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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130532, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274702

RESUMO

One major pepsinogen, PG-I, and two minor pepsinogens, PG-II and PG-III were purified from lizardfish stomach by ammonium sulfate precipitation and two chromatographic columns. The three purified PGs migrated as single bands in native-PAGE gels with molecular weights (MW) ranging from 36 to 38 kDa. Each PG was converted to pepsin (P) at pH 2.0, and the MW were determined as 32 kDa (for P-I), 31 kDa (for P-II) and 30 kDa (for P-III). The optimum pH and temperature of pepsins were 2.0-3.5, and 40-50 °C. All 3 pepsins were strongly inhibited by pepstatin A. Divalent cations slightly stimulated the pepsin activities, but ATP had no effect on the pepsins. Purified pepsins were effective in the hydrolysis of various proteins. Km and kcat of the three pepsins for hemoglobin hydrolysis were 107.64-276.61 µM and 18.30-32.68 s-1, respectively. The new pepsins have potential for use in protein food procession and modification.


Assuntos
Pepsina A , Pepsinogênios , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peixes/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Pepsinogênios/metabolismo , Estômago
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130600, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311237

RESUMO

The effect of dual-frequency sequential ultrasonic thawing (DUT) on the quality of quick-frozen small yellow croaker was studied by TMT-labeled quantitative proteomic method. A total number of 75 proteins were identified as differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) in fish meat treated by DUT, while 72 DAPs were in flow water thawing (FWT). The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that the DAPs in the significant enrichment pathway of DUT group were enzymes. Compared with FWT, DUT had a significant effect on the enzyme content. The correlation analyses indicated that 40 DAPs were related with the quality traits. The 11 highly correlated DAPs are expected to be used as potential protein markers for texture profile analyses, color, thawing loss, water-holding capacity, and pH of thawed small yellow croaker quality. These results provide a further understanding of the quality stability of quick-frozen small yellow croaker treated by the DUT.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Proteômica , Animais , Peixes , Genoma , Carne , Perciformes/genética
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130728, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380107

RESUMO

Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) obtained from industrial processing residues are sources of bioactive peptides. The enzymatic hydrolysis process is essential in obtaining specific bioactivities such as inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In this study the effect of different hydrolysis conditions on the properties of FPH to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. A chemometric evaluation, based on a central composite rotatable design and principal component analysis, was applied to select hydrolysis conditions with best yield, degree of hydrolysis and acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Experimental design results for AChE inhibition were between 10.51 and 40.45% (20, 30 and 50 mg.mL-1 of FPH), and three hydrolysis conditions were selected based on PCA evaluation. The amino acids profile, FTIR and AChE inhibition kinetics were evaluated. Results showed a mixed type of inhibition behavior and, the docking molecular analyzes suggest that the inhibition AChE occurred due to the basic amino acids, mainly by arginine.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Animais , Peixes , Hidrólise , Peptídeos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146691, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594059

RESUMO

Levels of total mercury were measured in tissue of six species of migratory fish (alewife, American shad, blueback herring, rainbow smelt, striped bass, and sea lamprey), and in roe of American shad for two consecutive years collected from the Penobscot River or its estuary. The resultant mercury levels were compared to reference doses as established in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System and wildlife values. Mercury concentrations ranged from 4 µg/kg ww in roe to 1040 µg/kg ww in sea lamprey. Sea lamprey contained the highest amounts of mercury for both seasons of sampling. Current health advisories are set at sufficient levels to protect fishers from harmful consumption of the fish for mercury alone, except for sea lamprey. Based upon published wildlife values for mink, otter, and eagle, consumption of rainbow smelt, striped bass, or sea lamprey poses a risk to mink; striped bass and sea lamprey to otter; and sea lamprey to eagle. For future consideration, the resultant data may serve as a reference point for both human health and wildlife risk assessments for the consumption of anadromous fish. U.S. EPA works with federally recognized Tribes across the nation greatly impacted by restrictions on sustenance fishing, to develop culturally sensitive risk assessments.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Peixes , Humanos , Maine , Mercúrio/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614125

RESUMO

We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Peixes , Animais
6.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 146: 75-79, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617513

