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1.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(6): 187, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524899

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has led to innovations in environmental metagenomics and investigations involving humans and microbes. However, it is necessary to analyze the components that will affect analysis of the method upon processing a large amount of information. In particular, the processing method after sample collection affects the NGS results, and it is necessary to check for inaccurate results. Here, we show that the microbial communities obtained from fingertip samples differ from those obtained from fingertips remaining on mobile phones and desks, when cultured or not for 24 h. We also confirmed changes in microbial communities in fingertip samples from desks incubated for 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h. Samples of prints from mobile phones that are considerably vulnerable to external factors were not analyzed. Ratios of Firmicutes and Bacillus were, respectively, increased in cultures at the phylum and species levels. Collectively, we identified bacterial species that can aid in determining whether a sample has been cultured. In addition, although microbial communities differed depending on sample types, we confirmed changes after culture for 4 and 8 h. However, since this study is a sample limited to three types, it is necessary to analyze other types of samples in the same way and check whether they are applicable to all types. This strategy can verify the suitability of samples for deriving informative results from cultured or uncultured bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Firmicutes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536223

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, obligately anaerobic bacterium, designated strain BP52GT, was isolated from the hindgut of a Silver Drummer (Kyphosus sydneyanus) fish collected from the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the isolate belonged to the family Erysipelotrichaceae in the phylum Firmicutes and was most closely related to Clostridium saccharogumia with 93.3 % sequence identity. Isolate BP52GT grew on agar medium containing mannitol as the sole carbon source. White, opaque and shiny colonies of the isolate measuring approximately 1 mm diameter grew within a week at 20-28 °C (optimum, 24 °C) and pH 6.9-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.8). BP52GT tolerated the addition of up to 1 % NaCl to the medium. Formate and acetate were the major fermentation products. The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, C16:1n-7t and C18:1n-7t. The genome sequence of the isolate was determined. Its G+C content was 30.7 mol%, and the 72.65 % average nucleotide identity of the BP52GT genome to its closest neighbour with a completely sequenced genome (Erysipelatoclostridium ramosum JCM 1298T) indicated low genomic relatedness. Based on the phenotypic and taxonomic characteristics observed in this study, a novel genus and species Tannockella kyphosi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for isolate BP52GT (=NZRM 4757T=JCM 34692T).


Assuntos
Cifose , Tenericutes , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Firmicutes , Bacilos Gram-Positivos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tenericutes/genética
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 157, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 'Integrative and Conjugative Elements' (ICEs) and 'Integrative and Mobilizable Elements' (IMEs) are two classes of mobile genetic elements that are complex to detect and delineate. Therefore, they are yet poorly annotated in bacterial genomes. FirmiData provides to the scientific community of microbiologists and bioinformaticians a reference resource of annotated ICEs and of IMEs from Firmicutes. It illustrates their prevalence and their diversity but also gives information on their organization. FirmiData was designed to assist the scientific community in identifying and annotating these elements by using the sequences of these ICEs and IMEs for the identification of related elements in other genomes of Firmicutes. Therefore, Firmidata meets the needs of the scientific community. DATA DESCRIPTION: Firmidata provides a manually curated annotation of 98 ICEs and 148 IMEs identified in 40 chromosomes of Firmicutes. The delineation at the nucleotide level of almost all of these elements allows for the characterization of the genes they carry.


Assuntos
Conjugação Genética , Firmicutes , Cromossomos , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genoma Bacteriano/genética
4.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 78(Pt 4): 144-149, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400666

RESUMO

Bacilliredoxins are small proteins that are involved in redox homeostasis in bacillithiol-producing bacteria. They reduce mixed bacillithiol disulfides on protected proteins through a disulfide-exchange reaction, restoring the thiol group on the target protein. Bacilliredoxins contain an unusual conserved CGC motif, and their exact catalytic mechanism remains unclear. Here, a 1.6 Šresolution X-ray crystallographic structure of the bacilliredoxin BrxA (YphP) from Staphylococcus aureus is presented. The structure contains bacillithiol in a mixed disulfide with Cys54, as well as a disulfide linkage at Cys56, which may play a role in dimer stabilization. The structure presented here will provide insight into the function of BrxA and other bacilliredoxins.


