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2.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 71(4): 1-20, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947824

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents 2020 fetal mortality data by maternal race and Hispanic origin, age, tobacco use during pregnancy, and state of residence, as well as by plurality, sex, gestational age, birthweight, and selected causes of death. Trends in fetal mortality are also examined.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Fetal , Hispânico ou Latino , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Prevención y Control de Enfermedades; 1 ed; Jun. 2022. 1089-119 p. ilus.(Boletín Epidemiológico, 31, SE-22).
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1379436

RESUMO

La defunción del feto y el neonato son eventos altamente frecuentes, trágicos y evitables. Esta situación no tuvo suficiente relevancia entre los años 2000 y 2015, periodo en el cual los países desplegaron diversas estrategias para la reducción de la mortalidad infantil y materna. Las metas 4 y 5 de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM) promovieron la reducción de la muerte en menores de 5 años y menores de 1 año, pero no se establecieron metas para disminuir la mortalidad de los recién nacidos y fetos. La reducción de estos eventos ha sido lenta y sobre todo la mortalidad fetal pareciera estar desatendida en la salud pública


Assuntos
Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Medidas em Epidemiologia , Mortalidade Fetal , Monitoramento Epidemiológico
4.
Eur Heart J ; 43(29): 2801-2811, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560020

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the association between the timing of cardiac surgery during pregnancy and both maternal and foetal outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Studies published up to 6 February 2021 on maternal and/or foetal mortality after cardiac surgery during pregnancy that included individual patient data were identified. Maternal and foetal mortality was analysed per trimester for the total population and stratified for patients who underwent caesarean section (CS) prior to cardiac surgery (Caesarean section (CaeSe) group) vs. patients who did not (Cardiac surgery (CarSu) group). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate predictors of both maternal and foetal mortality. In total, 179 studies were identified including 386 patients of which 120 underwent CS prior to cardiac surgery. Maternal mortality was 7.3% and did not differ significantly among trimesters of pregnancy (P = 0.292) nor between subgroup CaeSe and CarSu (P = 0.671). Overall foetal mortality was 26.5% and was lowest when cardiac surgery was performed during the third trimester (10.3%, P < 0.01). CS prior to surgery was significantly associated with a reduced risk of foetal mortality in a multivariable model [odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval [0.06-0.56)]. Trimester was not identified as an independent predictor for foetal nor maternal mortality. CONCLUSION: Maternal mortality after cardiac surgery during pregnancy is not associated with the trimester of pregnancy. Cardiac surgery is associated with high foetal mortality but is significantly lower in women where CS is performed prior to cardiac surgery. When the foetus is viable, CS prior to cardiac surgery might be safe. When CS is not feasible, trimester stage does not seem to influence foetal mortality.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Cesárea , Feminino , Mortalidade Fetal , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/cirurgia , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 226(2S): S786-S803, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35177220

RESUMO

Preeclampsia, one of the most enigmatic complications of pregnancy, is considered a pregnancy-specific disorder caused by the placenta and cured only by delivery. This article traces the condition from its origins-once thought to be a disease of the central nervous system, recognized by the occurrence of seizures (ie, eclampsia)-to the present time when preeclampsia is conceptualized primarily as a vascular disorder. We review the epidemiologic data that led to the recommendation to use diastolic hypertension and proteinuria as diagnostic criteria, as their combined presence was associated with an increased risk of fetal death and the birth of small-for-gestational-age neonates. However, preeclampsia is a multisystemic disorder with protean manifestations, and the condition can be present even in the absence of hypertension and proteinuria. Toxins gaining access to the maternal circulation have been proposed to mediate the clinical manifestations-hence, the term "toxemia of pregnancy," which was used for several decades. The search for putative toxins has challenged investigators for more than a century, and a growing body of evidence suggests that products of an ischemic or a stressed placenta are responsible for the vascular changes that characterize this syndrome. The discovery that the placenta can produce antiangiogenic factors, which regulate endothelial cell function and induce intravascular inflammation, has been a major step forward in the understanding of preeclampsia. We view the release of antiangiogenic factors by the placenta as an adaptive response to improve uterine perfusion by modulating endothelial function and maternal cardiovascular performance. However, this homeostatic response can become maladaptive and lead to damage of target organs during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Early-onset preeclampsia has many features in common with atherosclerosis, whereas late-onset preeclampsia seems to result from a mismatch of fetal demands and maternal supply, that is, a metabolic crisis. Preeclampsia, as it is understood today, is essentially vascular dysfunction unmasked or caused by pregnancy. A subset of patients diagnosed with preeclampsia are at greater risk of the subsequent development of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, and end-stage renal disease. However, these adverse events may be the result of a preexisting vascular pathologic process; it is not known if the occurrence of preeclampsia increases the baseline risk. Therefore, the understanding, prediction, prevention, and treatment of preeclampsia are healthcare priorities.