RESUMO

Lambl's excrescences (LE) are fibrous strands typically occurring at coaptation lines of cardiac valves. Although they have been widely reported in human medicine, information on LE occurrence in veterinary medicine is still scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of LE in different freshwater fish and in swordfish. A total of 185 hearts were collected from different fish species, and samples of different cardiac areas (sinus venosus, atrial wall with sinoatrial valves, ventricular wall with atrioventricular valves and bulb with bulboventricular valves) were submitted to histopathological evaluation. LE were detected in 6 of 103 freshwater fish (5.8%) and 19 of 82 swordfish (23.2%). LE developed in atrioventricular, sinoatrial and bulboventricular valves. All affected valves also showed endocardiosis. Based on the results of the present work, teleost fish, specifically swordfish, could be proposed as a novel spontaneous model for the study of LE pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Animais , Peixes
7.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 660-665, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472227

RESUMO

Flatheads are valuable commercial fish species endemic to the Indo-West Pacific. Due to their economic value and unique biological traits, such as metamorphosis and camouflage, they serve as ideal marine organisms for studies on demersal adaptation and evolution. The brown-spotted flathead (Platycephalus sp.1) is the most widely distributed in the northwestern Pacific. Despite the lack of a valid scientific name, it has been long recognized and exploited in the marine fisheries of China, Japan, and Korea. In the current study, we applied Illumina, PacBio, and Hi-C sequencing to assemble a chromosome-scale genome for this species. The assembled genome was 660.63 Mb long with a scaffold N50 of 28.65 Mb and 100% of the contigs were anchored onto 24 chromosomes. We predicted 22 743 protein-coding genes, 94.8% of which were functionally annotated. Comparative genomic analyses suggested that Platycephalus sp.1 diverged from its common ancestor with Gasterosteus aculeatus ~88.4 million years ago. The expanded gene families were significantly enriched in immune, biosynthetic, and metabolic pathways. Furthermore, three shared Gene Ontology terms and 377 common positively selected genes were identified between flathead and flatfish species, suggesting that these genes may contribute to demersal adaptation in flatheads. The assembled genomic data provide a valuable molecular resource for further research on the biological and adaptive evolution of flathead species.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Peixes/genética , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Animais , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia
8.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131131, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470169

RESUMO

This is an integrated assessment of the distribution of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in dissolved water, sediments and muscle fish tissues (Cynoscion guatucupa, Micropogonias furnieri, Mustelus schmitti and Ramnogaster arcuata) from the Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina. Within the water fraction (µg L-1), Hg and Pb concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection (

Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Nanoscale ; 13(36): 15220-15230, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553723

RESUMO

Bacterial sepsis is a lethal disease triggered by microbial pathogens. The blood pathogen load is a major contributor to both disease severity and mortality in patients with sepsis blood. Therefore, it is crucial to reduce the load of pathogens, in particular the drug-resistant pathogens. In this work, inspired by the crossflow filtration mechanism in suspension-feeding fish, we developed a biomimetic microcavity interface to mimic a porous gill-raker surface as a blood-cleansing dialyzer for sepsis therapy, which can rapidly, safely and efficiently clear bacteria from the fluidic blood. The microcavity interface consists of microcavity arrays, the innerface of which contains nanowire forests. By precisely controlling the pore size of the microcavity and directing the axial travel of the fluid, the bacteria can be isolated from the whole blood without disturbing any blood components or blocking the blood cell transportation. In addition, the three-dimensional nanowire forests assist in the formation of vortices with reduced blood flow velocity and increased resistance to bacterial deposition in situ. Functional modification is not required to recognize the bacteria specifically in our designed dialyzer. Moreover, the microcavity interface clears over 95% bacteria from a fluid blood sample without inducing protein adsorption or complement and platelet activation when contacting the fluid blood. The study supports this biomimetic microcavity interface to be a promising extracorporeal blood-cleansing device in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Filtração , Peixes , Brânquias , Humanos
10.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(3): 460-469, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542666

