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1.
Neurobiol Dis ; 198: 106542, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38810948

RESUMO

A number of post-mortem studies conducted in transplanted Huntington's disease (HD) patients from various trials have reported the presence of pathological and misfolded proteins, in particular mutant huntingtin (mHtt) and phosphorylated tau neuropil threads, in the healthy grafted tissue. Here, we extended these observations with histological analysis of post-mortem tissue from three additional HD patients who had received similar striatal allografts from the fetal tissue transplantation trial conducted in Los Angeles in 1998. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti-mHtt antibodies, EM48 and MW7, as well as anti-hyperphosphorylated tau antibodies, AT8 and CP13. Immunofluorescence was used to assess the colocalization of EM48+ mHtt aggregates with the neuronal marker MAP2 and/or the extracellular matrix protein phosphacan in both the host and grafts. We confirmed the presence of mHtt aggregates within grafts of all three cases as well as tau neuropil threads in the grafts of two of the three transplanted HD patients. Phosphorylated tau was also variably expressed in the host cerebral cortex of all three subjects. While mHtt inclusions were present within neurons (immunofluorescence co-localization of MAP2 and EM48) as well as within the extracellular matrix of the host (immunofluorescence co-localization of phosphacan and EM48), their localization was limited to the extracellular matrix in the grafted tissue. This study corroborates previous findings that both mHtt and tau pathology can be found in the host and grafts of HD patients years post-grafting.


Assuntos
Proteína Huntingtina , Doença de Huntington , Neurônios , Proteínas tau , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Proteína Huntingtina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Adulto , Transplante de Tecido Fetal/métodos , Idoso , Transplante de Tecido Encefálico/métodos
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e390624, 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1533361

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the degree of maturation and development of fetal pig segmental intestinal tissue with that of spheroids created by in-vitro reaggregation of dissociated fetal intestinal cells after transplantation into immunodeficient mice. Methods: Fetal pig small intestines were transplanted as segmental grafts into the omentum and subrenal capsules of immunodeficient mice or enzymatically treated to generate single cells. Spheroids made by in-vitro reaggregation of these cells were transplanted into the subrenal capsules of immunodeficient mice. The segmental grafts and spheroids were harvested four and eight weeks after transplantation, and the structural maturity and in-vivo development of these specimens were histologically evaluated. Results: The spheroids were engrafted and supplied blood vessels from the host mice, but an intestinal layered structure was not clearly observed, and there was almost no change in size. On the other hand, the segmental grafts formed deep crypts in the mucus membrane, the inner circular layer, and outer longitudinal muscles. The crypts of the transplanted grafts harvested at eight weeks were much deeper, and the smooth muscle layer and the enteric nervous system were more mature than those of grafts harvested at the fourth week, although the intestinal peristaltic wave was not observed. Conclusions: Spheroids created from fetal small intestinal cells could not form layered structures or mature sufficiently. Conversely, segmental tissues structurally matured and developed after in-vivo transplantation and are therefore potential grafts for transplantation.


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Suínos , Transplante Heterólogo/veterinária , Transplante de Tecido Fetal/veterinária , Maturidade dos Órgãos Fetais
4.
Contraception ; 113: 84-87, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This qualitative study explores how individuals recently experiencing abortions feel about donating fetal tissue for research. In addition, we sought to identify motivating or discouraging factors that influence decision making for these individuals. STUDY DESIGN: We recruited individuals living in Hawaii who reported undergoing an abortion in the previous 6 months for one-on-one semi-structured interviews as part of a broader study investigating views on peri-abortion research practices and protections. We devoted approximately 15 minutes of each 1-hour interview to discussing the donation of aborted fetal tissue for research. We double coded transcribed interviews and identified themes related to fetal tissue donation. RESULTS: We interviewed 25 respondents and identified 4 themes. (1) Individuals viewed fetal tissue donation as an opportunity to help others. (2) Respondents preferred for aborted fetal tissue to be used rather than discarded. (3) Respondents viewed the fetal tissue to be an extension of themselves, so informed consent is critical. (4) Information found online promotes mistrust of fetal tissue handling. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who have had an abortion are open to fetal tissue donation for research purposes. Pre-abortion counseling could be improved by clarifying the process of fetal tissue handling and, when available, discussing options for fetal tissue donation. IMPLICATIONS: Informed pregnant individuals who have had an abortion appear to be supportive of fetal tissue research and their views can differ from the concerns of ethicists, politicians, and scientists. The perspective of the individuals donating fetal tissue should be included in future discussions of fetal tissue research.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Pesquisa Fetal , Feto Abortado , Feminino , Transplante de Tecido Fetal , Havaí , Humanos , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
Cells ; 11(7)2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406755

