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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114540, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509604

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers (Menispermaceae) is a Mediterranean herb, used in Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani, and folk medicines. The herb is also used in conventional medicine to treat oxidative stress-related diseases and conditions, including inflammation, pain, diarrhea, asthma, respiratory infections, cancer, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The taxonomy, botanical classification, geographical distribution, and ethnobotanical uses of T. cordifolia, as well as the phytochemical compounds found in the herb, the toxicology of and pharmacological and clinical studies on the effects of T. cordifolia are all covered in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To gather information on T. cordifolia, we used a variety of scientific databases, including Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. The information discussed focuses on biologically active compounds found in T. cordifolia, and common applications and pharmacological activity of the herb, as well as toxicological and clinical studies on its properties. RESULTS: The findings of this study reveal a connection between the use of T. cordifolia in conventional medicine and its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, and other biological effects. The entire plant, stem, leaves, root, and extracts of T. cordifolia have been shown to have a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective impact. Toxicological testing demonstrated that this plant may have medicinal applications. T. cordifolia contains a variety of biologically active compounds from various chemical classes, including alkaloids, terpenoids, sitosterols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Based on the reports researched for this review, we believe that chemicals in T. cordifolia may activate Nrf2, which leads to the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, GPx, GST, and GR, and thereby induces the adaptive response to oxidative stress. T. cordifolia is also able to reduce NF-κB signalling by inhibiting PI3K/Akt, activating AMPK and sirtuins, and downregulating PI3K/Akt. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the pharmacological properties displayed by T. cordifolia back up its conventional uses. Antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antidiabetic, nephroprotective, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective activities were all demonstrated in T. cordifolia stem extracts. To validate pharmacodynamic targets, further research is needed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the known compounds against gastrointestinal diseases, inflammatory processes, and microbial infections, as immunostimulants, and in chemotherapy. The T. cordifolia safety profile was confirmed in a toxicological analysis, which prompted pharmacokinetic assessment testing to confirm its bioavailability.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais , SARS-CoV-2 , Tinospora/química , Humanos , Fitoterapia
2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114422, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688201

RESUMO

Morinda officinalis, a well-known traditional herbal medicine in China, is used to treat deficiency of kidney-yang syndrome. Although this medicine has the property of "reinforcing kidney to strengthening Yang," the chemical constituents responsible for this effect remain to be elucidated. Here, we aimed to identify the main active compounds responsible for reinforcing kidney to strengthening Yang, based on spectrum-effect relationships combined with chemometrics. We used the UPLC-diode array detection method to establish the chromatography fingerprint of M. officinalis. Hydrocortisone-induced and adenine-induced kidney-yang deficiency patterns were established to evaluate the efficacy of M. officinalis. Serum triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, thyrotropin, testosterone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were determined as pharmacodynamic indices. Analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the weight of each index to the total pharmacodynamic contribution. Lastly, the spectrum-effect between the fingerprint and the pharmacological effects were established using grey relational analysis and partial least squares. Our findings indicated that peaks 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 20 might represent the main components that positively correlated to the total effect, of which four were identified by comparison with reference standards. The identified components were monotropein (peak 1), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (peak 3), asperulosidic acid (peak 8), and asperuloside (peak 9). Our results suggest that the "reinforce kidney to strengthening Yang" effects were attributable to the combined effects of the multiple chemical components of M. officinalis and provide a valuable method to identify the active "reinforce kidney to strengthening Yang" components of M. officinalis and establish the quality control of M. officinalis.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Morinda , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Rim , Fitoterapia , Deficiência da Energia Yang/tratamento farmacológico
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114701, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606948

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD), one of the "three medicines and three prescriptions" for the clinically effective treatment of COVID-19 in China, plays an important role in the treatment of mild and/or common patients with dampness-toxin obstructing lung syndrome. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present work aims to elucidate the protective effects and the possible mechanism of XFBD against the acute inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: We use TGF-ß1 induced fibroblast activation model and LPS/IL-4 induced macrophage inflammation model as in vitro cell models. The mice model of lung fibrosis was induced by BLM via endotracheal drip, and then XFBD (4.6 g/kg, 9.2 g/kg) were administered orally respectively. The efficacy and molecular mechanisms in the presence or absence of XFBD were investigated. RESULTS: The results proved that XFBD can effectively inhibit fibroblast collagen deposition, down-regulate the level of α-SMA and inhibit the migration of fibroblasts. IL-4 induced macrophage polarization was also inhibited and the secretions of the inflammatory factors including IL6, iNOS were down-regulated. In vivo experiments, the results proved that XFBD improved the weight loss and survival rate of the mice. The XFBD high-dose administration group had a significant effect in inhibiting collagen deposition and the expression of α-SMA in the lungs of mice. XFBD can reduce bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 activation and related macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: Xuanfei Baidu Decoction protects against macrophages induced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células NIH 3T3 , Fitoterapia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114738, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653521

