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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130850, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461510

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that mild to moderate iron chlorosis can have positive effects on grape quality potential, including volatile profile. The main objective of this work was to investigate, for the first time, how moderate iron stress in grapevines affects the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in wines. The study was carried out during 2018-2019 seasons, in 20 Tempranillo vineyard subzones with different degree of iron deficiency, located in Ribera del Duero (North-Central Spain). The results showed that moderate iron stress increased in wines the concentrations of VOCs associated with floral notes, such as 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate, while reducing the presence of C6-alcohols, responsible for green-herbaceous aroma. A favourable reduction of pH and a betterment of parameters related to colour were detected in wines from iron deficient subzones. Chlorosis incidence was associated to improvements in wine sensory attributes as layer intensity, black fruit and aroma intensity.


Assuntos
Anemia Hipocrômica , Vitis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vinho , Fazendas , Frutas/química , Humanos , Ferro , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 369: 130753, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488135

RESUMO

Approximately 11.4 million tonnes of solid by-products and an increased amount of waste water will be generated during the 2020/21 coffee harvest. There are currently no truly value-adding uses for these potentially environmentally threatening species. This work presents the most wide-ranging chemical investigation of coffee by-products collected from farms to factories, including eight never previously investigated. Twenty compounds were found for the first time in coffee by-products including the bioactive neomangiferin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, lup-20(29)-en-3-one and 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid. Five by-products generated inside a factory showed caffeine (53.0-17.0 mg.g-1) and/or chlorogenic acid (72.9-10.1 mg.g-1) content comparable to coffee beans, while mature leaf from plant pruning presented not only high contents of both compounds (16.4 and 38.9 mg.g-1, respectively), but also of mangiferin (19.4 mg.g-1) besides a variety of flavonoids. Such by-products are a source of a range of bioactive compounds and could be explored with potential economic and certainly environmental benefits.


Assuntos
Café , Extratos Vegetais , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fazendas
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149657, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464797

RESUMO

The decomposition of organic matter mediated by soil enzymes is the key process that transports carbon from the soil into the atmosphere. To better understand the effect of global warming on organic matter decomposition, we evaluated the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of invertase (EC3.2.1.26), ß-glucosidase (EC3.2.1.21), urease (EC3.1.1.5), acid phosphatase (EC3.1.3.2), and arylsulfatase (EC3.1.6.1) activities in red soil from the subtropical region and black soil from the mid-temperate region at 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 °C. Further, the in-situ stoichiometry of the products released by enzymes was modelled. All of the enzyme activities in the tested soils increased with the increasing temperature (1.1-8.9 fold per 10 °C), indicating an enhanced degradation of the organic substrate with warming. In the lower temperature range (5-25 °C), Q10 of the enzyme activities in the red soil evaluated in terms of total enzyme activity index were more prominent than that in black soil (1.53 and 3.46 vs 1.16 and 3.19). Changes in the in-situ stoichiometry of enzyme products with warming indicated that, in colder months (Jan. to Apr. and Oct. to Dec.), the microbial nutrient demand in the red soil exhibited the following order, N > P > S > C. While in the black soil, it suggested that there is increasing microbial demand for only N and S. In the warmer months (May to Sep.), the microbial nutrient demands in the two soils were opposite to the colder months. The results suggested differential changes in microbial nutrient limitation with warming, which has significant implications for the carbon stocks management in farmlands under the changing global climate.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Carbono , Fazendas , Aquecimento Global , Nutrientes
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149946, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525759

