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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 204, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36717824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progress towards universal health coverage requires strengthening the country's health system. In developing countries, the increasing disease burden puts a lot of stress on scarce household finances. However, this burden is not the same for everyone. The economic burden varies across the disease groups and care levels. Government intervention is vital in formulating policies in addressing financial distress at the household level. In India, even when outpatient care forms a significant proportion of out-of-pocket expenditure, government schemes focus on reducing household expenditure on inpatient care alone. Thus, people resort to hardship financing practices like informal borrowing or selling of assets in the event of health shocks. In this context, the present study aims to identify the disease(s) that correlates with maximum hardship financing for outpatients and inpatients and to understand the change in hardship financing over time. METHODS: We used two waves of National Sample Survey Organisation's data on social consumption on health- the 71st and the 75th rounds. Descriptive statistics are reported, and logistic regression is carried out to explain the adjusted impact of illness on hardship financing. Pooled logistic regression of the two rounds is estimated for inpatients and outpatients. Marginal effects are reported to study the changes in hardship financing over time. RESULTS: The results suggest that cancer had the maximum likelihood of causing hardship financing in India for both inpatients (Odds ratio 2.41; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.03 - 2.86 (71st round), 2.54; 95% CI: 2.21 - 2.93 (75th round)) and outpatients (Odds ratio 6.11; 95% CI: 2.95 - 12.64 (71st round), 3.07; 95% CI: 2.14 - 4.40 (75th round)). In 2018, for outpatients, the hardship financing for health care needs was higher at public health facilities, compared to private health facilities (Odds ratio 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62 - 0.83 (75th round). The marginal effects model of pooled cross-section analysis reveals that from 2014 to 2018, the hardship financing had decreased for inpatients (Odds ratio 0.747; 95% CI:0.80 - -0.70), whereas it had increased for outpatients (Odds ratio 0.0126; 95% CI: 0.01 - 0.02). Our results also show that the likelihood of resorting to hardship financing for illness among women was lesser than that of men. CONCLUSION: Government intervention is quintessential to decrease the hardship financing caused by cancer. The intra-household inequalities play an important role in explaining their hardship financing strategies. We suggest the need for more financial risk protection for outpatient care to address hardship financing.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Financiamento Pessoal , Atenção à Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Índia
2.
J Health Econ ; 87: 102717, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638641

RESUMO

We study the impact of health insurance expansion on medical spending, longevity and welfare in an OLG economy in which individuals purchase health care to lower mortality and medical progress is profit-driven. Three sectors are considered: final goods production; a health care sector, selling medical services to individuals; and an R&D sector, selling increasingly effective medical technology to the health care sector. We calibrate the model to the development of the US economy/health care system from 1965 to 2005 and study numerically the impact of the insurance expansion. We find that more extensive health insurance accounts for a large share of the rise in US health spending but also boosts the rate of medical progress. A welfare analysis shows that while the subsidization of health care through health insurance creates excessive health care spending, the gains in life expectancy brought about by induced medical progress more than compensate for this.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Seguro Saúde , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Financiamento Pessoal
3.
Indian J Med Res ; 156(1): 130-138, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36510905