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal importance and potential activity of Siddha herbal formulations have proved over several centuries against a wide range of causative agents as Influenza, Dengue, Chikungunya, and Tuberculosis. The traditional medicine system of Siddha is a valuable therapeutic approach for treating viral respiratory infections like Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can be effectively employed to target the host response and preventive care to boost the immune system. Kaba Sura Kudineer (KSK), an official polyherbal formulation has been used in Siddha traditional medicine for centuries. However, the role of KSK in regulating inflammation and the underlying molecular mechanisms has remained elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of KSK using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Raw 264.7 murine macrophage cells were used for this study. The Inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The NF-κB nulcear translocation and protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 was analyzed with westernblot. RESULTS: KSK supplementation decreased LPS mediated TLR-4 production and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE-2. Moreover, it inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and thereby inhibited the expression of iNOS in the cell. The Western blot analysis further confirmed that KSK strongly prevented the LPS-induced degradation of IκB which is normally required for the activation of NF-κB and hereby suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 was significantly decreased with the presence of KSK treatment. Results suggested that KSK manipulates its anti-inflammatory effects mainly through blocking the TLR mediated NF-κB signal transduction pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Together, this study has proven that KSK could be a potential therapeutic drug for alleviating excessive inflammation in many inflammation-associated diseases like COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Ayurvédica , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Camundongos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213736, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253012

RESUMO

Although Spondias mombin L. extract has an excellent antimicrobial effect against oral microorganisms, it should be clarified how it affects enamel surface properties. Aim: To evaluate the color change, wettability/contact angle, surface roughness and morphology of bovine enamel submitted to the Spondias mombin L. extract. Methods: Thirty bovine teeth were distributed into the following groups: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 1:32 Spondias mombin L. extract and distilled water. Color change (CC) was evaluated after immerging specimens into the solutions for 14 days. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured using a roughness meter; wettability/contact angles (CA) were determined by the sessile drop method, and scanning electron microscopy images were obtained to characterize the morphology (SMA). The pH of the solutions was evaluated using a pHmeter. The Ra, CA, and CC data were parametric (Kolmogorov-Smirnov; p>0.05). Two-way ANOVA (for Ra and CA) and one-way ANOVA (for CC) with Tukey's posthoc tests at a significance level of 5% were used. SMA was analyzed descriptively. Results: The Spondias mombin L. extract revealed an acidic pH, and when in contact with the bovine teeth, it increased the wettability, but it did not cause statistically significant differences in the Ra. Spondias mombin L. extract caused the highest color change. The SEM images showed differences in the specimens' surface submitted to the extract compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Spondias mombin L. extract provided negative effects on bovine enamel's surface, including a high color change and a more wettable substrate


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Propriedades de Superfície , Anacardiaceae , Esmalte Dentário , Fitoterapia , Antissépticos Bucais
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 18, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733386

RESUMO

Introduction: the use of medicinal plants has increased significantly in recent years. According to the World Health Organization, 80% of the world's population uses medicinal plants to treat themselves. Our study aims to estimate the prevalence of medicinal plant use by cancer patients, list the different plants and identify their adverse effects cited by users and their reported efficacy. Methods: this study was realised among 100 patients via a questionnaire with 14-items. Socio-economic and clinical characteristics have been analysed. The bivariate and multivariate analyses have been used to demonstrate the association between the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, the duration of the disease and the use of medicinal plants. Results: 45% of participants used medicinal plants. The most commonly reported reason for using medicinal plants was cancer cure (22%). During this study, 32 plants were identified. The Honey was the most commonly used (25%), thyme was also consumed at 15%, fenugreek at 13% and garlic at 7%. According to the multivariate analysis, the residence is predictor of medicinal plant use, urban residents used medicinal plants more than rural patients with an OR: 3,098, IC, 95%: [1,183-8,113] and P = 0,021. Fifty patients reported the moderate efficacy of the use of medicinal plants, and 20% described some side effects such as abdominal pain in 34%. Conclusion: in order to avoid any interaction with oncological drugs and to improve their effectiveness, a great importance must be given to information, education and awareness sessions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Plantas Medicinais/química , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Phytother Res ; 35(11): 6148-6169, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816512