RESUMO

The researches on MPs in commercial marine fish are very limited although in marine environments microplastic (MPs) pollution is a global problem. In this study, the presence, composition, and characterization of MPs in different tissues (brain, gill, muscle, and gastrointestinal tract) of commercial fish species [red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and pontic shad (Alosa immaculata Bennett 1835)] from the Black Sea were investigated. M. barbatus (demersal) and A. immaculata (pelagic) fish were preferred in the selection of fish species in order to represent demersal and pelagic environments. After dissected the fish, MPs were obtained from the tissues by extraction using the flotation method; then the MPs were counted and categorized according to shape, size, and color. The composition of the MPs was determined via ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. In terms of microplastic abundance in fish tissues, the gastrointestinal tract (40.0%) ranked first in both fish species, while the lowest MPs density was determined in brain tissues (7.0%). After the gastrointestinal tissue, gills were identified as the second tissue with the highest MPs density. Regardless of fish species, MPs characterization was mainly fibrous (51.0%), black colored (49.0%), and 50-200 µm in size (55.0%). Among the nine different polymers determined, polychloroprene (18.8%) and polyamide (15.0%) were found most frequently. This research provides data for tissue-based assessment of MPs in fish. The obtained data showed that MPs (one of the anthropogenic pollutants) are quite high in all tissues regardless of fish species. Moreover, it has emerged that these two fish species are suitable for monitoring microplastics in the study area.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Encéfalo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Trato Gastrointestinal , Brânquias/química , Músculos/química , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 50(10): 280, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561689

Assuntos
Peixes , Luz , Animais
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5432, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521825

RESUMO

The relative importance of evolutionary history and ecology for traits that drive ecosystem processes is poorly understood. Consumers are essential drivers of nutrient cycling on coral reefs, and thus ecosystem productivity. We use nine consumer "chemical traits" associated with nutrient cycling, collected from 1,572 individual coral reef fishes (178 species spanning 41 families) in two biogeographic regions, the Caribbean and Polynesia, to quantify the relative importance of phylogenetic history and ecological context as drivers of chemical trait variation on coral reefs. We find: (1) phylogenetic relatedness is the best predictor of all chemical traits, substantially outweighing the importance of ecological factors thought to be key drivers of these traits, (2) phylogenetic conservatism in chemical traits is greater in the Caribbean than Polynesia, where our data suggests that ecological forces have a greater influence on chemical trait variation, and (3) differences in chemical traits between regions can be explained by differences in nutrient limitation associated with the geologic context of our study locations. Our study provides multiple lines of evidence that phylogeny is a critical determinant of contemporary nutrient dynamics on coral reefs. More broadly our findings highlight the utility of evolutionary history to improve prediction in ecosystem ecology.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Filogenia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ciclo do Carbono/fisiologia , Região do Caribe , Recifes de Corais , Peixes/classificação , Humanos , Ciclo do Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Nutrientes/química , Filogeografia , Polinésia
13.
Mar Environ Res ; 171: 105478, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562790

RESUMO

Situated in the sub-Antarctic region, Beagle Channel represents a unique marine ecosystem due to the connection between the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans, and its proximity to the Antarctic Peninsula. Ushuaia city, the biggest settlement on the channel, exerts an increasing anthropogenic pressure by discharges of urban and industrial effluents. In the present work, we use Patagonotothen tessellata, one of the most abundant and widespread species in the channel, as a bioindicator species in order to evidence anthropic impact from Ushuaia Bay and surrounding areas. We first analyzed and characterized real time gene expression of androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and different forms of vitellogenin (VTG), under laboratory conditions. This was achieved by induction with estradiol of P. tessellata males. Then, the selected genes were used as biomarkers for an environmental biomonitoring study. Morphometric indices and circulating sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) were also quantified in male fish collected from different sites. The qPCR analysis showed that vtgAb form is more inducible than vtgAa or vtgC forms after estrogen induction. The field survey revealed the up-regulation of vtgAb and the androgen receptor in fish from sites with higher anthropogenic influence. Sex steroids followed seasonal variations according to their reproductive cycle, with higher levels of estradiol and testosterone in winter and summer seasons. The use of biomarkers such as gene expression of VTG demonstrates that fish from Ushuaia Bay are likely to be exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds. To our knowledge, this research is the first attempt to assess the endocrine disruption associated to anthropic impact in a widespread fish of the Beagle Channel and contributes to a better understanding of the reproductive physiology of sub Antarctic ichthyofauna.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Cães , Ecossistema , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Peixes , Masculino , Vitelogeninas/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Mar Environ Res ; 171: 105458, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478971