RESUMO

Photovoltaic technology plays an important role in the sustainable development of clean energy, and arid areas are particularly ideal locations to build large-scale solar farms, all over the world. Modifications to the energy balance and water availability through the installation of large-scale solar farms, however, fundamentally affect the energy budget, water, and biogeochemical cycles. In-situ field observations, though, fail to draw definitive conclusions on how photovoltaic panels (PVs) affect the ambient environment, or how microclimates and soil moisture evolve under the long-term, continuous, cumulative influence of PVs. Here, we designed a synthetic model, integrating processes of energy budget and water cycle, to quantify the ecohydrological effects of PVs on soil microclimate and moisture regimes at different locations (zones) near individual PVs. Simulations run with a stochastically generated 100-year climate time series were examined to capture the evolutionary trends of soil microclimate and soil moisture. The results indicate that soil moisture content was increased by 59.8% to 113.6% in the Middle and Front zones, and soil temperature was decreased by 1.47 to 1.66 °C in all the sheltered zones, mainly because there was 5- 7 times more available water and ~27% less available radiation there, compared with the control zone. On the other hand, if the ground clearance of the PVs is too low, turbulence beneath hot PVs will have a significant influence on not only soil temperature but also soil moisture content. The innovative contribution of this study lies in reinforcing existing theoretical patterns for the development of soil microclimate and moisture dynamics influenced by PVs, and can be used to provide reliable insights into the hydrological and biogeochemical processes on Earth and the sustainable management of large-scale solar farms in arid ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microclima , Solo , China , Ecossistema , Fazendas , Água/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150017, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500278

RESUMO

Circular economy principle aims to achieve sustainable production systems, focusing on the waste valorisation and the reduction of gaseous losses to the atmosphere. Nitrogen (N) compounds in terms of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) represent the major losses to the atmosphere of laying hen manure management chain. We present a study aimed to evaluate NH3 and N2O emission and mitigation strategies at housing, storage and land spreading stages. The whole manure management chain was evaluated under different scenarios which combined mitigation strategies of each stage. Two intensive laying hen facilities were involved in the study. Evaluated mitigation strategies were: (i) frequency of manure removal from housing facility, (ii) dried manure storage after passing throughout a manure drying tunnel (MDT) compared to fresh manure storage and (iii) fresh or dried manure incorporation versus surface land application. Increasing the frequency of manure removal from 4 days to 1/3 daily, reduced N losses around 68%. Dried manure storage achieved around 75% reduction in N losses compared to fresh manure storage. Spreading dried manure on grassland surface reduced ≈77% NH3 losses in relation to the emission level reached by fresh manure. The reduction was similar when dried manure was incorporated compared to surface application of fresh manure (≈79%). A 40% reduction in N losses was achieved using the MDT compared to no drying strategy. In the whole manure management chain, the combination of strategies that most reduced N losses was: removal frequency of 1/3 daily, dry storage after passing through the MDT and incorporated land application. These strategies reduced N losses between 40 and 60% compared to the 4 days of removal frequency, fresh storage and surface application of fresh manure.


Assuntos
Esterco , Óxido Nitroso , Amônia/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Fazendas , Feminino , Óxido Nitroso/análise
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150301, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536860

RESUMO

Several studies in European and North American agroecosystems conclude that organic farming benefits birds compared to conventional farming. Nevertheless, there are some biases toward these geographic regions and farm size. Argentinian agroecosystems are particularly homogeneous with large arable fields and sparse uncultivated field margins (i.e. large-scale homogenous cropping systems). In Argentina only 0.55% of the total farmland is under organic farming. Thus, our aims were to assess differences in bird occupancy between organic versus conventional farming regimes, and whether bird occupancy varied in relation to annual crop proportion in both farming regimes in central Argentina agroecosystems. We surveyed 156 points in farms under conventional and 154 in organic farming regimes during two bird-breeding seasons. We used multi-species occupancy models with a Bayesian approach to estimate bird occupancy. We observed that the type of farming regime (organic in relation to conventional) had a weak effect on avian occupancy, varying by species and groups. Probability of occupancy was higher for a few insectivorous and omnivorous species but lower for carnivores in organic farms in relation to conventional ones. The proportion of annual crops was positively correlated with occupancy of an insectivore aerial forager, some insectivore foliage gleaners, a granivore, and some omnivorous species in organic farms, but not conventional farms. This work contributes to reducing geographic and small-scale heterogeneous cropping system biases in the avian agroecological literature. Our results, together with future studies needed to assess landscape configuration and composition, and resource availability for birds in each farming regime, will allow the evaluation of organic farming as a tool for the conservation of bird species in large-scale homogeneous cropping systems in temperate regions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Melhoramento Vegetal , Agricultura , Animais , Argentina , Teorema de Bayes , Aves , Fazendas
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150286, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537692