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Financing healthcare services through out-of-pocket payments is common in India. Household impoverishments due to health expenditure can be daunting, especially among the economically vulnerable households. This study investigated hospitalization and patient's health expenditure in Odisha State in India. Methods: The national sample survey data were used to assess hospitalization and patient's health expenditure over two time periods (1995 and 2014). Disease classification was made following International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10). The hospitalization rate and health expenditure were estimated for infectious, cardiovascular, non-communicable, disability and other diseases. Andersen model was used to examine the determinants of healthcare expenditure. Results: Findings of the study revealed that hospitalization in Odisha increased nearly three folds and health expenditure by more than two times between 1995 to 2014. While the hospitalization for other diseases remained consistently higher, health expenditure for disability was the highest and it increased three times within the last two decades. The socio-economic and demographic divides in the hospitalization rate and health expenditure were evident. Interpretation & conclusions: Our analysis indicated that predisposing factors such as age and marital status played an important role in hospitalization whereas, enabling factors likely determined the health expenditure. There is a need to recognize the unique vulnerabilities of older population, widowed and health financial mechanism for disability-related illness.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Características da Família , Hospitalização , Atenção à Saúde , Índia/epidemiologia
4.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 192, 2022 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many high-income countries have made significant progress towards achieving universal health coverage. Nevertheless, out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure continues to undermine the effectiveness of the universal healthcare system. In Saudi Arabia, due to the overburdened free public health services, many people opt for alternative healthcare services, risking high OOP payments. The presence of chronic illness further exacerbates this situation. However, there is limited evidence on the extent of the gap in OOP health expenditure between the chronically and non-chronically ill and the associated drivers contributing to this gap. The aim of this study was to assess inequalities in relative OOP health expenditure, estimated as the percentage of income spent on healthcare, between the chronically and non-chronically ill in Saudi Arabia and their associated drivers. METHODS: Data from 10,785 respondents were obtained from a national cross-sectional survey conducted in Saudi Arabia as part of the 2018 Family Health Survey. Inequalities in relative OOP health expenditure were measured using concentration indices and curves. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis was used to assess the differences in relative OOP health expenditure between the chronically and non-chronically ill. RESULTS: The results showed that the chronically ill experience a higher financial burden due to healthcare services in absolute costs and relative to their income compared to the non-chronically ill. In addition, there was higher pro-poor inequality (-0.1985) in relative OOP health expenditure among the chronically ill compared to that (-0.1195) among the non-chronically ill. There was a 2.6% gap in relative OOP health expenditure among the chronically and non-chronically ill, of which 53.8% was attributable to unexplained factors, with explained factors accounting for the 46.2% difference. Factors that significantly contributed to the overall gap (i.e. both explained and non-explained factors) included employment status, insurance status, self-rated health, and periodic check-ups. CONCLUSION: This study underscores the high financial burden due to OOP payments among the chronically ill and the existence of pro-poor inequalities. In addition, there is a significant gap in relative OOP health expenditure between the chronically and non-chronically ill, which is mainly attributable to differences in socio-economic characteristics. This indicates that the existing financial mechanisms have not been sufficient in cushioning the chronically ill and less well off in Saudi Arabia. This situation calls for health policymakers to integrate a social safety net into the health financing system and to prioritize the disadvantaged population, thereby ensuring access to health services without experiencing financial hardship.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Pobreza , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Arábia Saudita , Financiamento Pessoal , Doença Crônica
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278047, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409756

RESUMO

In this study we examined three correlates of personal wealth-financial capability, buying impulsiveness, and attitudes to money in a large UK adult sample (N = 90,184). We were interested in how these psychological variables related to personal wealth controlling for well-established demographic correlates: age, education, gender, and household income. We drew on three personal wealth variables based on savings and investments, property wealth and personal items. Using correlational and regression analysis we tested three specific hypotheses which each received support. Our variables accounted for around half the variance with respect to property value, and two thirds with respect to investments. The hierarchical regression onto the savings and investment factor showed two thirds of the variance was accounted for: the demographic variables accounted for 27% of the variance, money attitudes an additional 14%; financial capability an additional 24% and buying impulsivity no additional variance. Age, income, and planning ahead were the most powerful and consistent predictors of wealth variables, with associating money with security as an important predictor for savings and investments. Implications for helping improve financial literacy and capability are noted. Limitations are acknowledged.


Assuntos
Atitude , Renda , Financiamento Pessoal , Escolaridade , Análise de Regressão
6.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604405, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339660

RESUMO

Objectives: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of informal payments and personal connections to gain preferential access to public health services during the COVID-19 pandemic and to propose effective policy measures for tackling this phenomenon. Methods: Using data from 25,744 patients in the European Union, six different scenarios are analyzed in relation to making informal payments and/or relying on personal connections to access public healthcare services. To evaluate the propensity to engage in informal practices in healthcare, probit regressions with sample selection and predicted probabilities are used. Robustness checks are also performed to test the reliability of the findings. Results: For each scenario, a statistically significant association is revealed between the propensity to make informal payments and/or rely on personal connections and the asymmetry between the formal rules and the patients' personal norms and trust in public authorities. Conclusion: To tackle informal practices in healthcare, policy measures are required to reduce the asymmetry between the formal rules and personal norms by raising trust in public authorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Financiamento Pessoal , Humanos , União Europeia , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Atenção à Saúde , Gastos em Saúde
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429921