RESUMO

Intrastriatal embryonic ventral mesencephalon grafts have been shown to integrate, survive, and reinnervate the host striatum in clinical settings and in animal models of Parkinson's disease. However, this ectopic location does not restore the physiological loops of the nigrostriatal pathway and promotes only moderate behavioral benefits. Here, we performed a direct comparison of the potential benefits of intranigral versus intrastriatal grafts in animal models of Parkinson's disease. We report that intranigral grafts promoted better survival of dopaminergic neurons and that only intranigral grafts induced recovery of fine motor skills and normalized cortico-striatal responses. The increase in the number of toxic activated glial cells in host tissue surrounding the intrastriatal graft, as well as within the graft, may be one of the causes of the increased cell death observed in the intrastriatal graft. Homotopic localization of the graft and the subsequent physiological cell rewiring of the basal ganglia may be a key factor in successful and beneficial cell transplantation procedures.


Assuntos
Transplante de Tecido Encefálico , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Transplante de Tecido Encefálico/métodos , Transplante de Células , Transplante de Tecido Fetal/métodos , Mesencéfalo , Oxidopamina , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Substância Negra
7.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 632-639, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649496

RESUMO

Degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the midbrain underlies the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Supplement of DA via L-DOPA alleviates motor symptoms but does not prevent the progressive loss of DA neurons. A large body of experimental studies, including those in nonhuman primates, demonstrates that transplantation of fetal mesencephalic tissues improves motor symptoms in animals, which culminated in open-label and double-blinded clinical trials of fetal tissue transplantation for PD1. Unfortunately, the outcomes are mixed, primarily due to the undefined and unstandardized donor tissues1,2. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells enables standardized and autologous transplantation therapy for PD. However, its efficacy, especially in primates, remains unclear. Here we show that over a 2-year period without immunosuppression, PD monkeys receiving autologous, but not allogenic, transplantation exhibited recovery from motor and depressive signs. These behavioral improvements were accompanied by robust grafts with extensive DA neuron axon growth as well as strong DA activity in positron emission tomography (PET). Mathematical modeling reveals correlations between the number of surviving DA neurons with PET signal intensity and behavior recovery regardless autologous or allogeneic transplant, suggesting a predictive power of PET and motor behaviors for surviving DA neuron number.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Depressão/complicações , Transplante de Tecido Fetal , Atividade Motora , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Modelos Lineares , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/transplante , Camundongos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Transplante Autólogo , Transplante Homólogo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
8.
J Clin Invest ; 131(1)2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393512

RESUMO

Immunological tolerance to semiallogeneic fetuses is necessary to achieving successful first pregnancy and permitting subsequent pregnancies with the same father. Paradoxically, pregnancy is an important cause of sensitization, resulting in the accelerated rejection of offspring-matched allografts. The underlying basis for divergent outcomes following reencounter of the same alloantigens on transplanted organs versus fetuses in postpartum females is incompletely understood. Using a mouse model that allows concurrent tracking of endogenous fetus-specific T and B cell responses in a single recipient, we show that semiallogeneic pregnancies simultaneously induce fetus-specific T cell tolerance and humoral sensitization. Pregnancy-induced antibodies, but not B cells, impeded transplantation tolerance elicited by costimulation blockade to offspring-matched cardiac grafts. Remarkably, in B cell-deficient mice, allogeneic pregnancy enabled the spontaneous acceptance of fetus-matched allografts. The presence of pregnancy-sensitized B cells that cannot secrete antibodies at the time of heart transplantation was sufficient to precipitate rejection and override pregnancy-established T cell tolerance. Thus, while induction of memory B cells and alloantibodies by pregnancies establishes formidable barriers to transplant success for multigravid women, our observations raise the possibility that humoral desensitization will not only improve transplantation outcomes, but also reveal an unexpected propensity of multiparous recipients to achieve tolerance to offspring-matched allografts.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Transplante de Tecido Fetal , Feto/imunologia , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tolerância ao Transplante , Aloenxertos , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Gravidez
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(11): e361102, 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1456245