RESUMO

Due to the unfavorable soil conditions and water resources, the cropland use pattern in the farming-pastoral ecotone in northern China is complex. The program named "Grain for Green" has accelerated the cropland change. However, the complex cropland and retired cropland are challenging to monitor with remote sensing due to their spatially dispersed and easily confused with spectrally similar land use classes such as nature grasslands and non-cropped fields. Taking farming-pastoral ecotone in the northern foot of the Yinshan Mountains as a case study, we explored a classification approach for complex cropland and retired cropland, which was introduced as a specific land use class by using multi-temporal Landsat TM and OLI images with Google Earth Engine. During 1990-2000, cropland increased with a sharper growth and increased with a slower growth from 2001 to 2010, and then decreased significantly from 2011 to 2019, to lead the cropland area in 2019 was smaller than an area in 1990. We analyzed the spatiotemporal trajectories of retired cropland in 2019 using the Land Use Change Trajectory method to evaluate its source. In our finding, approximately 77% of retired cropland was labelled as cropland before 2019; albeit, not all retired cropland was converted from cropland. Moreover, we qualitatively assessed the vegetation dynamics in the study area by utilizing the long-term NDVI-mean value to reveal that vegetation coverage has shown a continuously increasing trend. It is related to the decline of cropland and the increase of retired cropland at the same rate. Our results highlighted that the "Grain for Green" program had led the vegetation restoration in the farming-pastoral ecotone. Our approach for monitoring cropland and retired cropland can improve the understanding of the driving factors and consequences of these critical land use change trajectories.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Solo , China , Grão Comestível , Fazendas
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 812, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786612

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate steroid hormone residues from livestock farms and assess their risks to the surface water of Phayao Lake. These steroid hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which can be found in natural and synthetic forms. This research focused on examining the residues of seven steroid hormones (five estrogens and two androgens-estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2), 17ß-estradiol (ßE2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), testosterone (T), and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT)) from four types of livestock farms around Phayao Lake, Thailand. The samples collected from the livestock farms included feces, soil, and wastewater and were extracted by the solid phase extraction (SPE) technique and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The risks from the residual steroid hormones were also characterized by estradiol equivalents (EEQs), testosterone equivalents (TEQs), and risk quotients (RQs). The results indicated that most hormone contamination from the farms' livestock was due to the estrogen hormones E1 (1.38-97.10 ng/g), ßE2 (10.08-1366 ng/g), and EE2 (1.50-99.92 ng/g), which originate from the natural excretion and admixture of steroids in feedstock or medicines. Steroid hormones were not detected in the wastewater from cleaning processes on farms with wastewater treatment plants, whereas farms without wastewater treatment plants showed high values of estrogen hormone contamination, with EEQs of 128.8-472.9 ng/L and RQs of 208.3-294.3. However, the analysis of steroid hormone residues in Phayao Lake demonstrated that the residues did not severely affect aquatic organisms (with RQs of 0.002-144.5), and no estrogen or androgen residues were observed in the water treatment plant or tap water.


Assuntos
Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Androgênios , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estrogênios/análise , Estrona/análise , Fazendas , Gado , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tailândia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5778455, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796233