Assuntos
Eclampsia , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Albuminúria/complicações , Edema/complicações , Feminino , Mortalidade Fetal , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Síndrome HELLP , História do Século XIX , História Antiga , Humanos , Placenta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteinúria/complicações , Transtornos Puerperais , Convulsões/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Terminologia como Assunto , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
NCHS Data Brief ; (429): 1-8, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35072603

RESUMO

Perinatal mortality (late fetal deaths at 28 completed weeks of gestation or more and early neonatal deaths under age 7 days) can be an indicator of the quality of health care before, during, and after delivery, and of the health status of the nation (1,2). The U.S. perinatal mortality rate declined 30% from 1990 to 2011, but was stable from 2011 through 2016 (1,3,4). This report presents trends in perinatal mortality as well as its components, late fetal and early neonatal mortality, for 2017 through 2019. Also shown are perinatal mortality trends by mother's age, race and Hispanic origin, and state for 2017-2019.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Criança , Feminino , Mortalidade Fetal , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(6): 2038-2047, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect that the introduction of Doppler ultrasound in obstetric care has had on fetal death in Norway. One mechanism by which Doppler ultrasound may reduce fetal death may be through the increased use of Caesarean delivery. Therefore, we also examined the effect that the use of Doppler ultrasound has had on the use of Caesarean delivery. METHODS: The Medical Birth Registry of Norway provided detailed medical information for ∼1.2 million deliveries from 1990 to 2014. Information about the year of introduction of Doppler ultrasound was collected directly from the maternity units, using a questionnaire. The data were analysed using a hospital fixed-effects regression model with fetal death as the outcome measure. The key independent variable was the introduction of Doppler ultrasound at each maternity ward. Hospital-specific trends and risk factors of the mother for fetal death were included as covariates. RESULTS: For pre-term deliveries, the introduction of Doppler ultrasound contributed to a reduction in fetal death of ∼30% and to an increase in planned Caesarean section of ∼15%. There were no effects for emergency Caesarean sections or inductions pre-term. The introduction of Doppler ultrasound had no effect on fetal death or Caesarean section for term deliveries. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of Doppler ultrasound during the 1990s and 2000s made a significant contribution to the decline in the number of pre-term fetal deaths in Norway. Increased use of Caesarean section may have contributed to this reduction.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Mortalidade Fetal , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia , Ultrassonografia Doppler
8.
J Perinat Med ; 50(6): 645-652, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the spatial-temporal patterns of fetal mortality according to its relationship with social vulnerability, identifying priority areas for intervention. METHODS: Ecological study conducted in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast region of Brazil, from 2011 to 2018. The mean fetal mortality rate per city was calculated for the studied period. A cluster analysis was performed to select cities with homogeneous characteristics regarding fetal mortality and social vulnerability, then the Attribute Weighting Algorithm and Pearson correlation techniques were employed. In the spatial analysis it was used the local empirical Bayesian modeling and global and local Moran statistics. RESULTS: Twelve thousand nine hundred and twelve thousand fetal deaths were registered. The fetal mortality rate for the period was 11.44 fetal deaths per 1,000 births. The number of groups formed was 7, in which correlation was identified between fetal mortality and dimensions, highlighting the correlations between fetal mortality rate and the Index of Social Vulnerability urban infrastructure for the municipalities in group 1 and 5, the values of the correlations found were 0.478 and 0.674 respectively. The spatial analysis identified areas of higher risk for fetal mortality distributed in regions of medium, high and very high social vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: The study allowed observing the existing correlations between fetal mortality and social vulnerability and identifying priority areas for intervention, with a view to reducing fetal mortality in the state.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Fetal , Vulnerabilidade Social , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Humanos
9.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210013, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1356223