Assuntos
Firmicutes , Staphylococcus aureus , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Homeostase , Oxirredução , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267509, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452491

RESUMO

ß-Mannans are a heterogeneous group of polysaccharides with a common main chain of ß-1,4-linked mannopyranoside residues. The cleavage of ß-mannan chains is catalyzed by glycoside hydrolases called ß-mannanases. In the CAZy database, ß-mannanases are grouped by sequence similarity in families GH5, GH26, GH113 and GH134. Family GH113 has been under-explored so far with six enzymes characterized, all from the Firmicutes phylum. We undertook the functional characterization of 14 enzymes from a selection of 31 covering the diversity of the family GH113. Our observations suggest that GH113 is a family with specificity towards mannans, with variations in the product profiles and modes of action. We were able to assign mannanase and mannosidase activities to four out of the five clades of the family, increasing by 200% the number of characterized GH113 members, and expanding the toolbox for fine-tuning of mannooligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Firmicutes , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Mananas , Firmicutes/enzimologia , Firmicutes/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Mananas/química , Manose , Especificidade por Substrato , beta-Manosidase/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 237: 113532, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472558

RESUMO

Industrial production, ore smelting and sewage disposal plant can discharge large amounts of heavy metals every year, which may contaminate soil, water and air, posing a great threat to ecological environment and animal production. Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)], a recognized metallic contaminant, has been shown to impair kidney, liver and gastrointestinal tract of many species, but little is known about the gut microbial characteristics of chickens exposed to Cr (VI). Herein, this study characterized the gut microbial alternations of chickens exposed to Cr (VI). Results indicated that the gut microbial alpha-diversity in chickens exposed to Cr (VI) decreased significantly, accompanied by a distinct shifts in taxonomic composition. Microbial taxonomic analysis demonstrated that the preponderant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Epsilonbacteraeota) were the same in both groups, but different in types and relative abundances of dominant genera. Moreover, some bacterial taxa including 2 phyla and 47 genera significantly decreased, whereas 3 phyla and 17 genera significantly increased during Cr (VI) exposure. Among decreased taxa, 9 genera (Coprobacter, Ruminococcus_1, Faecalicoccus, Eubacterium_nodatum_group, Parasutterella, Slackia, Barnesiella, Family_XIII_UCG-001 and Collinsella) even cannot be detected. In conclusion, this study revealed that Cr (VI) exposure dramatically decrased the gut microbial diversity and altered microbial composition of chickens. Additionally, this study also provided a theoretical basis for relieving Cr (VI) poisoning from the perspective of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bacteroidetes , Cromo/toxicidade , Firmicutes , Homeostase
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(5): 257, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416536

RESUMO

In recent years, 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) sequencing has been widely developed. In the present study, we investigated the changes of fecal flora analyzed by sequencing of 16S rDNA and the alteration of blood biochemical indexes in cats during diarrhea. Seven normal fecal samples and seven fecal samples of British Shorthair cats with bacterial diarrhea about 6 months old were collected. The 16S rDNA V3 region of the bacteria was amplified for high-throughput sequencing. Finally, species analysis at various levels was performed. At the same time, samples of blood were taken to examine the changes of biochemical indexes in cats with diarrhea. The abundance and diversity of microflora in the healthy group were greater than those in the diarrhea group. The normal floras in the feces of healthy cats were Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. The content of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes varied greatly in diarrheal cats. In addition, the number of white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and globulin were increased in cats with diarrhea, whereas albumin level was decreased in diarrheal cats. In conclusion, the present study suggests 16SrDNA technology showed that the intestinal Proteus was abundant, and the content of Firmicutes was scarce in cats with diarrhea. Escherichia-Shigella was the main pathogens in this sample. Rapid blood biochemical tests may help clinicians to assess the severity and prognosis of cats with diarrhea.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Diarreia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Gatos , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Firmicutes/genética , Proteobactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0046522, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416697