RESUMO

Background: Bovine rotavirus (BRV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are the most common viral agents in neonatal calf diarrhea and result in serious economic consequences. The aim of the study was to determine the epidemiology of those viruses in randomly selected dairy farms of Addis Ababa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to April 2019 using a probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling technique. A total of 110 calves, less than 30 days of age, from 57 dairy herds were involved in the study. Associated factors of herds and calves were collected using semistructured interviews from farm owners and through physical observation of selected calves. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed using the sandwich ELISA method. Data generated from both semistructured interviews and laboratory investigation were analyzed using STATA_MP version 15. Results: From the total 110 calves, 42 (38.18%) had diarrhea during the survey. The prevalence of bovine rotavirus and coronavirus was 3.64% (4/110) and 0.91% (1/110), respectively. Diarrhea, feeding colostrum timing, and sex of the neonatal calves had statistically significant association with bovine rotavirus infection (p < 0.05). All rotavirus-positive neonatal calves were identified in small scale dairy farms and in dairy farms that reported mortality though they lack statistically significant association. Only one coronavirus case was detected among the neonatal calves. The case was identified among small scale herds and in a herd with diarrheal cases. The sex of the coronavirus calf was female, diarrheic, and among 11-20 days old. Conclusion: The prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infections in neonatal calves was seldom in dairy farms of the study area. Rotavirus was more common than coronavirus, and further studies should be initiated on other (infectious and noninfectious) causes of neonatal calf diarrhea in the area.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Mortalidade , Prevalência , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
10.
Acta Vet Scand ; 63(1): 44, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural changes in dairy farming increase farm complexity, thereby inducing a need to combine herd health management, technological solutions, legislation, and human relations among farmers, farm workers, and advisors. This complex situation may require 'transdisciplinary advisory service', i.e., a highly integrated network of both non-academic and different academic disciplines. While working in these networks, advisors need to offer specialized knowledge from their own field, interact in a dynamic relationship between different types of professions and facilitate complex processes. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify and describe different advisor and farmer styles based on their reasons to engage in transdisciplinary advisory services at farm-level, (2) to identify any possible conflicting perspectives between advisors and farmers' demand, and (3) to discuss these styles and conflicts in the context and future of advisory services for dairy herd health and production management. RESULTS: Using Q methodology, we explored the purpose of transdisciplinary advisory service on dairy farms. The results were derived from correlations between 40 statements for 25 advisors and 33 statements for nine farmers. We identified three similar styles among advisors and farmers, characterized as: (1) the teamwork and knowledge-focused style, (2) the production and economy-focused style, and (3) the economy and strategy-focused style. These styles included reflections on financial aspects, production, knowledge-exchange and the teamwork process itself. In addition, different emphasis on animal welfare, farm strategy and follow-up procedures between the styles became evident. CONCLUSIONS: This Q-study suggests three comparable styles between advisors and farmers. The main differences between the styles related to the teamwork process and purpose, follow-up process, financial aspects, farm strategy, and operational production objectives. Therefore, styles and expectations should be explored and discussed to create a mutual understanding within a farmer-advisor(s)-team, and to clarify the farmer's needs and demands, and how the advisors can best meet these expectations. This study illustrates the importance of exploring different advisor and farmer styles to get a mutual understanding of the purpose of the transdisciplinary collaboration.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Consultores , Dinamarca , Fazendas , Humanos
11.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(10): 635-649, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758956

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important disease in cattle. Switzerland started an eradication program in 2008. After the initial virological examination of all cattle followed by the examination of all newborn calves, the BVD prevalence in 2012 was low enough to start serological monitoring. An unusually high number of increased tank milk values were observed during this serological monitoring in autumn 2019. No seropositive animals were found on most farms in the follow-up cattle group testing. The present study was designed in the form of a multiple case report to better assess the BVD situation in a herd after a serological tank milk result above the cut-off value. The tank milk of 13 farms with serological values above the cut-off value from the analyses in autumn 2019 was examined again with two different ELISA tests in spring 2020. In addition, at the same time blood samples were taken to obtain serological values of all adult cattle on the farm. The results of the two tests that were used to examine the tank milk samples correlated well with each another. The results of the tank milk serology showed a low correlation with the seroprevalence in the lactating cows, but no correlation with the seroprevalence of all adult animals in the herd. A single seropositive animal had a major influence on the results of the tank milk serology in some herds. In addition, correct tank milk sampling must be ensured because the representativeness of the tank milk sample is decisive for a meaningful result for the investigated farm. If the result of the tank milk test is above the cut-off value, the examination of a group of cattle is still the best way to identify a current infection in a herd.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Lactação , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fazendas , Feminino , Leite/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770001

RESUMO

Assessing the health of the ecosystem based on the landscape pattern of national parks can facilitate policy makers in formulating more targeted conservation policies to better manage national park ecosystems. To analyze the landscape patterns and characteristics of the national park, the ecosystem health evaluation index system of the national park was constructed using the vigor-organization-resilience (VOR) model to evaluate the health status. In this study, the Shennongjia National Park in China was selected as a case study area to be assessed using the index system. The results revealed that the patches of construction land and farmland are the largest in number and the most complex in shape, reflecting the obvious fragmentation of construction land and farmland patches. All patch types in this national park were evenly distributed. The results of the analysis showed that the comprehensive index of national park heath, according to the VOR model, is 0.74, indicating that the ecosystems in this study area were in a good state of health. Ecosystems in strictly protected areas of this park had the highest ecosystem health index levels, while the traditional utilization areas had the lowest. Ecosystem health levels were characterized by significant spatial agglomeration characteristics, with high-high aggregation distribution areas, mainly clustered in strictly protected areas, and low-low aggregation distribution, mainly clustered in traditional utilization areas and marginal areas. This study provided a set of ecosystem health assessment systems and their practical use in China's newly established national parks.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fazendas
13.
J Agric Saf Health ; 27(4): 215-227, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729972