RESUMO

Uncontrolled inflammatory responses or cytokine storm associated with viral infections results in deleterious consequences such as vascular leakage, severe hemorrhage, shock, immune paralysis, multi-organ failure, and even death. With the emerging new viral infections and lack of effective prophylactic vaccines, evidence-based complementary strategies that limit viral infection-mediated hyperinflammatory responses could be a promising approach to limit host tissue injury. The present review emphasizes the potentials of antiinflammatory phytochemicals in limiting hyperinflammatory injury caused by viral infections. The predominant phytochemicals along with their mechanism in limiting hyperimmune and pro-inflammatory responses under viral infection have been reviewed comprehensively. How certain phytochemicals can be effective in limiting hyper-inflammatory response indirectly by favorably modulating gut microbiota and maintaining a functional intestinal barrier has also been presented. Finally, we have discussed improved systemic bioavailability of phytochemicals, efficient delivery strategies, and safety measures for effective antiinflammatory phytotherapies, in addition to emphasizing the requirement of tightly controlled clinical studies to establish the antiinflammatory efficacy of the phytochemicals. Collectively, the review provides a scooping overview on the potentials of bioactive phytochemicals to mitigate pro-inflammatory injury associated with viral infections.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos , Viroses , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Intestinos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/prevenção & controle
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22169, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772968

RESUMO

Folk medicine such as herbal and natural products have been used for centuries in every culture throughout the world. The Chenopodiaceae family with more than 1500 species is dispersed worldwide. The Iranian wild spinach (Blitum virgatum L.) is an important traditional medicinal plant used for antiviral diseases such as pneumonia and other respiratory track infections. This plant is a mountainous herb and is growing upper than 3000 m. We performed a mass selection plant breeding program on wild populations of this Iranian wild spinach during 2013-2020. Based on experimental and field characteristics this plant was identified as B. virgatum, |abbaricum|, and related characteristics were prepared with reference to the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). Mass selection program resulted from an adapted population named as medicinal spinach (MSP) population. To compare the mineral content of the mass-selected population with cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. |Varamin 88|), both plants were planted in pots and fields under similar conditions. In five leaves stage, plant samples were taken from both leaf and crown sections and used for experimental analysis. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the mineral content including iron (Fe), zinc (Z), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu). Our results showed the selected medicinal spinach population (MSP) with about 509 ppm iron was an important iron-rich population with about 3.5-4 times more than the amount of iron in cultivated spinach in the same conditions. Because iron is an important essential element for blood production, respiration process, energy metabolisms, synthesis of collagen, and some neurotransmitters are needed for proper immune function, so the supply of absorbable adequate iron is very important. The reasons such as the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic, which affects the amount of exchangeable oxygen in the lungs and historical local evidences of the use of this plant (MSP) for pneumonia, could open new horizons for focusing on studies related to the use of ancestral human experiences in addition to scientifically modern research.


Assuntos
Ferro/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spinacia oleracea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , COVID-19/terapia , Cobre/análise , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Manganês/análise , Minerais/análise , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Zinco/análise
9.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 59, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are handful hypothesis-driven ethnobotanical studies in Nepal. In this study, we tested the non-random medicinal plant selection hypothesis using national- and community-level datasets through three different types of regression: linear model with raw data, linear model with log-transformed data and negative binomial model. METHODS: For each of these model, we identified over-utilized families as those with highest positive Studentized residuals and underutilized families with highest negative Studentized residuals. The national-level data were collected from online databases and available literature while the community-level data were collected from Baitadi and Darchula districts. RESULTS: Both dataset showed larger variance (national dataset mean 6.51 < variance 156.31, community dataset mean 1.16 < variance 2.38). All three types of regression were important to determine the medicinal plant species selection and use differences among the total plant families, although negative binomial regression was most useful. The negative binomial showed a positive nonlinear relationship between total plant family size and number of medicinal species per family for the national dataset (ß1 = 0.0160 ± 0.0009, Z1 = 16.59, p < 0.00001, AIC1 = 1181), and with similar slope and stronger performance for the community dataset (ß2 = 0.1747 ± 0.0199, Z2 = 8.76, p < 0.00001, AIC2 = 270.78). Moraceae and Euphorbiaceae were found over-utilized while Rosaceae, Cyperaceae and Caryophyllaceae were recorded as underutilized. CONCLUSIONS: As our datasets showed larger variance, negative binomial regression was found the most useful for testing non-random medicinal plant selection hypothesis. The predictions made by non-random selection of medicinal plants hypothesis holds true for community-level studies. The identification of over-utilized families is the first step toward sustainable conservation of plant resources and it provides a baseline for pharmacological research that might be leading to drug discovery.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Nepal , Fitoterapia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638944