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to develop a microsurgical technique to transplant extremely fragile renal organoids in vivo, created by in-vitro reaggregation of metanephros from fetal mice. These organoids in reaggregation and development were examined histologically after transplantation under the renal capsule. Methods: Initially, metanephros from fetal mice were enzymatically treated to form single cells, and spheroids were generated in vitro. Under a microscope, the renal capsule was detached to avoid bleeding, and the outer cylinder of the indwelling needle was inserted to detach the renal parenchyma from the renal capsule using water pressure. The reaggregated spheroid was aspirated from the culture plate using a syringe with an indwelling needle outer cylinder and carefully extruded under the capsule. Pathological analysis was performed to evaluate changes in reaggregated spheroids over time and the effects of co-culture of spinal cord and subcapsular implantation on maturation. Results: In vitro, the formation of luminal structures became clearer on day 5. These fragile organoids were successfully implanted without tissue crapes under the renal capsule and formed glomerular. The effect of spinal cord co-transplant was not obvious histrionically. Conclusions: A simple and easy method to transplant fragile spheroids and renal under the renal capsule without damage was developed.


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Medula Espinal , Organoides/transplante , Rim/transplante , Transplante de Tecido Fetal/métodos , Agregação Celular , Microcirurgia
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1266: 57-69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105495

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder which is characterised by a triad of highly debilitating motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. While cell death occurs in many brain regions, GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum experience preferential and extensive degeneration. Unlike most neurodegenerative disorders, HD is caused by a single genetic mutation resulting in a CAG repeat expansion and the production of a mutant Huntingtin protein (mHTT). Despite identifying the mutation causative of HD in 1993, there are currently no disease-modifying treatments for HD. One potential strategy for the treatment of HD is the development of cell-based therapies. Cell-based therapies aim to restore neuronal circuitry and function by replacing lost neurons, as well as providing neurotropic support to prevent further degeneration. In order to successfully restore basal ganglia functioning in HD, cell-based therapies would need to reconstitute the complex signalling network disrupted by extensive MSN degeneration. This chapter will discuss the potential use of foetal tissue grafts, pluripotent stem cells, neural stem cells, and somatic cell reprogramming to develop cell-based therapies for treating HD.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Doença de Huntington , Animais , Reprogramação Celular , Corpo Estriado , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transplante de Tecido Fetal , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Doença de Huntington/terapia , Células-Tronco Neurais , Neurônios , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes
11.
Nat Med ; 26(10): 1583-1592, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807933