RESUMO

Parvimonas micra is a Gram-positive obligate anaerobe and a typical member of the human microbiome. P. micra is among the most highly enriched species at numerous sites of mucosal dysbiotic disease and is closely associated with the development of multiple types of malignant tumors. Despite its strong association with disease, surprisingly little is known about P. micra pathobiology, which is directly attributable to its longstanding genetic intractability. To address this problem, we directly isolated a collection of P. micra strains from odontogenic abscess clinical specimens and then screened these isolates for natural competence. Amazingly, all of the P. micra clinical isolates exhibited various levels of natural competence, including the reference strain ATCC 33270. By exploiting this ability, we were able to employ cloning-independent methodologies to engineer and complement a variety of targeted chromosomal genetic mutations directly within low-passage-number clinical isolates. To develop a tractable genetic system for P. micra, we first adapted renilla-based bioluminescence for highly sensitive reporter studies. This reporter system was then applied for the development of the novel Theo+ theophylline-inducible riboswitch for tunable gene expression studies over a broad dynamic range. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of generating mariner-based transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) libraries for forward genetic screening in P. micra. With the availability of a highly efficient transformation protocol and the current suite of genetic tools, P. micra should now be considered a fully genetically tractable organism suitable for molecular genetic research. The methods presented here provide a clear path to investigate the understudied role of P. micra in polymicrobial infections and tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE Parvimonas micra is among the most highly enriched species at numerous sites of mucosal dysbiotic disease and is closely associated with numerous cancers. Despite this, little is known about P. micra pathobiology, which is directly attributable to its longstanding genetic intractability. In this study, we provide the first report of P. micra natural competence and describe the only tractable genetic system for this species. The methods presented here will allow for the detailed study of P. micra and its role in infection and tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Firmicutes , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Carcinogênese , Firmicutes/genética , Humanos
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(10): 1067-1077, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) are commonly observed in patients with cirrhosis. Despite the substantial number of articles describing the relations between disorders of gut microbiota and various manifestations of cirrhosis, dysbiosis and SIBO were always studied separately. AIM: To study the relationship of gut dysbiosis and SIBO in cirrhosis. METHODS: This observational study included 47 in-patients with cirrhosis. Stool microbiome was assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. SIBO was assessed using the lactulose hydrogen breath test. RESULTS: SIBO was found in 24/47 (51.1%) patients. Patients with SIBO had a higher abundance of Firmicutes (P = 0.017) and Fusobacteria (P = 0.011), and a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (P = 0.013) than patients without SIBO. This increase in the abundance of Firmicutes occurred mainly due to an increase in the abundance of bacteria from the genus Blautia (P = 0.020) of the Lachnospiraceae family (P = 0.047), while the abundance of other major families of this phylum [Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.856), Peptostreptococcaceae (P = 0.066), Clostridiaceae (P = 0.463), Eubacteriaceae (P = 0.463), Lactobacillaceae (P = 0.413), and Veillonellaceae (P = 0.632)] did not differ significantly between the patients with and without SIBO. Reduced level of Bacteroidetes in samples from patients with SIBO was a result of the decrease in bacterial numbers from all the major families of this phylum [Bacteroidaceae (P = 0.014), Porphyromonadaceae (P = 0.002), and Rikenellaceae (P = 0.047)], with the exception of Prevotellaceae (P = 0.941). There were no significant differences in the abundance of taxa that were the main biomarkers of cirrhosis-associated gut dysbiosis [Proteobacteria (P = 0.790), Bacilli (P = 0.573), Enterobacteriaceae (P = 0.632), Streptococcaceae (P = 0.170), Staphylococcaceae (P = 0.450), and Enterococcaceae (P = 0.873)] between patients with and without SIBO. CONCLUSION: Despite the differences observed in the gut microbiome between patients with and without SIBO, gut dysbiosis and SIBO are most likely independent disorders of gut microbiota in cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Clostridiales , Disbiose/microbiologia , Firmicutes/genética , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 119, 2022 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main goal of an endodontic treatment is a complete debridement of the root canal system; however, currently mechanical shaping and chemical cleaning procedures for this purpose have deemed non-satisfactory. METHODS: The efficacy of peracetic acid (PAA; 0.5, 1.0, 2.0%), as a root canal irrigation solution, against Enterococcus faecalis (DSM 20478) and Parvimonas micra (DSM 20468) when compared with the one of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI; 1.0, 3.0, 5.0%), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX; 0.12, 0.2, 2.0%) and 0.9% NaCI (as a control solution) was in vitro investigated with the agar diffusion and direct contact methods. The inhibition zone diameters observed with the agar diffusion test were determined. The viable bacterial counts (CFU/ml) were calculated with the direct method. RESULTS: The agar diffusion test showed that all three root canal irrigation solutions had an efficacy against E. faecalis at all concentrations. The largest inhibition zone diameters against E. faecalis were observed with 5.0% NaOCI. At all three concentrations of PAA, NaOCI, and CHX, the inhibition zone diameter increased with increase in concentration. For P. micra, PAA had a similar inhibition zone diameter despite a concentration increase. In contrast, for NaOCI and CHX, the inhibition zone diameter increased with increasing concentration. 