RESUMO

Dental diseases remain major health problems worldwide, leading to pain, discomfort, and even death. In Saudi Arabia, public dental care services (i.e., services provided by government-owned health facilities) are provided free of charge for all Saudi citizens. However, public dental care facilities are overburdened and overcrowded, resulting in long waiting times to access dental care services. The consequent limited access to dental services can prolong discomfort and delay pain management, thereby exacerbating the suffering of patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the socioeconomic determinants of the willingness to pay for immediate public dental care in the face of a dental emergency in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional design was employed to obtain data from adult citizens of Saudi Arabia who were residents of the Holy City of Makkah. A pre-tested online questionnaire was used to obtain the responses from 549 individuals, selected through a snowball sampling technique, from 15 July to 10 August 2021. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages), Pearson's chi-square test, and binary probit regression were used as estimation techniques. The findings showed that 79.4% of the respondents were willing to pay for immediate public dental services, with the majority (86%) expressing a willingness to pay less than 500 Saudi Riyal (SAR). The binary probit regression estimates showed that respondents who were unemployed, those with a high school level of education or below, and those without private health insurance were less likely to be willing to pay for immediate public dental services. Thus, policies and initiatives aimed at enhancing the willingness to pay for immediate public dental services should target the unemployed, those with a high school level of education or below, and people without private health insurance.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica , Financiamento Pessoal , Adulto , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Can J Surg ; 65(5): E683-E687, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223937

RESUMO

Robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RTS) is safe and effective, but is associated with high capital and operating costs that are not reimbursed by the Canadian government. Currently, patients have access to RTS only when it is supported by research or philanthropic funds. In a recent study, we assessed the extent of patient-reported satisfaction with RTS, whether patients would have been willing to pay out of pocket for it, and what factors were associated with patients' willingness to pay. Many patients (290 of 411 [70.56%]) stated that they would have paid the additional $2000 to supplement the government health care coverage to have access to RTS. Factors found to be significantly associated with participants' willingness to pay were an annual income of $60 000 or more (p = 0.034), private insurance coverage (p = 0.007), overall experience with RTS rated as 8 or higher out of 10 (p < 0.001), and overall postoperative postdischarge experience rated as satisfying or very satisfying (p = 0.004).