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo analisar a distribuição espacial da mortalidade fetal por sífilis congênita entre os bairros do Município do Recife-PE. Método estudo ecológico, realizado a partir do indicador epidemiológico taxa de mortalidade fetal por sífilis congênita, agregado ao nível dos bairros, em dois quinquênios: 2007 a 2011 e 2012 a 2016. O padrão de autocorrelação espacial foi determinado pelos Índices de Moran Global e Local, com significância estatística inferior a 5% e representado em mapas BoxMap e MoranMap que apontaram as áreas com taxas altas, baixas e em transição epidemiológica e os clusters de maior interesse epidemiológico. Resultados foram notificados 208 óbitos fetais. O Índice Global de Moran evidenciou autocorrelação espacial positiva em grau razoável, no primeiro quinquênio (I = 0,351 e p-valor = 0,01) e, em grau fraco, no segundo quinquênio (I = 0,189 e p-valor = 0,02). Os Distritos Sanitários I e VII obtiveram os maiores percentuais de bairros que formaram o cluster de altas taxas do indicador com 63,3% e 38,4% no primeiro e segundo quinquênios, respectivamente. Conclusões e implicações para a Prática a análise espacial apontou as áreas críticas para ocorrência do indicador, podendo contribuir para o investimento nas áreas prioritárias de prevenção da transmissão vertical da sífilis.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar la distribución espacial de la mortalidad fetal por sífilis congénita entre los barrios de Recife-PE. Método Estudio ecológico, basado en el indicador epidemiológico tasa de mortalidad fetal por sífilis congénita, agregada a nivel de barrio, en dos quinquenios: 2007 a 2011 y 2012 a 2016. El patrón de autocorrelación espacial fue determinado por los Índices Moran Global y Local, con significancia estadística menor al 5% y representados en mapas de BoxMap y MoranMap, que indicaron áreas con tasas de transición alta, baja y epidemiológica y conglomerados de mayor interés epidemiológico. Resultados Notificadas 208 muertes fetales. El Índice Global de Moran mostró un grado razonable de autocorrelación espacial positiva en el primer quinquenio (I = 0,351 y p-valor=0,01) y un grado débil en el segundo quinquenio (I = 0,189 y p-valor=0,02). Los Distritos Sanitarios I y VII presentaron los mayores porcentajes de barrios que formaron el cluster de tasas altas del indicador con 63,3% y 38,4% en el primer y segundo quinquenio, respectivamente. Conclusión e Implicación para la Práctica El análisis espacial señaló las áreas críticas para la ocurrencia del indicador, que podrían contribuir a la inversión en áreas prioritarias para la prevención de la transmisión vertical de sífilis.


Abstract Objective To analyze the spatial distribution of fetal mortality due to congenital syphilis among the neighborhoods of the city of Recife-PE. Method Ecological study, based on the epidemiological indicator fetal mortality rate due to congenital syphilis, aggregated at the neighborhood level, in two five-year periods: 2007 to 2011 and 2012 to 2016. The pattern of spatial autocorrelation was determined by the Moran Global and Local Indexes, with statistical significance lower than 5% and represented in BoxMap and MoranMap maps that indicated areas with high, low and epidemiological transition rates and clusters of greater epidemiological interest. Results It was reported 208 fetal deaths. The Moran Global Index showed a reasonable degree of positive spatial autocorrelation in the first five-year period (I = 0.351 and p-value = 0.01) and a weak degree in the second five-year period (I = 0.189 and p-value = 0.02). Sanitary Districts I and VII had the highest percentages of neighborhoods that formed the cluster of high rates of the indicator with 63.3% and 38.4% in the first and second five-year periods, respectively. Conclusions and Implications for Practice The spatial analysis pointed out the critical areas for the occurrence of the indicator, which could contribute to investment in priority areas for the prevention of vertical transmission of syphilis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Fetal , Análise Espacial , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Sífilis Congênita/prevenção & controle , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Estudos Transversais , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Vulnerabilidade Social
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 153 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362272