2.0% CHX produced the largest inhibition zone diameter against P. micra. For E. faecalis, only the comparison between 2.0% PAA and 5.0% NaOCI showed statistical significance (p = 0.004). For P. micra the efficacy comparison between the lowest, middle, and highest concentrations of each solution, a statistical significance (p < 0.05) was found for all three solutions. After direct contact with PAA, NaOCI and CHX, no viable bacteria could be determined for either P. micra or E. faecalis. CONCLUSIONS: PAA had a similar antibacterial efficacy as the one of NaOCl and CHX when in direct contact with E. faecalis and P. micra. In the agar diffusion test, PAA showed a similar antibacterial efficacy as the one of CHX and a lower one as the one of NaOCl for E. faecalis.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Ágar , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Cavidade Pulpar , Firmicutes , Humanos , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/uso terapêutico , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico
11.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 87, 2022 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microorganisms inhabiting the gut play a significant role in supporting fundamental physiological processes of the host, which contributes to their survival in varied environments. Several studies have shown that altitude affects the composition and diversity of intestinal microbial communities in terrestrial animals. However, little is known about the impact of altitude on the gut microbiota of aquatic animals. The current study examined the variations in the gut microbiota of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from four lakes along an altitudinal gradient in Ethiopia by using 16S rDNA Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. RESULTS: The results indicated that low-altitude samples typically displayed greater alpha diversity. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed significant differences across samples from different lakes. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum in the Lake Awassa and Lake Chamo samples whereas Fusobacteriota was the dominant phylum in samples from Lake Hashengie and Lake Tana. The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidota in the high-altitude sample (Lake Hashengie, altitude 2440 m) was much higher than the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidota in the low altitude population (Lake Chamo, altitude 1235 m). We found that the relative abundances of Actinobacteriota, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Firmicutes were negatively correlated with altitude, while Fusobacteriota showed a positive association with altitude. Despite variability in the abundance of the gut microbiota across the lakes, some shared bacterial communities were detected. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study showed the indirect influence of altitude on gut microbiota. Altitude has the potential to modulate the gut microbiota composition and diversity of Nile tilapia. Future work will be needed to elucidate the functional significance of gut microbiota variations based on the geographical environment. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Our study determined the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota in Nile tilapia collected from lakes across an altitude gradient. Our findings greatly extend the baseline knowledge of fish gut microbiota in Ethiopian lakes that plays an important role in this species sustainable aquaculture activities and conservation.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Cianobactérias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Firmicutes , Lagos
12.
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 46, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human gut microbiota is individually unique that hints the microbiota in fecal traces left in the crime scene could act as a potential biomarker for forensic personal identification. Next-generation DNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of fecal samples are revolutionizing our insights into gut microbial communities. While the formation of the gut microbiota is known to be multifactorial, it is unclear whether these characteristics can be applied to forensic applications. Therefore, the gut microbiota of healthy adults with different traits was investigated in this study. RESULTS: Based on the STAMP analysis of each study group, the difference in gut microbiota composition of male and female subjects was observed. The male group was characterized by taxa in the phylum Proteobacteria, while the female group was described by Synergistetes phylum. The gut bacterial community assembly mechanism was mainly affected by the deterministic process. In addition, gut microbiota composition showed meaningful discrimination in each of the BMI groups. At the phylum level, in male subjects, increased representative phyla were Patescibacteria (p < 0.05) in the underweight group and Bacteroidetes (p < 0.05) in the normal-weight group, while in the female group, the significantly different phyla were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. At the genus level, 44 unique genera were found to be significantly distinct across BMI study groups. By Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis, ninety-four point four percent (94.4%) of original BMI grouped subjects were correctly classified. The linear regression analysis model showed an accuracy of seventy-four percent (74%) in predicting body type. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, subjects with different individual characters have specific gut microbiota, and can be discriminated by bioinformatics methods, suggesting it is promising to apply gut microbiota to forensic personal identification.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Ann Hematol ; 101(6): 1283-1294, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332375