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Cirurgia Torácica , Assistência ao Convalescente , Canadá , Financiamento Pessoal , Humanos , Alta do Paciente
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 114, 2022 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Financial risk protection and equity are two fundamental components of the global commitment to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), which mandates health system reform based on population needs, disease incidence, and economic burden to ensure that everyone has access to health services without any financial hardship. We estimated disease-specific incidences of catastrophic out-of-pocket health expenditure and distress financing to investigate progress toward UHC financial risk indicators and investigated inequalities in financial risk protection indicators by wealth quintiles. In addition, we explored the determinants of financial hardship indicators as a result of hospitalization costs. METHODS: In order to conduct this research, data were extracted from the latest Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES), conducted by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics in 2016-2017. Financial hardship indicators in UHC were measured by catastrophic health expenditure and distress financing (sale/mortgage, borrowing, and family support). Concentration curves (CC) and indices (CI) were estimated to measure the pattern and severity of inequalities across socio-economic classes. Binary logistic regression models were used to assess the determinants of catastrophic health expenditure and distress financing. RESULTS: We found that about 26% of households incurred catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and 58% faced distress financing on hospitalization in Bangladesh. The highest incidence of CHE was for cancer (50%), followed by liver diseases (49.2%), and paralysis (43.6%). The financial hardship indicators in terms of CHE (CI = -0.109) and distress financing (CI = -0.087) were more concentrated among low-income households. Hospital admission to private health facilities, non-communicable diseases, and the presence of chronic patients in households significantly increases the likelihood of higher UHC financial hardship indicators. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings strongly suggest the need for national-level social health security schemes with a particular focus on low-income households, since we identified greater inequalities between low- and high-income households in UHC financial hardship indicators. Regulating the private sector and implementing subsidized healthcare programmes for diseases with high treatment costs, such as cancer, heart disease, liver disease, and kidney disease are also expected to be effective to protect households from financial hardship. Finally, in order to reduce reliance on OOPE, the government should consider increasing its allocations to the health sector.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Bangladesh , Doença Catastrófica , Características da Família , Financiamento Pessoal , Hospitalização , Humanos
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1027, 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper assesses the impact of effective access on out-of-pocket health payments and catastrophic health expenditure. Effective access cannot be attained unless both health services and financial risk protection are accessible, affordable, and acceptable. Therefore, it represents a key determinant in the transition from fragmented health systems to universal coverage that many low- and middle-income countries face. METHODS: We use a definition of effective access as the utilization of health insurance when available. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using the 2018 Mexican National Health Survey (ENSANUT) at the household level. The analysis is performed in two stages. The first stage is a multinomial analysis that captures the factor associated with choosing effective access against the alternative of paying privately. The second stage consists of an impact analysis regarding the decision of not choosing effective access in terms of out-of-pocket (OOP) health payments and catastrophic health expenditures (CHE). The analysis corrects for both the decision to buy insurance and the decision to pay for health care. RESULTS: We found that, on average, not choosing effective access increases OOP health payments by around 2300 pesos annually. Medicine payments are the most common factor in this increase. Nevertheless, outpatient and medicines health care are the main drivers of the increase in OOP health payments in all insurance beneficiaries. Not having effective access increases the probability of CHE health expenditures by 2.7 p.p. for the case of Social Security Insurance and 4.0 p.p. for Social Government insurance. Household enrolled in Prospera program for the poor are more likely to choose effective access while having household heads with more education and assets value does the opposite. Diabetes illnesses are associated with a higher probability of effective access. CONCLUSION: Improving effective access is a middle step that cannot be disregarded when seeking universal coverage because OOP health payments and catastrophic outcomes are direct consequences. Public insurance in general, has around 50% effective access which remains a challenge in terms of health services utilization and health public policy design, calling for the need of better coordination across insurance types and pooling mechanisms to increase sustainability of needed health services.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Gastos em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , México
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 901276, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844858

RESUMO

Unlike other low- and middle-income countries, infectious diseases are still predominant, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging without replacing the burden of infectious diseases in India, where it is imposing a double burden of diseases on households in the country. This study aimed to analyse the socio-economic and demographic differentials in the magnitude of economic burden and coping strategies associated with health expenditure on infectious diseases in India. National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) data on "Key Indicators of Social Consumption in India: Health, (2017-18)" have been employed in this study. The findings of the study revealed that more than 33% of the individuals are still suffering from infectious diseases out of the total ailing population in India. Based on the various socio-economic and demographic covariates, infectious diseases are highly prevalent among individuals with marginalized characteristics, such as individuals residing in rural areas, females, 0-14 age groups, Muslims, illiterates, scheduled tribes (STs), and scheduled castes (SCs), large family households, and economically poor people in the country. The per capita out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure on infectious diseases is INR 7.28 and INR 29.38 in inpatient and outpatient care, respectively. Whereas, monthly per patient OOP expenditure on infectious diseases by infection-affected populations is INR 881.56 and INR 1,156.34 in inpatient and outpatient care in India. The study found that people residing in rural areas, SCs followed by other backward classes (OBCs), illiterates, poor, and very poor are more dependent on borrowings, sale of assets, and other distressed sources of financing. However, under National Health Policy 2017, many initiatives, such as "Ayushman Bharat," PM-JAY, and National Digital Health Mission (NDHM) in 2021, have been launched by the government of India in the recent years. These initiatives are holistically launched for ensuring better health facilities, but it is early to make any prediction regarding its outcomes; hopefully, the time will define it over the passing of a few more years. Finally, the study proposed the need for proper implementations of policy initiatives, awareness against unhygienic conditions and contamination of illnesses, immunisations/vaccination campaigns, subsidized medical facilities, and the country's expansion of quality primary health-care facilities.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Financiamento Pessoal , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Estresse Financeiro , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 922574, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719624