RESUMO

Natural polysaccharides have shown promising effects on the regulation of immunity in animals. In this study, we examined the immune stimulatory effect of intranasally administered Codium fragile polysaccharides (CFPs) in mice. Intranasal administration of CFPs in C57BL/6 mice induced the upregulation of surface activation marker expression in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in the mediastinal lymph node (mLN) and the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12p70, and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, the number of conventional DCs (cDCs) was increased in the mLNs by the upregulation of C-C motif chemokine receptor 7 expression, and subsets of cDCs were also activated following the intranasal administration of CFP. In addition, the intranasal administration of CFPs promoted the activation of natural killer (NK) and T cells in the mLNs, which produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic mediators. Finally, daily administration of CFPs inhibited the infiltration of Lewis lung carcinoma cells into the lungs, and the preventive effect of CFPs on tumor growth required NK and CD8 T cells. Furthermore, CFPs combined with anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody (Ab) improved the therapeutic effect of anti-PD-L1 Ab against lung cancer. Therefore, these data demonstrated that the intranasal administration of CFP induced mucosal immunity against lung cancer.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/terapia , Clorófitas/química , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal/métodos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638983

RESUMO

Bone remodeling is a continuous process of bone synthesis and destruction that is regulated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Here, we investigated the anti-osteoporotic effects of morroniside in mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and mouse primary cultured osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced mouse osteoporosis in vivo. Morroniside treatment enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and positively stained cells via upregulation of osteoblastogenesis-associated genes in MC3T3-E1 cell lines and primary cultured osteoblasts. However, morroniside inhibited tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and TRAP-stained multinucleated positive cells via downregulation of osteoclast-mediated genes in primary cultured monocytes. In the osteoporotic animal model, ovariectomized (OVX) mice were administered morroniside (2 or 10 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Morroniside prevented OVX-induced bone mineral density (BMD) loss and reduced bone structural compartment loss in the micro-CT images. Taken together, morroniside promoted increased osteoblast differentiation and decreased osteoclast differentiation in cells, and consequently inhibited OVX-induced osteoporotic pathogenesis in mice. This study suggests that morroniside may be a potent therapeutic single compound for the prevention of osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cornus/química , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wetlands are biologically diverse and highly productive ecosystems that support one-third of all threatened and endangered plants of the world. Wetland plants have been studied ethnobotanically much less than terrestrial plants, including in Pakistan, thus information about the uses of local wetland plants in traditional healthcare system is scare. Head Maralla is a non-recognized wetland with diversified flora that has been focused of the current study. METHODS: The ethnobotanical data were collected from four sites viz., River Tavi, Upstream Chenab, River Manawarwala Tavi, and Bhalolpur through questionnaire and interviews during field trips. Quantitative indices including informant consensus factor (ICF), cultural significant indext (CSI), relative frequency of citation (RFC), and use value (UV) were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: On the whole, 119 plant species were identified belonging to 54 families, of which 87 species were dicot, 12 monocots, 11 aquatic, 5 ferns, and 4 species were bryophytes. Of these, 50% of the plant species were utilized for therapeutic purposes, followed by leaves which had more than 20% usage of total consumption. Herbs were the primary source of medicine (73 spp) followed by trees (22 spp), weeds (11 spp), shrubs (9 spp), foliose (2 spp) and thaloids (2 spp) in the area. Fic ranged from 0.66 to 0.93 for constipation and respiratory disorders with an average Fic of 0.87 reflecting a high consensus among the informants about the use of plants to treat particular ailment. Major ailments viz., urination (14%), cough (8.40%), cold (6.70%), stomach (5.90%), asthma (5.90%), skin infection (5%), constipation (5%), and diarrhea (4%) etc., were treated with local plant recipes. The highest CSI value was found for A. vesica (7.55) widely used in respiratory disorders and in digestive problems. RFC ranged from 0.92 to 0.15 with the maximum value obtained for R. communis (0.95). The use values ranged from 0.03 to 0.90 with the maximum use value for R. communis (0.90). A positive correlation was found between CSI and RFC (r = 0.29), and CSI and UV (r = 0.29). The JI values ranged from 7.14 to 0.14 indicating strong affinity with Samahani valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Unique species Osmunda regalis was first time reported from Pakistan with novel uses for renal and blood purifier. Fifteen percent (15%) plants contribute as fodder species consumed by local community for livestock while almost 6.7% species were utilized for timber and fuel purposes. CONCLUSION: The ecosystem of Head Maralla provide a complex habitat for aqauatic, terrestrial, and agriculture wetland vegetation. It is suggested that conservation efforts should be made to conserve the ethnoecological knowledge of these areas and pharmacological studies should be conducted for noval drug synthesis in future.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas , Áreas Alagadas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biodiversidade , Cultura , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , Saúde Pública , Publicações
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684501

