while propionic acid was significantly correlated with the transport genes monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) and anion exchanger 2 (AE2) (p < 0.05). Propionic acid was significantly correlated with key enzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvic acid carboxylase and glucose (Glu) in the gluconeogenesis pathway (p < 0.05). Additionally, the expressions of these genes were significantly correlated with those of the related genes, namely, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2 (PCK2) (p < 0.05). The results showed that rumen microbiota densities differed at different altitudes, and the metabolically produced VFA contents differed, which led to adaptive changes in the key enzyme activities of gluconeogenesis and the expressions of related genes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Gluconeogênese , Fígado , Rúmen , Animais , Gluconeogênese/genética , Ovinos/microbiologia , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Tibet , Altitude , Adaptação Fisiológica , Fermentação
18.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 570, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota (GM) have been implicated as important regulators of gastrointestinal symptom which is commonly occurred along with respiratory influenza A virus (IAV) infection, suggesting the involvement of the gut-to-lung axis in a host's response to IAV. IAV primarily destroys airway epithelium tight junctions (TJs) and consequently causes acute respiratory disease syndrome. It is known that GM and their metabolism produce an anti-influenza effect, but their role in IAV-induced airway epithelial integrity remains unknown. METHODS: A mouse model of IAV infection was established. GM were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels were measured. GM depletion and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) were conducted to validate the role of GM in IAV infection. A pair-feeding experiment was conducted to reveal whether IAV-induced GM dysbiosis is attributed to impaired food intake. Furthermore, human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were cocultured with IAV in the presence or absence of acetate. TJs function was analyzed by paracellular permeability and transepithelial electronic resistance (TEER). The mechanism of how acetate affects TJs integrity was evaluated in HBE cells transfected with G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) short hairpin RNA (shRNA). RESULTS: IAV-infected mice exhibited lower relative abundance of acetate-producing bacteria (Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Akkermansia) and decreased acetate levels in gut and serum. These changes were partly caused by a decrease in food consumption (due to anorexia). GM depletion exacerbated and FMT restored IAV-induced lung inflammatory injury. IAV infection suppressed expressions of TJs (occludin, ZO-1) leading to disrupted airway epithelial barrier function as evidenced by decreased TEER and increased permeability. Acetate pretreatment activated GPR43, partially restored IAV-induced airway epithelial barrier function, and reduced inflammatory cytokines levels (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß). Such protective effects of acetate were absent in HBE cells transfected with GPR43 shRNA. Acetate and GPR43 improved TJs in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results demonstrated that GM protected airway TJs by modulating GPR43-AMPK signaling in IAV-induced lung injury. Therefore, improving GM dysbiosis may be a potential therapeutic target for patients with IAV infection.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lesão Pulmonar , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Junções Íntimas , Animais , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/complicações , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vírus da Influenza A , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Disbiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo
19.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892489

RESUMO

A bioactive Pleurotus eryngii aqueous extract powder (SPAE) was obtained by spray drying and its performance in terms of physicochemical properties, in vitro digestion, inflammatory factors, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota was explored. The results indicated that the SPAE exhibited a more uniform particle size distribution than P. eryngii polysaccharide (PEP). Meanwhile, a typical absorption peak observed at 843 cm-1 in the SPAE FTIR spectra indicated the existence of α-glycosidic bonds. SPAE exhibited higher antioxidant abilities and superior resistance to digestion in vitro. In addition, SPAE supplementation to mice significantly reduced the release of factors that promote inflammation, enhanced the secretion of anti-inflammatory factors, and sustained maximum production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Additionally, it significantly enhanced the relative abundance of SCFAs-producing Akkermansia and reduced the abundance of Ruminococcus and Clostridiides in intestines of mice. These results show the potential of SPAE as a novel material with prebiotic effects for the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pleurotus , Pós , Prebióticos , Secagem por Atomização , Pleurotus/química , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química
20.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892624

RESUMO

Probiotics have garnered increasing attention as a potential therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies have confirmed that Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis MN-Gup (MN-Gup) could stimulate the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in NCI-H716 cells, but whether MN-Gup has a hypoglycemic effect on T2DM in vivo remains unclear. In this study, a T2DM mouse model was constructed, with a high-fat diet and streptozotocin in mice, to investigate the effect of MN-Gup on diabetes. Then, different doses of MN-Gup (2 × 109 CFU/kg, 1 × 1010 CFU/kg) were gavaged for 6 weeks to investigate the effect of MN-Gup on glucose metabolism and its potential mechanisms. The results showed that a high-dose of MN-Gup significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of T2DM mice compared to the other groups. In addition, there were significant increases in the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetate, and GLP-1 levels in the MN-Gup group. MN-Gup increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and decreased the number of Escherichia-Shigella and Staphylococcus. Moreover, the correlation analysis revealed that Bifidobacterium demonstrated a significant positive correlation with GLP-1 and a negative correlation with the incremental AUC. In summary, this study demonstrates that Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis MN-Gup has significant hypoglycemic effects in T2DM mice and can modulate the gut microbiota, promoting the secretion of SCFAs and GLP-1.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium animalis , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Probióticos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Masculino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estreptozocina , Bifidobacterium
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