RESUMO

Whether families using big data-based digital payments will increase household healthcare expenditure is a subject that needs to be investigated in the era of big data. Based on the data from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), 24,126 samples from 2014 to 2018 are used to examine the impact and mechanism of big data-based digital payments on household healthcare expenditure. The empirical results of this paper show that the use of digital payments by households can significantly increase household healthcare expenditure with the empowerment of big data. This research employs the instrumental variable method to verify and produce consistent estimation results in order to address potential endogeneity issues such as measurement error and missing variables. We learn via mechanism analysis that household adoption of big data-driven digital payments can remove credit limitations and build social capital, resulting in higher household health-care spending. We also perform a heterogeneity analysis. The findings reveal that when a family's traditional financial accessibility is high, the head of the household is young or middle-aged, and the head of the household has a higher level of education, digital payment will play a larger role in encouraging household healthcare expenditure. The conclusions of this paper are still solid after changing the indicators of household healthcare expenditure substituting the indicators of digital payment, and adjusting the variables. As a result, this article provides micro-evidence for the usage of digital payments by households to enhance healthcare spending. JEL Classification: D12 G21 O30 O53 I12.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Gastos em Saúde , Big Data , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 305: 115063, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660694

RESUMO

In an era of considerable uncertainty about future prospects for development assistance to fund major health programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa, social health insurance is increasingly being considered as an alternative mechanism for increasing financing health. However, empirical support for social health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa remains sparse. The main aim of this study was to examine the viability of increasing health financing through social health insurance in Zambia. The paper uses a large nationally representative household survey to estimate the expected mean and total willingness to pay for social health insurance. The revenue potential of social health insurance for health sector funding is assessed. The results show that despite a high level of public support for social health insurance, with 80% willing to join a social insurance scheme, the estimated mean monthly willingness-to-pay is relatively low at Zambian Kwacha 55 (US$8.8 in 2014 dollars) per household. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that the revenue potential of social health insurance would not be sufficient to fund major improvements in quality of care for insured members, let alone cross-subsidize benefits to non-members.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Previdência Social , Características da Família , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Zâmbia
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 717, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implementation of community-based health insurance in (CBHI) in Rwanda has reduced out of pocket (OOP) spending for the > 79% of citizens who enroll in it but the effect for surgical patients is not well described. For all but the poorest citizens who are completely subsidized, the OOP (out of pocket) payment at time of service is 10%. However, 55.5% of the population is below the international poverty line meaning that even this copay can have a significant impact on a family's financial health. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of OOP payments for cesarean sections in the context of CBHI and determine if having it reduces catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). METHODS: This study is nested in a larger randomized controlled trial of women undergoing cesarean section at a district hospital in Rwanda. Eligible patients were surveyed at discharge to quantify household income and routine monthly expenditures and direct and indirect spending related to the hospitalization. This was used in conjunction with hospital billing records to calculate the rate of catastrophic expenditure by insurance group. RESULTS: About 94% of the 340 women met the World Bank definition of extreme poverty. Of the 330 (97.1%) with any type of health insurance, the majority (n = 310, 91.2%) have CBHI. The average OOP expenditure for a cesarean section and hospitalization was $9.36. The average cost adding transportation to the hospital was $19.29. 164 (48.2%) had to borrow money and 43 (12.7%) had to sell possessions. The hospital bill alone was a CHE for 5.3% of patients. However, when including transportation costs, 15.4% incurred a CHE and including lost wages, 22.6%. CONCLUSION: To ensure universal health coverage (UHC), essential surgical care must be affordable. Despite enrollment in universal health insurance, cesarean section still impoverishes households in rural Rwanda, the majority of whom already lie below the poverty line. Although CBHI protects against CHE from the cost of healthcare, when adding in the cost of transportation, lost wages and caregivers, cesarean section is still often a catastrophic financial event. Further innovation in financial risk protection is needed to provide equitable UHC.