RESUMO

Coastal habitat mosaics are among the most productive ecosystems around the globe, with many ecological and social-economic services provided. Their natural challenging conditions have always been a subject of concern for ecologist and conservationist, with a particular interest in understanding how its spatial and temporal dynamics influence ecosystem functioning. In this context, we aimed to assess tropical coastal dynamics using an integrative approach, measuring the different facets of fish diversity across space (habitats) and time (seasons). Three different estuarine systems and their adjacent areas in the southwestern Atlantic were monthly sampled between July 2017 and June 2018, in a sampling design that encompassed three different coastal mosaics with three habitat types (mangroves, seagrass and sandy beaches), and both seasons of the studied region (dry and rainy). Taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity were then evaluated with equivalent diversity measures to allow comparisons between them. Different patterns of species occurrence and distribution were found between habitats and seasons, which resulted in different effects on the abundance-weighted diversity dimensions. Although taxonomic diversity of habitats was greater during the rainy season (p = 0.03), a seasonal increase in phylogenetic diversity was only observed in the sandy beach habitat (p = 0.04). In contrast for the functional diversity, no significant differences were found among habitats in both seasons (p = 0.15), indicating high levels of redundancy. Our results showed that patterns in the occurrence and abundance of tropical fish species among habitats that comprise a coastal mosaic have different effects on distinct diversity dimensions. More precisely, for tropical coastal systems with marked seasonality, both habitats and season appear to play a synergic role in the maintenance of ecosystem functioning by enhancing functional and phylogenetic redundancy.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Filogenia , Chuva , Estações do Ano
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 680, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591192

RESUMO

Fisheries monitoring can be improved by studying the influence of gear selectivity, sampling design, and habitat conditions. We used boat-electrofishing data to investigate how sample unit placement (shoreline and channel transects) and sampling conditions (low and high flow years) affect detection of fishes in a highly regulated Ontario (Canada) river system. Species detection histories associated with a spatially replicated sampling design was fit to a Bayesian hierarchical site occupancy model for 14 fishes. Habitat (transect location) had a significant effect on detection probabilities (p) for all species, with shoreline sampling more likely to detect species than channel. Sampling year had a significant effect on detectability of six species. The relative influence of habitat and sampling year varied among species. Detection probabilities based on combined shoreline and channel transect data across both years ranged from 0.09 to 0.48 and were positively correlated to species abundance. High detection probabilities and precise occupancy estimates were associated with sunfish and bass abundant in shoreline habitats. Small-bodied species closely associated with the riverbed or exhibiting schooling behavior tended to be poorly detected. Power to detect future changes in species distribution is expected to differ based on habitat sampled, with greater power associated with shoreline boat-electrofishing. Detecting small to moderate changes is not likely for most species. The addition of channel transects did not improve the effectiveness of shoreline sampling. Improvements to the current design could be realized by reallocating sampling effort from channel to shoreline and testing different gear in deep (> 3 m) habitats.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Navios , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Peixes , Ontário
16.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113620, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481374

RESUMO

In the present study, the occurrence and characterization of microplastics (MPs) content in the fishes of the river was studied. Therefore, six sampling stations were considered for fishing. Then, the entire stomach of fishes was investigated by visual stereomicroscope, FTIR, SEM, and EDX to analyze the content of the samples, by MPs type, shape, color, and size. The most frequency of MPs was observed in Ghazanchi (Siii) and Kermanshah (Siv) stations which were close to urban and industrial areas. Most types of detected MPs included polystyrene, polyethylene, and nylon with the highest frequency observed in Luciobarbus caspius and Alburnus chalcoides fishes. Overall, the frequency of detected MPs in the caught fishes was 93.8%. Indeed, MPs with a size of 0.025-1 mm (25-1000 µm) were the most frequency of MPs in fishes. The frequency of MPs shapes was fiber (85.12%), fragment (12.32%), foam (0.77%), film (1.21%), and microbead (0.56%), respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of MPs belonged to black and green with an abundance of 63% and 2%, respectively. The result implies that lots of riverine fishes are polluted with MPs, those which can move into the food chain.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Sistema Digestório/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Plásticos , Polietileno , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113667, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482108