RESUMO

HIGHLIGHTS: Despite a response rate of about 18%, there was scant evidence of nonresponse bias. Farm and ranch characteristics of operations responding to a mailed survey were similar to those not responding. Responders were significantly more likely to be married but only slightly older and more educated than nonresponders. Earlier survey responders reported more injuries and greater severity when injured compared to later responders. ABSTRACT: Nonresponse bias in a survey can result in misleading estimates of agricultural injuries and can misdirect prevention efforts aimed at reducing the burden of injuries on farmers. Responders (n = 2,977) and nonresponders (n = 13,849) were compared based on demographics and agricultural production characteristics to identify underrepresented subgroups. Injury characteristics were compared between early (n = 1,667) and late (n = 1,309) responders. Methods accounted for correlated data, sample size inflation of p-values, and assessment of meaningful differences. Few differences were identified between responders and nonresponders. Responders differed from nonresponders by state of residence, and responders were more likely to be married. Other characteristics (age, gender, education, farm size, crops grown, animals raised) were similar across groups. Early responders reported more injuries and more often sought medical care for an injury than late responders. The differences identified between responders and nonresponders were minimal and not likely to create bias. Differential reporting of injury and injury severity between early and late responders is worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Animais , Viés , Fazendas , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Agric Saf Health ; 27(4): 205-214, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729973

RESUMO

HIGHLIGHTS: This article describes a cost assessment of a PTO driveline shielding intervention. Considerations for effective occupational safety interventions beyond reductions in injuries or fatalities are described. The financial viability of combining various on-farm services to reduce intervention costs is discussed. ABSTRACT: PTO entanglements are a primary injury concern on U.S. farms, affecting adults and children. These events often lead to severe injury and permanent disability but can be prevented with proper use of PTO shielding. A promising strategy for increasing PTO shielding on farms has been the introduction of user-friendly shielding options by qualified safety specialists. This study looks at the cost-effectiveness of this approach. The cost-effectiveness of this PTO shielding strategy was calculated based on program-related costs, the PTO shield cost, the lifespan of PTO shields, and the number of PTO shields needed to prevent an entanglement. The cost per entanglement prevented was then calculated by dividing the total costs by the number of entanglements prevented in several cost-estimate scenarios. Costs were adjusted for inflation to 2019 dollars. Costs per entanglement prevented ranged from a low of $921,544 (assuming a 10-year PTO lifespan and using 12,487 as the number needed to treat, i.e., to prevent a PTO entanglement, referred to as the NNT) to a high of $18,583,492 (assuming a three-year PTO lifespan and 67,119 as the NNT). The cost per entanglement prevented at the median PTO lifespan of five years and median NNT of 39,802 was $6,612,244. Based on our estimates, the cost-efficacy of increasing PTO shielding using qualified safety specialists differs widely based on the shield lifespan and the number of shields needed to avoid one entanglement. However, if the cost of introducing PTO shields in on-farm visits is coupled with other on-farm services that defray these costs, then the cost-efficacy increases considerably.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Agricultura , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Fazendas , Humanos , Equipamentos de Proteção
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1139, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The alarming rise in multi-drug resistant (MDR) zoonotic pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., has been threatening the health sector globally. In Bangladesh, despite rapid growth in poultry sector little is known about the potential risks of zoonotic pathogens in homestead duck flocks. The aim of this study was to understand the occurrence, species diversity, and multi-drug resistance in Campylobacter spp., and identify the associated risk factors in duck farms in Bangladesh. METHODS: The study involved 20 duck farms at 6 sub-districts of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Monthly occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in potential sources at the farms during February-September, 2018, was detected by culture and PCR-based methods. Campylobacter isolates were examined for resistance to different antimicrobials. Risk factors, concerning climatic and environmental disposition, farm management, and anthropogenic practices, of Campylobacter infection were estimated by participatory epidemiological tools. RESULTS: Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in overall 36.90% (155/420) samples, more frequently in drinking water (60%, 30/50), followed by cloacal swab (37.50%, 75/200), egg surface swab (35%, 35/100) and soil of the duck resting places (30%, 15/50) but was not detected in feed samples (n = 20). PCR assays distinguished the majority (61.30%, 95/155) of the isolates as C. coli, while the rest (38.70%, 60/155) were C. jejuni. Notably, 41.7% (25/60) and 31.6% (30/95) strains of C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, were observed to be MDR. The dynamics of Campylobacter spp., distinctly showing higher abundance during summer and late-monsoon, correlated significantly with temperature, humidity, and rainfall, while sunshine hours had a negative influence. Anthropogenic management-related factors, including, inadequate hygiene practices, use of untreated river water, wet duck shed, flock age (1-6 months), and unscrupulous use of antimicrobials were identified to enhance the risk of MDR Campylobacter infection. CONCLUSION: The present study clearly demonstrates that duck farms contribute to the enhanced occurrence and spread of potentially pathogenic and MDR C. coli and C. jejuni strains and the bacterial dynamics are governed by a combined interaction of environmental and anthropogenic factors. A long-term holistic research at the environment-animal-human interface would be integral to divulge health risk reduction approaches tackling the spread of Campylobacter spp. from duck farms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter coli , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Galinhas , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Patos , Fazendas , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769804