RESUMO

Introdução: A mortalidade fetal é um dos resultados perinatais adversos mais comuns em todo o mundo, constituindo-se indicador relevante da atenção ao pré-natal e parto. Contudo, a compreensão sobre os aspectos relacionados a essas mortes permanece insuficiente para subsidiar as estratégias de prevenção. Objetivo: (i) analisar a evolução temporal das Taxas de Mortalidade Fetal (TMF) e a contribuição da investigação na melhoria da definição da causa básica do óbito fetal no Município de São Paulo (MSP), segundo local de emissão da declaração de óbito; (ii) analisar a distribuição dos óbitos fetais por peso ao nascer, tipo de óbito, tendência da TMF e as causas de morte evitáveis segundo clusters de vulnerabilidade social no Município de São Paulo, 2007-2017; (iii) estimar o risco de óbito fetal em fenótipos de vulnerabilidade biológica baseados na duração da gestação, peso ao nascer e crescimento intrauterino no Município de São Paulo, 2017-2019. Métodos: a tese compreende três manuscritos: (i) a regressão linear generalizada de Prais-Winsten foi empregada na análise de séries temporais. O teste de McNemar avaliou a mudança das causas básicas após a investigação dos óbitos fetais entre 2012-2014. (ii) Utilizou-se o método k-means para criação de clusters de distritos com base no Índice Paulista de Vulnerabilidade Social. A regressão linear generalizada de Prais-Winsten foi empregada na análise de séries temporais. A Lista Brasileira de Causas de Mortes Evitáveis foi adaptada para o estudo dos óbitos fetais. (iii) Os fetos Pequenos para a Idade Gestacional (PIG), Grandes para a Idade Gestacional (GIG) e Adequados para a Idade Gestacional (AIG) foram identificados a partir dos parâmetros do INTERGROWTH-21st. Definiu-se pré-termo (PT) como ≤36 semanas, não PT como ≥37semanas de gestação, baixo peso ao nascer (BPN) como <2.500g e não BPN como ≥2.500g. Os Riscos Relativos (RR) foram estimados pela regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Resultados: no primeiro artigo, constatou-se tendência de aumento (1,5% ao ano) da TMF dos óbitos com <2.500g e de redução anual de -1,3% naqueles com ≥2.500g. Entre 2012-2014, cerca de 90% dos óbitos com ≥2.500g foram investigados e 15% desses apresentaram redefinição da causa básica de morte, sobretudo naqueles cuja declaração de óbito foi emitida pelos serviços de verificação de óbito (SVO) (17%). Após a investigação a morte fetal não especificada (P95) representou 1/4 das causas de óbito. No segundo artigo, identificou-se predominância dos óbitos fetais anteparto (70%). Houve aumento da TMF e das causas de óbito evitáveis com o crescimento da vulnerabilidade social do centro para a periferia da cidade. O cluster de maior vulnerabilidade apresentou TMF 69% maior que o cluster de menor vulnerabilidade. A TMF ≥2.500g foi decrescente nos clusters de maior vulnerabilidade. Na área de maior vulnerabilidade, as causas de morte mal definidas representaram 75% dos óbitos. No terceiro artigo, o total de gestações em risco foi de 451.952. Destas, 2.321 resultaram em óbitos fetais. Os fenótipos associados simultaneamente ao baixo peso ao nascer e prematuridade apresentaram maior risco de morte, sendo este 49,9 (IC95%: 44,06-56,54) vezes maior para AIG, 144,9 (IC95%: 127,39-164,88) vezes maior para PIG e 245,3 (IC95%: 192,41-312,72) vezes maior para GIG, quando comparados com AIG, não baixo peso ao nascer e não pré-termo. Conclusão: os óbitos fetais de ≥2.500g, alvo das ações de vigilância, apresentaram tendência de redução, sobretudo nos clusters de maior vulnerabilidade social. Tal fato pode sugerir melhoria da atenção ao pré-natal no MSP, especialmente nas áreas de média e alta vulnerabilidade. Apesar da investigação do óbito ter contribuído para melhoria da redefinição da causa básica, especialmente naquelas atestadas pelo SVO, as mudanças foram insuficientes para indicação de causas que melhor retratassem os processos fisiopatológicos que resultaram nos óbitos fetais. As taxas de mortalidade fetal e de causas evitáveis aumentaram com o aumento da vulnerabilidade social, ou seja, no sentido do centro para a periferia da cidade. A despeito dos fenótipos de vulnerabilidade biológica, estes mostraram-se indicadores úteis de vigilância perinatal que permitem identificar as gestações com maior risco de morte fetal.