RESUMO

Intestinal microbiota is an important prognostic factor for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), but its role in predicting survival has not been determined. Here, stool samples at day 15 ± 1 posttransplant were obtained from 209 patients at two centers. Microbiota was examined using 16S rRNA sequencing. The microbiota diversity and abundance of specific bacteria (including Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae) were assigned a value of 0 or 1 depending on whether they were positive or negative associated with survival, respectively. An accumulated intestinal microbiota (AIM) score was generated, and patients were divided into low- and high-score groups. A low score was associated with a better 3-year cumulative overall survival (OS) as well as lower mortality than a high score (88.5 vs. 43.9% and 7.1 vs. 35.8%, respectively; both P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, a high score was found to be an independent risk factor for OS and transplant-related mortality (hazard ratio = 5.68 and 3.92, respectively; P < 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Furthermore, the AIM score could serve as a predictor for survival (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.836, P < 0.001). Therefore, the intestinal microbiota score at neutrophil recovery could predict survival following allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Microbiota , Firmicutes/genética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/microbiologia , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
14.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 369(1)2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35348686

RESUMO

Animal carcasses are hotspots of ecological activity. The study of the role of microbes in carcass decomposition has been exclusively focused on microbes with higher abundance. The comparative study of abundant and rare subcommunities associated with decomposition needs in-depth exploration. The current experiment has been conducted on the decomposition of a fish carcass in a microcosm. We conducted 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the microbial communities. The correlation of the physicochemical properties of tap and Yellow river water with the microbial communities was evaluated. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were found to be the dominant phyla in both abundant and rare subcommunities. Among bacteria, the Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Cyanobacteria were found only in the rare subcommunity. In both subcommunities, the abundance of Proteobacteria was found to increase over time, and that of Firmicutes to decrease. The rare subcommunity shows higher alpha diversity than the abundant one. The variation in the abundant subcommunity was influenced by time and water type, and that in the rare subcommunity was influenced by pH and water type. These results have implications for future research on the ecological role of rare and abundant subcommunities in the decomposition of carcasses in the aquatic ecosystem.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microbiota , Acidobacteria/genética , Animais , Cianobactérias/genética , Firmicutes/genética , Peixes , Microbiota/genética , Proteobactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água
15.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0262199, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255081