RESUMO

This study explores the impact of farmland transfer on the multidimensional relative poverty of the elderly in rural areas to provide a reference for the study of rural land transfer in China and improve the welfare system for the elderly. Based on the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) rural sample data in 2018, this paper uses the AF multidimensional index measurement method to assess multidimensional relative poverty in rural areas. Logit regression estimation examines the single index poverty of rural older adults transferred from rural land and the impact of multidimensional relative poverty, using the propensity score matching method (PSM) to analyze the results' robustness. The transfer of agricultural land has different impacts on the poverty of different rural elderly poverty indicators and negatively affects the comprehensive effect of rural elderly poverty. The transfer of agricultural land significantly alleviates rural elderly poverty. Reasonable and effective transfer of agricultural land, together with improved rural social security and a caring service system for the elderly, will promote the continuous operation of large-scale agricultural operations and alleviate rural elderly poverty.


Assuntos
Pobreza , População Rural , Idoso , Agricultura , China , Fazendas , Humanos
17.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(11): 779-790, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758953

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The project «Healthy claws - the foundation for the future¼ aims to establish a Swiss national claw health monitoring based on digital recordings by claw trimmers during claw trimming. To assess claw health on the participating farms, between-herd prevalence, within-herd prevalence and cow prevalence of all claw disorders based on the «ICAR Claw Health Atlas¼ were calculated during this study. Claw trimmers underwent an intensive training and examination in order to ensure data quality. To guarantee the representativity of the prevalences, only farm claw trimmings were considered, where ≥ 80 % of the cows in a herd were trimmed. The calculations were based on 7108 cows and 403 heifers from 238 farms, during the period from February 2020 to February 2021. At least one claw disorder was present in 99,2 % of the farms, with 49,6 % of the heifers and 77,7 % of the cows having at least one claw disorder. The high prevalence is seen as a result of all ICAR claw disorders being considered, whereas not all of them are painful and consequently not all of them cause lameness. The absence of lameness assessment limits the evaluation of existing herd problems. High between-herd and cow prevalences were observed for the following claw disorders: heel horn erosion (92,9 %/64,7 %), digital dermatitis (55,9 %/20,7 %), white line disease (81,5 %/17,7 %) and sole hemorrhage (66,4 %/11,6 %). Asymmetric claws, corkscrew claws, scissor claws, horn fissure, interdigital phlegmon, swelling of the coronet and/or bulb and toe necrosis had low prevalences. The proportion of cows treated with a hoof block (0,5 %) was comparatively small in regard of the cows suffering from ulcers (5,6 %) and white line abscesses (2,5 %). The median within-herd prevalence of digital dermatitis was 5,6 %, with a maximal within-herd prevalence of 87,5 %. Despite the contagious nature of digital dermatitis, no increase of between-herd and cow prevalence has been observed in the past ten years throughout Switzerland. Based on this data, the Swiss claw health situation can be monitored, compared over time and improved in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças do Pé , Casco e Garras , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/epidemiologia , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Prevalência
18.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(10): 623-634, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758955