Background: Fetal mortality is one of the most common adverse perinatal outcomes worldwide, constituting a relevant indicator of prenatal care and childbirth. However, the understanding of aspects related to these deaths remains insufficient to support prevention strategies. Goals: (i) to analyze the temporal evolution of the Stillbirth Rates (SBR) and the contribution of the investigation to improve the definition of the underlying cause of stillbirth in the Municipality of São Paulo (MSP), according to the place of issuance of the declaration of death; (ii) analyze the distribution of stillbirth by birth weight, type of death, SBR trend and preventable causes of death according to social vulnerability clusters in the Municipality of São Paulo, 2007-2017; (iii) estimate the risk of stillbirth in biological vulnerability phenotypes based on gestation length, birth weigh and intrauterine growth in the Municipality of São Paulo, 2017-2019. Methods: The thesis comprises three manuscripts: (i) Generalized linear Prais-Winsten regression was used in the analysis of time series. McNemar's test evaluated the change in underlying causes after the investigation of stillbirths between 2012-2014. (ii) The k-means method was used to create clusters of districts based on the São Paulo Social Vulnerability Index. Generalized linear Prais-Winsten regression was used in the analysis of time series. The Brazilian List of Preventable Deaths Causes was adapted for the study of stillbirths. (iii) Small for Gestational Age (SGA), Large for Gestational Age (LGA), and Adequate for Gestational Age (AGA) fetuses were identified from the INTERGROWTH-21st parameters. Preterm (PT) was defined as ≤36 weeks, non-PT as ≥37 weeks of gestation, low birth weight (LBW) as <2,500g, and non-LBW as ≥2,500g. Relative Risks (RR) were estimated by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: In the first article, there was a trend towards an increase (1.5% per year) in the SBR of deaths weighing <2,500g and an annual reduction of -1.3% in those weighing ≥2,500g. Between 2012-2014, about 90% of deaths weighing ≥2,500g were investigated and 15% of these had redefinition of the underlying cause of death, especially those whose death certificate was issued by the death verification services (DVS) (17%). After investigation, unspecified fetal death (P95) represented 1/4 of the causes of death. The second article identified a predominance of antepartum stillbirths (70%). There was an increase in TMF and preventable causes of death with the growth of social vulnerability from the center to the outskirts of the city. The cluster with the highest vulnerability had an SBR 69% higher than the cluster with the lowest vulnerability. The SBR ≥2,500g was decreasing in the most vulnerable clusters. In the most vulnerable area, ill-defined causes of death accounted for 75% of deaths. In the third article, the total number of pregnancies at risk was 451,952. Of these, 2,321 resulted in fetal death. The Phenotypes associated simultaneously with low birth weight and prematurity had a higher risk of death, which was 49.9 (95%CI: 44.06-56.54) times higher for AGA, 144.9 (95%CI: 127.39-164.88) times greater for SGA and 245.3 (95%CI: 192.41-312.72) times greater for LGA, when compared to AGA, not low birth weight and not preterm. Conclusion: stillbirths weighing ≥2,500g, targeted by surveillance actions, showed a tendency to decrease, especially in clusters with greater social vulnerability. This fact may suggest an improvement in prenatal care in the MSP, especially in areas of medium and high vulnerability. Although the investigation of death contributed to an improvement in the redefinition of the underlying cause, especially in those attested by the DVS, the changes were insufficient to indicate causes that better portray the pathophysiological processes that resulted in stillbirths. Stillbirths rates and avoidable causes increased with the increase in social vulnerability, that is, from the center to the outskirts of the city. Despite the biological vulnerability phenotypes, these proved to be useful indicators of perinatal surveillance that allow the identification of pregnancies with a higher risk of stillbirth.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Causa Básica de Morte , Estudos de Séries Temporais , Idade Gestacional , Mortalidade Fetal , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06808, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360624

RESUMO

Causes of abortion, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality in horses were investigated in the Department of Veterinary Pathology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS) from 2000 to 2015. In this period, 107 cases were analyzed using macroscopic, microscopic, and complementary tests. Of these, 77 were aborted fetuses, 16 were stillbirths, and 14 were perinatal deaths. Conclusive diagnosis was established in 42.8% of the fetuses analyzed, with 28.6% classified as infectious origin, 9.1% as non-infectious, and 5.1% as other. Bacterial infections, especially those related to Streptococcus spp. were the most frequently observed. In stillborn foals, diagnosis was established in 62.5% of cases, and 50% of these were related to non-infectious causes, such as dystocia and birth traumas. As for perinatal mortality, a conclusive diagnosis was reached in 78.57% of cases, and infectious causes associated with bacterial infections accounted for 64.1% of these diagnoses.(AU)