RESUMO

Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs has mainly an infectious basis and control strategies are centred on antibiotics added to the diet. Given concerns on the spread of multi-resistant bacteria, it is necessary to develop alternative prophylactic approaches to control PWD in piglets. The most promising alternative strategies are based on substances that act indirectly on the bacteria by stimulating the immune system or by improving gut health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the gut microbiota of feed supplemented with a mixture of essential oils (garlic and oregano) in weaning piglets, compared to traditional PWD management (in-feed antibiotics) and to a control group without any diet supplementation. The study involved 197 piglets from 18 litters in a single farm. The piglets were followed from birth to day 58 of age and were weaned at day 26. During the experimental period, the animals were monitored for weight and growth, average daily gain, morbidity and mortality. For the metataxonomics analysis, rectal samples were collected from 17 piglets from the three experimental groups at 4 different time-points (days 1, 12, 26 and 58). Results revealed that the gut microbiota in pre- and post-weaning piglets was dominated by the phyla Firmicutes (51%), Bacteroidetes (25%) and Proteobacteria (16%), which together make up for over 90% of the entire piglet core gut microbiota. The core microbiota comprised 10 taxa before weaning and 43 taxa after weaning, with 7 taxa overlapping between timepoints: two of them (Prevotella 9, p-value = 0.00095; Solobacterium p-value = 0.00821) were significantly more abundant after weaning. All alpha diversity indexes were significantly different between pre- and post-weaning, while only Shannon and Simpson diversity and equitability were significantly different between treatments. Based on the matrix of Bray-Curtis dissimilarities, samples showed clear clustering per timepoint (before and after weaning, p-value < 0.001) and between treatments by timepoint (p-value = 0.0086). The oil-diet group showed a consistently higher F:B ratio at all timepoints. These results show that the pig gut microbiota changes significantly with weaning, and suggest that the use of essential oils as feed supplementation to control PWD does not seem to alter sgnificantly the microbiota nor the growth parameters of piglets, however modifications of specific taxa may occur.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Óleos Voláteis , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Firmicutes , Suínos , Desmame
16.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265430, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290412

RESUMO

Increasing evidences indicate that gut microbiota composition is associated with multiple inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about how gut microbiota changes with age and correlations with gut inflammation at sexual maturity stage of healthy individuals. Elucidating the dynamic changes of gut microbiota in healthy individuals at the sexual maturity stage and correlations with gut inflammation can provide clues for early risk assessment of gut diseases at the sexual maturity stage. Here, the shift in gut bacteria and its relationship with gut inflammation at the sexual maturity stage were explored. Sprague-Dawley rats at the sexual maturity stage were used in this study. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to decipher gut bacteria shifts from the 7th week to the 9th week, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure gut inflammation and gut barrier permeability. We found an increase in bacterial richness with age and a decrease in bacterial diversity with age. The gut bacteria were primarily dominated by the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroides and the genus Prevotella. The relative abundance of Firmicutes increased with age, and the relative abundance of Bacteroides decreased with age. There was a positive correlation between body weight and the Firmicutes:Bacteroides ratio. More and more gut microbiota participated in the host gut inflammation and barrier permeability regulation with age. Ruminococcus was the only gut bacteria participated in gut inflammation and barrier permeability regulation both in the 7th week and the 15th week. These results provide a better understanding of the relationship between gut bacteria and gut inflammation in sexually mature rats and show that Ruminococcus may be a potential indicator for early risk assessment of gut inflammation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bacteroides/genética , Firmicutes/genética , Inflamação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ruminococcus/genética
17.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276824

RESUMO

Recent scientific evidence suggests that traits energy and fatigue are two unique unipolar moods with distinct mental and physical components. This exploratory study investigated the correlation between mental energy (ME), mental fatigue (MF), physical energy (PE), physical fatigue (PF), and the gut microbiome. The four moods were assessed by survey, and the gut microbiome and metabolome were determined from 16 S rRNA analysis and untargeted metabolomics analysis, respectively. Twenty subjects who were 31 ± 5 y, physically active, and not obese (26.4 ± 4.4 kg/m2) participated. Bacteroidetes (45%), the most prominent phyla, was only negatively correlated with PF. The second most predominant and butyrate-producing phyla, Firmicutes (43%), had members that correlated with each trait. However, the bacteria Anaerostipes was positively correlated with ME (0.048, p = 0.032) and negatively with MF (-0.532, p = 0.016) and PF (-0.448, p = 0.048), respectively. Diet influences the gut microbiota composition, and only one food group, processed meat, was correlated with the four moods-positively with MF (0.538, p = 0.014) and PF (0.513, p = 0.021) and negatively with ME (-0.790, p < 0.001) and PE (-0.478, p = 0.021). Only the Firmicutes genus Holdemania was correlated with processed meat (r = 0.488, p = 0.029). Distinct metabolic profiles were observed, yet these profiles were not significantly correlated with the traits. Study findings suggest that energy and fatigue are unique traits that could be defined by distinct bacterial communities not driven by diet. Larger studies are needed to confirm these exploratory findings.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bacteroidetes , Firmicutes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Obesidade/microbiologia
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 599-607, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195517