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Husbandry conditions for rabbits in Switzerland are at a high animal welfare level in international comparison. Wire mesh flooring is prohibited and group housing is mandatory up to the age of eight weeks. Despite these animal-friendly husbandry standards, animal losses seem to be a significant problem, although reliable data on professional Swiss meat rabbit production is lacking to date. A herd survey was carried out in 52 rabbit farms to address this situation. At the same time, each new litter and each fattening group was documented with a standardized form focusing on animal death and the use of medication by the farmer over a one year period. In the case of increased mortality or new health problems, dead rabbits were sent to the National Reference Center for Poultry and Rabbit Diseases (Zurich) for pathological examination including bacteriological and parasitological diagnostics. Data from 32 farms were evaluated. The average mortality of young animals (birth to weaning) was 14.9% (1.0-30.0%) and of fattening rabbits (weaning to slaughter) 17.3% (4.3-31.8%). Intestinal diseases, mainly dysentery, intestinal coccidiosis and mucoid enteropathies, were the primary cause of death (68.2%). Eimeria spp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens were identified as the most frequent pathogens. Respiratory diseases were found in 18.7% of the examined rabbits, with Pasteurella multocida identified as the most common pathogen. 60.0% of the farms used antibiotics during the study period and a third (34.7%) of all the fattening animals were medicated with at least one antibiotic. The present results confirm that despite high animal welfare standards infectious diseases and mortality rates represent a considerable problem in professional Swiss meat rabbit production. Risk factors of increased morbidity and mortality should be identified to improve rabbit health, to reduce the high mortality rate and the extensive use of antibiotics in professional Swiss meat rabbit production. Practicable management improvements with specific prevention strategies should be developed.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Carne , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Fazendas , Coelhos , Suíça
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(11): 5510-5518, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708990

RESUMO

In order to assess the pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) in a suburban farmland soil, 29 sampling sites were collected around Nanjing according to the grid method, and the contents of 15 different PAHs were determined. Acenaphthene(Ace) was not detected in any of the samples. The total content of PAHs in farmland soil ranged from 24.49 to 750.04 µg·kg-1, with an average of 226.64 µg·kg-1. The spatial distribution of high-ring PAHs, the main PAHs in the farmland soil, was similar to that of total PAHs. There was no significant correlation between PAHs and soil organic matter(SOM), pH, cation exchange capacity(CEC), and total nitrogen(TN), whereas bulk density and low ring PAHs were significantly correlated. The results of source apportionment show that the main source of PAHs in the farmland soil is a mixture of combustion and petroleum. The contamination severity index(CSI) index shows that the PAHs does not pose an ecological risk. The results of the health risk assessment show that there is no potential carcinogenic risk to children or adults, and the main sequence of exposure is skin contact>ingestion>inhalation.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(11): 5526-5534, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708992

RESUMO

The security risks of heavy metal pollution in agro-products are becoming increasingly serious. This paper investigated the heavy metal contamination of farmland soils and agro-products around a typical mining smelter in Hunan province, and explored the influencing factors based on principal component and correlation analyses. The results showed that the soils were significantly contaminated by heavy metals, with a mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn of 9.12, 358, 303, and 185 mg·kg-1, respectively, pH range from 4.67 to 7.22. All the sites included were under strict control. With regards to the agro-products, the concentration of heavy metal elements were different, and the order of heavy metal concentrations was Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd, with an order of biological enrichment factor(BCF) of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb. Over-the-standard elements in agro-products included Pb and Cd at 78% and 41%, respectively, which indicated a higher security risk from these products. The accumulation of the same heavy metals in leaf vegetables were generally higher than sweet potatoes and solanaceous vegetables. The heavy metal concentrations in soils corresponded to the first principal component(P<0.01), with the variance reaching 88.0%, which dominated the sources of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in agro-products. The enrichment characteristics were mainly affected by the type of crops, and was also regulated by the soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and soil organic matter(the correlation coefficients of r were -0.407- -0.641, P<0.05). In conclusion, there was a combined heavy metal pollution and high risk in soils and agro-products. Therefore, the planting of crops in the study area should be avoided, and soil remediation measures should be implemented to reduce security risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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