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease resulting in irreversible, progressive destruction of articular cartilage1. The etiology of OA is complex and involves a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, acute injury and chronic inflammation2-4. Here we investigate the ability of resident skeletal stem-cell (SSC) populations to regenerate cartilage in relation to age, a possible contributor to the development of osteoarthritis5-7. We demonstrate that aging is associated with progressive loss of SSCs and diminished chondrogenesis in the joints of both mice and humans. However, a local expansion of SSCs could still be triggered in the chondral surface of adult limb joints in mice by stimulating a regenerative response using microfracture (MF) surgery. Although MF-activated SSCs tended to form fibrous tissues, localized co-delivery of BMP2 and soluble VEGFR1 (sVEGFR1), a VEGF receptor antagonist, in a hydrogel skewed differentiation of MF-activated SSCs toward articular cartilage. These data indicate that following MF, a resident stem-cell population can be induced to generate cartilage for treatment of localized chondral disease in OA.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/fisiologia , Condrogênese/fisiologia , Transplante de Tecido Fetal , Feto/citologia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
12.
Acta Histochem ; 122(5): 151569, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The fate of subcutaneously transplanted urogenital sinus (UGS) and seminal vesicle (SV) was investigated in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fetal UGS and SV extracted from 20-embryonic-day-old male normal and GFP transgenic rats were subcutaneously transplanted into 7-week-old male immunologically inhibited rats. The transplants were then examined at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks after transplantation. We analyzed the survival ratio, weight, and histopathology as well as the immunohistochemical characteristics of the transplanted tissues. For control experiments, 2-, 4-, 8-, and 16-week-old normal male rats were used. RESULTS: Almost all of the transplanted tissues survived under the skin, and the tissue weights increased over time after transplantation. The histopathological characteristics and immunohistochemical staining pattern with certain antibodies of the transplanted tissues were similar to those of normal adult rat prostate and seminal vesicle. The transplanted GFP transgenic tissues demonstrated spontaneous growth and organ formation under the skin, showing distribution and movement of transplanted cells and tissues. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneously transplanted fetal UGS and SV were able to develop into mature adult organs.


Assuntos
Transplante de Tecido Fetal , Próstata/metabolismo , Glândulas Seminais/metabolismo , Sistema Urogenital/metabolismo , Animais , Transplante de Tecido Fetal/métodos , Feto/metabolismo , Genitália Masculina , Masculino , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Ratos
13.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 71: 36-39, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004818

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Transplant of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue into the striatum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has been performed to increase dopamine production and stimulate neuronal regeneration. Analysis of fetal graft tissue at autopsy has demonstrated 6 cases of α-synuclein pathology in PD patients, one case with both α-synuclein and tau pathology in a PD patient, and two cases of tau pathology within a Huntington's Disease patient. METHODS: A 49 year old man with PD underwent bilateral fetal ventral mesencephalic cell transplants into the striatum. Autopsy at age 70 included immunohistochemical staining of host and graft tissue with antibodies to phosphorylated α-synuclein and phosphorylated tau protein. RESULTS: Autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PD. Immunohistochemical staining of graft tissue demonstrated frequent neuronal perikaryal inclusions of phosphorylated α -synuclein and tau in the left graft only. CONCLUSION: Speculations on the formation of pathology include: 1) α-synuclein and tau pathology spread from host to the graft in a neuron-neuron manner. 2) The nature of the fetal cells themselves, or transplantation process, may render fetal tissue more susceptible to the spontaneous generation of pathology. 3) Factors within host environment caused native tau and α-synuclein in fetal tissue graft to become phosphorylated.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Transplante de Tecido Fetal , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Transplantes/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Idoso , Autopsia , Corpo Estriado/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Transplantes/patologia
14.
J Neurosci ; 40(11): 2215-2227, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988060