Causas de aborto, natimortalidade e mortalidade perinatal em equinos foram investigadas no Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS) durante o período de 2000 a 2015. Nesse período, foram analisados 107 casos através de exames macroscópico, microscópico e exames complementares, desses 77 correspondiam a fetos abortados, 16 natimortos e 14 mortes perinatais. Diagnóstico conclusivo foi estabelecido em 42,8% dos fetos analisados e classificados como origem infecciosa em 28,6% dos casos, não infecciosa com 9,1% e outros com 5,1% dos casos. As infecções bacterianas, em especial as relacionadas a Streptococcus spp. foram as mais frequentemente observadas. Em potros natimortos, diagnostico foi estabelecido em 62,5% dos casos, e destes, 50% foram relacionados a causas não infecciosas, como distocia e traumas durante o parto. Quanto a mortalidade perinatal, em 78,57% dos casos houve um diagnostico conclusivo, e as causas infecciosas associadas a infecções bacterianas corresponderam a 64,1% desses diagnósticos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Aborto Animal/etiologia , Mortalidade Fetal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Cavalos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus , Distocia/veterinária , Doenças Fetais/veterinária
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24256, 2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930961

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the distribution of stillbirths by birth weight, type of death, the trend of Stillbirth Rate (SBR), and avoidable causes of death, according to social vulnerability clusters in São Paulo Municipality, 2007-2017. Social vulnerability clusters were created with the k-means method. The Prais-Winsten generalized linear regression was used in the trend of SBR by < 2500 g, ≥ 2500 g, and total deaths analysis. The Brazilian list of avoidable causes of death was adapted for stillbirths. There was a predominance of antepartum stillbirths (70%). There was an increase in SBR with the growth of social vulnerability from the center to the outskirts of the city. The cluster with the highest vulnerability presented SBR 69% higher than the cluster with the lowest vulnerability. SBR ≥ 2500 g was decreasing in the clusters with the high vulnerability. There was an increase in SBR of avoidable causes of death of the cluster from the lowest to the highest vulnerability. Ill-defined causes of death accounted for 75% of deaths in the highest vulnerability area. Rates of fetal mortality and avoidable causes of death increased with social vulnerability. The trend of reduction of SBR ≥ 2500 g may suggest improvement in prenatal care in areas of higher vulnerability.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Fetal , 34658 , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Análise de Regressão , Natimorto , Populações Vulneráveis
13.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 70(11): 1-20, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698630

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents 2019 fetal mortality data by maternal race and Hispanic origin, age, tobacco use during pregnancy, and state of residence, as well as by plurality, sex, gestational age, birthweight, and selected causes of death. Trends in fetal mortality are also examined.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Fetal , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(3): 889-895, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346999

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: to analyze the spatial distribution of fetal deaths before and after implementation of surveillance for this event in the city of Recife, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Methods: an ecological study whose spatial analysis unit was the 94 neighborhoods. The gross fetal mortality rates were calculated and the local empirical Bayesian estimator was adopted to smooth out random fluctuations of such rates. To analyze the spatial autocorrelation, the Global Moran's Index was used, and spatial clusters were located by the Local Moran's Index. Results: during the period before implementation of death surveillance, 1,356 fetal deaths were reported, a coefficient of 9.9 deaths per thousand births. During the second period, 1,325 fetal deaths occurred, a coefficient of 9.6 deaths per thousand births. The Global Moran's Indexes (I) were I=0.6 and I=0.4 for the first and second periods, respectively, with statistical significance (p<0.05). For both periods analyzed, spatial clusters of high-risk neighborhoods were identified in the northern and eastern regions of the city. Conclusion: the spatial analysis indicated areas that persist as priorities for planning surveillance and health assistance actions to reduce fetal mortality.