RESUMO

Vancomycin-resistant Clostridium innocuum was recently identified as an etiologic agent for antibiotic-associated diarrhea in humans. We conducted a case-control study involving 152 C. innocuum-infected patients during 2014-2019 in Taiwan, using 304 cases of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) matched by diagnosis year, age (+2 years), and sex as controls. The baseline characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. C. innocuum-infected patients experienced more extraintestinal clostridial infection and gastrointestinal tract-related complications than did patients with CDI. The 30-day mortality rate among C. innocuum-infected patients was 14.5%, and the overall rate was 23.0%. Chronic kidney disease, solid tumor, intensive care unit admission, and shock status were 4 independent risk factors for death. C. innocuum identified from clinical specimens should be recognized as a pathogen requiring treatment, and because of its intrinsic vancomycin resistance, precise identification is necessary to guide appropriate and timely antimicrobial therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Firmicutes , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Humanos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(5): 918-935, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy is a common primary glomerulonephritis caused by mesangial deposition of poly-IgA complexes. The disease follows a variable course of clinical progression, with a high risk of kidney failure. Although no specific therapy is available, enzymatic strategies to clear IgA deposits are being considered for the treatment of rapidly progressive IgA nephropathy. METHODS: We chose an IgA protease of commensal bacterium Clostridium ramosum, termed AK183, as the template for constructing a recombinant biologic. To extend the t 1/2 in blood, we fused AK183 to the Fc segment of human IgG1. Activities of this Fc-AK183 fusion protein toward the cleavage and subsequent clearance of IgA were tested in mouse models. RESULTS: First, we discovered an autocleavage activity of AK183 that separates the N-terminal protease from its C-terminal autotransporter ß domain. Therefore, we grafted Fc to the N terminus of AK183 and demonstrated its week-long enzymatic activity in mice. In addition, the proteolytic fragments of IgA generated in the reaction with Fc-AK183 were effectively removed from circulation via kidney filtration. The combined actions of Fc-AK183-mediated cleavage and subsequent renal clearance of IgA resulted in a lasting obliteration of blood IgA, as demonstrated in a human IgA-injection model and in a humanized α1KI transgenic model. Fc-AK183 was also able to remove chronic IgA and associated complement C3 deposits in the glomerulus. CONCLUSION: We constructed a chimeric fusion of IgA protease with Fc and demonstrated its long-lasting efficacy as a promising targeted therapy for IgA nephropathy in mouse models.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Firmicutes , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/terapia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G , Masculino , Camundongos , Receptores Fc , Serina Endopeptidases
20.
Am J Primatol ; 84(3): e23360, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166397

RESUMO

Gut microbiota influences nutrient metabolism and immunity of animal hosts. Better understanding of the composition and diversity of gut microbiota contributes to conservation and management of threatened animals both in situ and ex situ. In this study, we applied 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to evaluate the composition and diversity of the fecal bacterial community of four gibbon genera (Family Hylobatidae) at four Chinese zoos. The results showed that the dominant bacterial phyla were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria and dominant families were Prevotellaceae (Bacteroidetes), Spirochaetaceae (Spirochaetes) and Ruminococcaceae (Firmicutes) in the gut of all gibbons. Both captive site and host genus had significant effects on the relative abundance of dominant bacteria and structure of gut bacterial community. We found that captive site and host genus did not solely impact gut bacterial diversity, but the interaction between them did. This study provides basic knowledge for gut microbiota of all four gibbon genera and contributes to management and conservation of captive gibbons.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/genética , China , Firmicutes/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Hylobates , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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