RESUMO

Manipulations that enhance GABAergic inhibition have been associated with improved behavioral phenotypes in autism models, suggesting that autism may be treated by correcting underlying deficits of inhibition. Interneuron transplantation is a method for increasing recipient synaptic inhibition, and it has been considered a prospective therapy for conditions marked by deficient inhibition, including neuropsychiatric disorders. It is unknown, however, whether interneuron transplantation may be therapeutically effective only for conditions marked by reduced inhibition, and it is also unclear whether transplantation improves behavioral phenotypes solely by normalizing underlying circuit defects. To address these questions, we studied the effects of interneuron transplantation in male and female mice lacking the autism-associated gene, Pten, in GABAergic interneurons. Pten mutant mice exhibit social behavior deficits, elevated synaptic inhibition in prefrontal cortex, abnormal baseline and social interaction-evoked electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, and an altered composition of cortical interneuron subtypes. Transplantation of wild-type embryonic interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence into the prefrontal cortex of neonatal Pten mutants rescued social behavior despite exacerbating excessive levels of synaptic inhibition. Furthermore, transplantation did not normalize recipient EEG signals measured during baseline states. Interneuron transplantation can thus correct behavioral deficits even when those deficits are associated with elevated synaptic inhibition. Moreover, transplantation does not exert therapeutic effects solely by restoring wild-type circuit states. Our findings indicate that interneuron transplantation could offer a novel cell-based approach to autism treatment while challenging assumptions that effective therapies must reverse underlying circuit defects.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Imbalances between neural excitation and inhibition are hypothesized to contribute to the pathophysiology of autism. Interneuron transplantation is a method for altering recipient inhibition, and it has been considered a prospective therapy for neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism. Here we examined the behavioral and physiological effects of interneuron transplantation in a mouse genetic model of autism. They demonstrate that transplantation rescues recipient social interaction deficits without correcting a common measure of recipient inhibition, or circuit-level physiological measures. These findings demonstrate that interneuron transplantation can exert therapeutic behavioral effects without necessarily restoring wild-type circuit states, while highlighting the potential of interneuron transplantation as an autism therapy.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/cirurgia , Transplante de Tecido Encefálico , Transplante de Tecido Fetal , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Interneurônios/transplante , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/deficiência , Comportamento Social , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletroencefalografia , Comportamento Exploratório , Feminino , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Eminência Mediana/citologia , Eminência Mediana/embriologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Fenótipo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Sinapses/fisiologia
15.
Xenotransplantation ; 27(2): e12569, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) features the motor control deficits resulting from irreversible, progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway. Although intracerebral transplantation of human fetal ventral mesencephalon (hfVM) has been proven effective at reviving DA function in the PD patients, this treatment is clinically limited by availability of hfVM and the related ethical issues. Homologous tissues to hfVM, such as porcine fetal ventral mesencephalon (pfVM) thus present a strong clinical potential if immune response following xenotransplantation could be tamed. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are glial cells showing immunomodulatory properties. It is unclear but intriuging whether these properties can be applied to reducing immune response following neural xenotransplantation of PD. METHODS: To determine whether OECs may benefit neural xenografts for PD, different compositions of grafting cells were transplanted into striatum of the PD model rats. We used apomorphine-induced rotational behavior to evaluate effectiveness of the neural grafts on reviving DA function. Immunohistochemistry was applied to investigate the effect of OECs on the survival of neuroxenografts and underlying mechanisms of this effect. RESULTS: Four weeks following the xenotransplantation, we found that the PD rats receiving pfVM + OECs co-graft exhibited a better improvement in apomorphine-induced rotational behavior compared with those receiving only pfVM cells. This result can be explained by higher survival of DA neurons (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity) in grafted striatum of pfVM + OECs group. Furthermore, pfVM + OECs group has less immune response (CD3+ T cells and OX-6+ microglia) around the grafted area compared with pfVM only group. These results suggest that OECs may enhance the survival of the striatal xenografts via dampening the immune response at the grafted sites. CONCLUSIONS: Using allogeneic OECs as a co-graft material for xenogeneic neural grafts could be a feasible therapeutic strategy to enhance results and applicability of the cell replacement therapy for PD.


Assuntos
Xenoenxertos/imunologia , Mesencéfalo/transplante , Bulbo Olfatório/citologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Transplante Heterólogo , Animais , Transplante de Células/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Transplante de Tecido Fetal/métodos , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/imunologia , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transplante Heterólogo/métodos
16.
Cerebellum ; 18(5): 855-865, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418135

RESUMO

Cerebellar diseases causing substantial cell loss often lead to severe functional deficits and restoration of cerebellar function is difficult. Neurotransplantation therapy could become a hopeful method, but there are still many limitations and unknown aspects. Studies in a variety of cerebellar mutant mice reflecting heterogeneity of human cerebellar degenerations show promising results as well as new problems and questions to be answered. The aim of this work was to compare the development of embryonic cerebellar grafts in adult B6CBA Lurcher and B6.BR pcd mutant mice and strain-matched healthy wild type mice. Performance in the rotarod test, graft survival, structure, and volume was examined 2 months after the transplantation or sham-operation. The grafts survived in most of the mice of all types. In both B6CBA and B6.BR wild type mice and in pcd mice, colonization of the host's cerebellum was a common finding, while in Lurcher mice, the grafts showed a low tendency to infiltrate the host's cerebellar tissue. There were no significant differences in graft volume between mutant and wild type mice. Nevertheless, B6CBA mice had smaller grafts than their B6.BR counterparts. The transplantation did not improve the performance in the rotarod test. The study showed marked differences in graft integration into the host's cerebellum in two types of cerebellar mutants, suggesting disease-specific factors influencing graft fate.