RESUMO

Rain and floods events are responsible for the transport of microplastics in freshwater ecosystems, yet to date, rare study has examined microplastics pollution in urban water supply reservoirs during such events. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and characteristics of microplastic in water and economic fish species with different feeding guilds in the Dafangying Reservoir, an important source of drinking water for Hefei city. Microplastic concentrations in water were relatively higher than that in natural lakes, indicating abundant microplastic contaminants input through overland runoff triggered by flooding. Our results detected five types (fiber, debris, film, microbead and particle) and six colors (black, transparent, blue, yellow, red and green) of microplastics in water samples. Fiber accounted for the dominant shape, which may result from the household sewage from washing clothes and desquamated fiber transported by wind and overland runoff. Meanwhile, transparent was the predominant microplastic color, which can be ascribe to the widely use of intentionally manufactured transparent disposable plastic commodities in cities. Then in fish samples, the microplastic concentrations ranged from 8.75 to 51.3 items/individual in fish guts, and 9.5-52.6 items/individual in fish gills. Our results demonstrated significant higher microplastic concentrations in planktivorous and herbivorous species. The filter feeding capture mode, i.e., engulfing floating prey through frequently drawing in large volume of water confused with microplastics, may result in the higher microplastic concentrations of planktivorous fishes. Due to the dense microplastics adhering on plant surface, herbivorous fishes can concentrate higher microplastics abundance through the ingestion of macrophytes. According to the biological concentration factor (BCF), all the determined microplastics gave BCF far below 1, suggesting the low bioaccumulation capacity of microplastics in fish species.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Inundações , Plásticos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
18.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113663, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482112

RESUMO

Although it is widely accepted that the construction of dams may alter fish habitats, few studies have followed the life cycles of fish and combined the environmental conditions with the ecological behaviors and habit preferences of fish during reproductive processes to assess its effects of dam construction. In this study, we call for more sophisticated and holistic assessment framework, including effectiveness of technologies intended to mitigate environmental impacts in different life stages. An assessment framework that considers the swimming ability, perception ability of water flow and environmental preference of different fish species during migration, spawning and hatching was proposed. We used the Baihetan Reservoir as an example environment to assess the impoundment effect on the habitat of a tributary upstream of the reservoir. We observed shifts in the habitats of target fish in different life stages which is dominated by reservoir operation of the Baihetan Dam. Combined with the response of fish activities to impoundment, the selection of suitable positions for artificial breeding and release projects and the outlet of the fish transportation system were recommended measures to improve the migration possibilities. Our reassessment results also demonstrated the theoretical possibility and feasibility of joint improvements in spawning and hatching periods using instream structures. Our framework provides a complete set of "assessment-solution" processes for developers and managers to address the aquatic ecological degradation caused by resource development, and its use is strongly recommended for assessments or assessments of damming effects in other regions and on other fish species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Peixes
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5335, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521829

RESUMO

Mass extinctions have repeatedly shaped global biodiversity. The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction caused the demise of numerous vertebrate groups, and its aftermath saw the rapid diversification of surviving mammals, birds, frogs, and teleost fishes. However, the effects of the K-Pg extinction on the evolution of snakes-a major clade of predators comprising over 3,700 living species-remains poorly understood. Here, we combine an extensive molecular dataset with phylogenetically and stratigraphically constrained fossil calibrations to infer an evolutionary timescale for Serpentes. We reveal a potential diversification among crown snakes associated with the K-Pg mass extinction, led by the successful colonisation of Asia by the major extant clade Afrophidia. Vertebral morphometrics suggest increasing morphological specialisation among marine snakes through the Paleogene. The dispersal patterns of snakes following the K-Pg underscore the importance of this mass extinction event in shaping Earth's extant vertebrate faunas.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Extinção Biológica , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Serpentes/classificação , Anfíbios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Aves , DNA Antigo/análise , Peixes , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Mamíferos , Filogeografia , Serpentes/anatomia & histologia , Serpentes/genética
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20200981, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586177

RESUMO

Worldwide, land use changes and urbanization affect habitat and biota in streams, drastically disrupting environmental conditions and biotic interactions. We evaluated the trophic ecology of the tolerant fish Corydoras paleatus in a prairie stream with contrasting environmental conditions intimately aligned with different nearby land uses. Gut analyses was conducted at three stream reaches with contrasting ecological attributes regarding water quality, habitat structure and riparian condition. A total of 231 guts were analyzed and 15 prey items identified. A significant variation in composition and structure of the dietary assemblage, niche breadth and feeding patterns of C. paleatus under different environmental conditions was observed. Psychodidae prevailed in most deteriorated environmental conditions and Chironomidae, followed by nematodes, in stream reaches where environmental conditions improved. Maximum niche breadth and a larger proportion of generalist individuals were found at the most deteriorated site. Conversely, the proportions of specialized individuals were slightly higher at sites with better ecological conditions. Psychodidae and mineral fragments were positively correlated with the most detrimental conditions, while filamentous algae prevailed where these conditions improved. Overall, good evidence suggesting that trophic ecology of a tolerant species is affected by local environmental conditions in water quality, habitat structure and riparian corridor was observed.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Invertebrados , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Humanos , Plantas
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