Assuntos
Seguro de Saúde Baseado na Comunidade , Cesárea , Feminino , Financiamento Pessoal , Hospitais Rurais , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ruanda
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 951, 2022 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare services in Saudi Arabia are provided free of charge to its citizens at the point of use. Recently, however, the government has realized that this model is unsustainable in the long run. Therefore, Saudi decision-makers are seeking to have a sustainable health system through the introduction of a contributory National Health Insurance that require making regular financial contributions from its members. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the people's willingness to pay for a National Health Insurance system in Saudi Arabia. The study also aims to understand the factors affecting their willingness or unwillingness to pay NHI, such as, their demographic and socio-economic characteristics, the type of their usual health care provider, and their satisfaction with the current healthcare services. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design with Contingent Valuation (CV) technique was used to measure the value of National Health Insurance based on an individual's willingness to pay. The data were collected from 475 participants using an online survey via Google Forms between March 2021 and April 2021. Frequencies, logistic regression, and linear regression, were conducted to answer the research questions. RESULTS: The number of individuals who was willing to pay for NHI was higher than those who were not willing to pay (62.9, 95% CI = 58.4-67.3%) vs (37.1, 95% CI = 32.7-41.6%). A binomial test found this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between the likelihood of paying for NHI and type of usual healthcare provider (OR = 3.129, 95% CI = 1.943-5.039, p < 0.001); as individuals using public health services were more likely to pay for NHI. Also, with satisfaction with health services (OR = 14.305, 95% CI = 3.240-63.153, p < 0.001), as individuals who were very satisfied with the healthcare services were more likely to pay for NHI. The median amount of money the people were willing to pay as a monthly contribution for NHI was 100 SAR (26.5 USD) with the average being 152 SAR (40 USD). There was a significant association between the maximum amount the participants were willing to pay and age, region, and education. Specifically, 30-39-year-olds were willing to pay more for NHI compared to participants aged 50 or older (ß = 103.55, 95% CI = 26.27- 199.29); participants from central region more than participants from northern region (ß = 70.71,95% CI = 2.14- 138.58); and participants with masters degree more than participants with PhDs (ß = 227.46, 95% CI = 81.59- 399.28). CONCLUSION: This study provided some evidence that more people were willing to pay for NHI than those who declined. Individuals who frequently used public health services and were very satisfied with these services were more willing to pay for NHI. Younger population, those with master's degree, and from the central region were willing to pay more amount of money for NHI. These results could help policy makers shape their decisions and anticipate problems that may arise with NHI implementation.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Honorários e Preços , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments are an inequitable mechanism for health financing as their high share of total health expenditures poses a risk of catastrophic healthcare expenditures. This study aimed to assess the distribution and progressivity of OOP payments made by Malaysian households for various group of healthcare services. METHODS: This study utilized data from the Malaysian Household Expenditure Survey (HES) between 2014 and 2015, which involved 14,473 households. Distribution and progressivity of OOP payments were measured through their proportion of household consumption, a concentration curves plot and the Kakwani Progressivity Index (KPI). RESULTS: The mean proportion of Malaysian OOP payments for healthcare of household consumption was 1.65%. The proportion increased across households' consumption quintiles, from 1.03% made by the poorest 20% to 1.86% by the richest 20%. The OOP payments in Malaysia were progressive with a positive KPI of 0.0910. The OOP payments made for hospital-based services were the most progressive (KPI 0.1756), followed by medical products, appliances and equipment (KPI 0.1192), pharmaceuticals (0.0925) and outpatient-based services (KPI 0.0394) as the least progressive. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the OOP payments for healthcare services in Malaysia were progressive and equitable as they were more concentrated among the richer households.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Gastos em Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Malásia
20.
Health Econ ; 31(7): 1347-1367, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383415

RESUMO

Vision impairment is the most common disability worldwide and it is untreated in large parts of the developing world. We assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for eyeglasses among adults in a resource-poor rural setting. We elicit the WTP using the Becker-DeGroot-Marschak (BDM) method. We combine this approach with a layaway scheme and a video intervention to probe to what extent liquidity constraints and information influence the WTP. Our results show that the average WTP is close to the cost of production for corrective glasses. Nevertheless, we find evidence for information constraints. Our video intervention raises the WTP for corrective glasses by 16 percent. We do not find evidence of screening effects, that is after 6 months, use is unrelated to the initial WTP.


Assuntos
Óculos , Financiamento Pessoal , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Humanos , População Rural
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