Assuntos
Transplante de Tecido Encefálico/métodos , Doenças Cerebelares/terapia , Cerebelo/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transplante de Tecido Fetal/métodos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Animais , Doenças Cerebelares/patologia , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Camundongos Mutantes Neurológicos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia
17.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1045-1053, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263283

RESUMO

Clinical studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) using a dopamine cell replacment strategy have been tried for more than 30 years. The outcomes following transplantation of human fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue (hfVM) have been variable, with some patients coming off their anti-PD treatment for many years and others not responding and/or developing significant side effects, including graft-induced dyskinesia. This led to a re-appraisal of the best way to do such trials, which resulted in a new European-Union-funded allograft trial with fetal dopamine cells across several centers in Europe. This new trial, TRANSEURO ( NCT01898390 ), is an open-label study in which some individuals in a large observational cohort of patients with mild PD who were undergoing identical assessments were randomly selected to receive transplants of hfVM. The TRANSEURO trial is currently ongoing as researchers have completed both recruitment into a large multicenter observational study of younger onset early-stage PD and transplantation of hfVM in 11 patients. While completion of TRANSEURO is not expected until 2021, we feel that sharing the rationale for the design of TRANSEURO, along with the lessons we have learned along the way, can help inform researchers and facilitate planning of transplants of dopamine-producing cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells for future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/transplante , Transplante de Tecido Fetal/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico
19.
Eur J Dermatol ; 29(6): 585-595, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903948

RESUMO

The skin is the first protective barrier of our body. Wound healing is therefore an essential mechanism. However, this phenomenon can be impaired when wounds are too large or chronic, for example, in diabetes. Interestingly, adult skin heals with scars, whereas foetuses present scarless regeneration. The objective of this review is to highlight the difference in healing pathways between foetal and adult skin and to present the recent therapeutic strategies envisaged using foetal properties in the clinic. The main features that distinguish foetal wound healing from adult wound healing are less tissue inflammation, faster reepithelialisation, and less contraction of the neodermis, allowing foetal tissues to regenerate. Recently, new therapies in regenerative medicine have been introduced using these foetal properties. For the first time, our team has developed CICAFAST, an innovative dressing composed of foetal keratinocytes and fibroblasts, which has been tested on a skin graft donor site in a clinical Phase 1/2 trial.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/fisiopatologia , Feto/fisiologia , Pele/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Tecidos/métodos , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Feminino , Células-Tronco Fetais/fisiologia , Transplante de Tecido Fetal , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Queratinócitos/fisiologia , Gravidez , Reepitelização/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Transplante de Pele
20.
Cold Spring Harb Protoc ; 2019(2)2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321278

RESUMO

In 1924, Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold (née Pröscholdt) published their famous work describing the transplantation of dorsal blastopore lip of one newt gastrula embryo onto the ventral side of a host embryo at the same stage. They performed these grafts using two newt species with different pigmentation (Triturus taeniatus and Triturus cristatus) to follow the fate of the grafted tissue. These experiments resulted in the development of conjoined twins attached through their belly. Because of the difference in embryo pigmentation between the two Triturus species, they determined that the bulk of the secondary embryo arose from the host embryo while the grafted tissue per se gave increase to the notochord and a few somitic cells. This meant that the dorsal blastopore lip was able to organize an almost complete embryo out of ventral tissue. The dorsal blastopore lip is now called the Spemann-Mangold organizer. Here, we describe a simple yet efficient protocol to perform these grafts using the anuran Xenopus laevis.


Assuntos
Transplante de Tecido Fetal/métodos , Gástrula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organizadores Embrionários , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Xenopus/embriologia , Animais
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