Resumo Objetivos: analisar a distribuição espacial dos óbitos fetais, antes e após a implantação da vigilância deste evento, na cidade do Recife, Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: estudo ecológico utilizando os 94 bairros existentes como unidade de análise espacial. Foram calculados os coeficientes de mortalidade fetal brutos e empregado o estimador bayesiano empírico local para a suavização de flutuações aleatórias desses coeficientes. A autocorrelação espacial foi analisada com a utilização do Índice de Moran Global e agregados espaciais foram identificados pelo Moran Local. Resultados: foram registrados 1.356 óbitos fetais (coeficiente de mortalidade de 9,9 óbitos por mil nascimentos) e 1.325 óbitos fetais (coeficiente de 9,6 óbitos por mil nascimentos), nos períodos anterior e posterior à implantação da vigilância do óbito, respectivamente. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p<0,05) entre os índices de Moran Global (I) dos períodos anterior (I=0,6) e posterior (I=0,4) à implantação da vigilância. Identificaram-se agregados espaciais nos bairros das regiões Norte e Leste da cidade, como maior risco de mortalidade fetal. Conclusão: a análise espacial apontou áreas que persistem como prioritárias para o planejamento de ações de vigilância e assistência à saúde para a redução da mortalidade fetal.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Mortalidade Fetal , Morte Fetal/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Análise Espacial , Brasil , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas Vitais , Causas de Morte , Atenção à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Estudos Ecológicos
15.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 66(2): 172-190, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182854

RESUMO

This study explores the short-term relationships between sex ratio at birth and late fetal mortality in Italy from 1910 to 2016. As the leading scholars' attention traditionally focused on long-term trends and variations in the sex ratios at birth among different populations, less interest regarded short-term fluctuations as they were mainly seen as an effect of random variability. We detrended the national series of males proportion among live births and stillbirths by their medium-term component to consider the annual deviations from a normal trend. After controlling for fertility tendencies and wars effects, regression models seem to show the effects of stillbirth on the proportion of male newborns. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to assess the effects of the perinatal deaths on the proportion of males at birth, combining stillbirths and early neonatal losses to control the possible misspecification between stillborn infants and early neonatal deaths. The significance of late fetal mortality reflects the mortality excess among male fetuses during the intrauterine life, showing evidence for the in utero hypothesis selection.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Fetal , Razão de Masculinidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Gravidez , Natimorto
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946397

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify differences in the trends of artificial and spontaneous fetal mortality rates between working and jobless households depending on ages, periods, and birth cohorts in Japan. Vital Statistics data from 1995 to 2019 and age groups in 5-year increments from 15 to 19 years through 45 to 49 years were used. Bayesian age-period-cohort analysis was used to evaluate changes in each of the outcomes. As a result, the difference in maternal age-standardized rate of both the artificial and spontaneous fetal mortality rates between the two types of households decreased in the periods analyzed. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the mortality rate between jobless and working households, regardless of maternal ages, periods, and cohorts for the artificial fetal mortality rate. A statistically significant difference was also observed for the spontaneous fetal mortality rates in some maternal ages, periods, and cohorts. In addition, the trend of birth cohort effects was particularly different between the two types of households for both the artificial and spontaneous fetal mortality rates.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Fetal , Mortalidade , Teorema de Bayes , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Idade Materna , Gravidez
17.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24(suppl 1): e210007, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a social need index for stratification of municipalities and identification of priority areas for reducing fetal mortality. METHODS: ecological study, carried out in the state of Pernambuco, between 2010 and 2017. The technique of factor analysis by main components was used for the elaboration of the social need index. In the spatial analysis, the local empirical Bayesian estimator was applied and Moran's spatial autocorrelation was verified. RESULTS: The social deprivation index selected two factors that, together, explained 77.63% of the total variance. The preventable fetal mortality rate increased among strata of social need, with rates of 8.0 per thousand births (low deprivation), 8.1 per thousand (medium deprivation), 8.8 per thousand (high deprivation), and 10.7 per thousand (very high social deprivation). Some municipalities in the São Francisco and Sertão Mesoregions had both high fetal and preventable fetal mortality, in addition to a very high social deprivation rate. Conclusion: The spatial analysis identified areas with the highest risk for fetal mortality. The social deprivation index listed some determinants of fetal deaths in areas with worse living conditions. Priority areas for intervention in public policies to reduce fetal mortality and its determinants were detected.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Fetal , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Análise Espacial
18.
J Perinat Med ; 49(6): 740-747, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the causes of fetal death among the stillbirths using two classification systems from 22 weeks of gestation in a period of three years in high-risk pregnancies. This is a retrospective observational study. METHODS: The National Institute of Perinatal Health in Mexico City is a Level 3 care referral center attending high-risk pregnancies from throughout the country. The population consisted of patients with fetal death during a three-year period. Between January 2016 and December 2018, all stillbirths were examined in the Pathology Department by a pathologist and a medical geneticist. Stillbirth was defined as a fetal death occurring after 22 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: Main outcome measures: Causal analysis of fetal death using the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems-Perinatal Mortality (ICD-PM) and initial causes of fetal death (INCODE) classification systems. A total of 297 stillborn neonates were studied. The distribution of gestational age in antepartum stillbirths (55.2%) showed a bimodal curve, 36% occurred between 24 and 27 weeks and 32% between 32 and 36 weeks. In comparison, the majority (86%) of intrapartum deaths (44.8%) were less than 28 weeks of gestation. Of the 273 women enrolled, 93 (34%) consented to a complete fetal autopsy. The INCODE system showed a present cause in 42%, a possible cause in 54% and a probable cause in 93% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The principal causes of antepartum death were fetal abnormalities and pathologic placental conditions and the principal causes of intrapartum death were complications of pregnancy which caused a premature labor and infections.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Doenças Placentárias , Complicações na Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Causalidade , Causas de Morte , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Doenças Placentárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Placentárias/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez de Alto Risco
19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(4): 585-596, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of intrauterine fetal death (20 weeks of gestation or later) and neonatal death among individuals who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared with those who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 on admission for delivery. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Ovid, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception until July 17, 2020. Hand search for additional articles continued through September 24, 2020. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched on October 21, 2020. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: The inclusion criteria were publications that compared at least 20 cases of both pregnant patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on admission to labor and delivery and those who tested negative. Exclusion criteria were publications with fewer than 20 individuals in either category or those lacking data on primary outcomes. A systematic search of the selected databases was performed, with co-primary outcomes being rates of intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death. Secondary outcomes included rates of maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Of the 941 articles and completed trials identified, six studies met criteria. Our analysis included 728 deliveries to patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 3,836 contemporaneous deliveries to patients who tested negative. Intrauterine fetal death occurred in 8 of 728 (1.1%) patients who tested positive and 44 of 3,836 (1.1%) who tested negative (P=.60). Neonatal death occurred in 0 of 432 (0.0%) patients who tested positive and 5 of 2,400 (0.2%) who tested negative (P=.90). Preterm birth occurred in 95 of 714 (13.3%) patients who tested positive and 446 of 3,759 (11.9%) who tested negative (P=.31). Maternal death occurred in 3 of 559 (0.5%) patients who tested positive and 8 of 3,155 (0.3%) who tested negative (P=.23). CONCLUSION: The incidences of intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death were similar among individuals who tested positive compared with negative for SARS-CoV-2 when admitted to labor and delivery. Other immediate outcomes of the newborns were also similar among those born to individuals who tested positive compared with negative for SARS-CoV-2. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42020203475.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Fetal , Mortalidade Materna , Mortalidade Perinatal , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Admissão do Paciente , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 175, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611655

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the fetal mortality, including stillborn piglets (SB) and mummified fetuses (MM), in relation to backfat thickness both at first mating (MBF) and at first farrowing (FBF) in 200 primiparous sows accommodated in a commercial breeding herd in Thailand. Backfat thickness of all pigs was measured at P2 position using an A-mode ultrasonography. Based on MBF, the gilts were classified into four groups: MBF1 (≤12.0 mm), MBF2 (>12.0-15.0 mm), MBF3 (>15.0-18.0 mm), and MBF4 (>18.0 mm). According to FBF, the primiparous sows were categorized into four classes: FBF1 (≤15.0 mm), FBF2 (>15.0-18.0 mm), FBF3 (>18.0-21.0 mm), and FBF4 (>21.0 mm). At farrowing, 174 litters were examined for percentage of SB and MM. The results indicated that mean MBF and FBF were 16.7 ± 0.3 mm and 19.6 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. Based on MBF, the pigs in MBF1 significantly possessed higher percentage of MM (13.8 ± 4.5%) than others; meanwhile, SB percentage was not different among groups (P > 0.05). According to FBF, the pigs in FBF4 farrowed the highest percentage of SB (9.1 ± 3.2%) than others, whereas MM percentage was not different among classes (P > 0.05). In summary, backfat thickness of the gilts should be one of the parameters to pay more attention since it is related to fetal mortality of the primiparous sows. The farmers should monitor the backfat thickness not only at the first mating time, but also along the gestation period in order to minimize fetal mortality in the primiparous sows.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Fetal , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Paridade , Gravidez , Natimorto/veterinária , Suínos , Tailândia
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