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Spirulina platensis (SP), golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) flesh (KF), and golden kiwifruit peel (KP) individually or in combination (SFP) on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Negative control rats (GI) were orally administered distilled water in parallel with other treatments. The positive control rat group (GII) was administered 30 mg kg-1 indomethacin to induce gastric ulcers. The KF and KF extracts were used individually or together with SP in treating indomethacin-induced gastric ulcerated rat groups. Gastric ulcerated rat's groups GIII, GIV, GV, GVI, and GVII were orally administered at 30 mg kg-1 rat body weight as total phenolic content (TPC) equivalent from SP, KF, KP, SPF extracts, and Lansoprazole (30 mg kg-1, as reference drug) daily up to 14 days, respectively. The relevant biochemical parameters, antioxidant biomarkers, and histopathological examination were examined. Remarkably, treating rats with SP, KF, KP, and SFP extracts markedly reduced gastric juice and stomach volume expansion induced by indomethacin. The SP significantly retrieved the pH of gastric juice to a regular rate compared to GI. The ulcer index (UI) was significantly attenuated by SP, KF, KP, and SFP administration. The protection index percentage (PI %) was 80.79, 54.51, 66.08, 75.74, and 74.86% in GIII, GIV, GV, GVI, and GVII, respectively. The gastric mucin content was significantly better attenuated by 95.7 in GIII compared to its content in GI. Lansoprazole increased mucin content by 80.3%, which was considerably lower than SP and SFP. SP, KF, KP, SFP, and Lansoprazole improved the reform of gastric mucosal-increased secreted mucus by 95.6, 61.3, 64.8, 103.1, and 80.2% in GIII, GIV, GV, GVI, and GVII, respectively. Interestingly, SFP efficiently increased vit. B12 level by 46.0% compared to other treatments. While Lansoprazole administrating did not significantly attenuate vit. B12 level. The SP and SFP improved iron and Hemoglobin (HB) levels depending on treatment. SP, KF, KP, and SFP significantly decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in blood and stomach tissues. The most potent effect was observed with SP, and SFP was even better than Lansoprazole. Histopathologically, treating rats with SP extract showed a marked reduction of gastric damage and severity changes induced by indomethacin. KP was much better than KF in lessening gastric histopathological damages caused by indomethacin. SFP significantly alleviates gastric histopathological alterations. The lansoprazole-treated group (GVII) greatly relieved the gastric histopathological changes and recorded mild focal necrosis and desquamation of the mucosa in addition to mild oedema in the serosal layer. In conclusion, the presented results proved the antiulcer potential of SP and A. chinensis extracts against an indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats, which may be due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammation efficiency. Thus, these data suggested that SP, KF, KP, and SFP extracts as natural and safe alternatives have a gastroprotective potential against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration. The antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties are probable mechanisms.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Spirulina , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Indometacina , Fitoterapia , Epiderme Vegetal/química , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente
14.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684810

RESUMO

This study investigated the in vitro inhibitory potential of different solvent extracts of leaves of Barbeya oleoides on key enzymes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) in combination with an aggregation assay (using 0.01% Triton X-100 detergent) to assess the specificity of action. The methanol extract was the most active in inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 6.67 ± 0.30 and 25.62 ± 4.12 µg/mL, respectively. However, these activities were significantly attenuated in the presence of 0.01% Triton X-100. The chemical analysis of the methanol extract was conducted utilizing a dereplication approach combing LC-ESI-MS/MS and database searching. The chemical analysis detected 27 major peaks in the negative ion mode, and 24 phenolic compounds, predominantly tannins and flavonol glycosides derivatives, were tentatively identified. Our data indicate that the enzyme inhibitory activity was probably due to aggregation-based inhibition, perhaps linked to polyphenols.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Rosales/química , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
15.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684819

RESUMO

The pyrin domain-containing multiprotein complex NLRP3 inflammasome, consisting of the NLRP3 protein, ASC adaptor, and procaspase-1, plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of several inflammatory disorders, including neurological and metabolic disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Several phytochemicals act as promising anti-inflammatory agents and are usually regarded to have potential applications as complementary or alternative therapeutic agents against chronic inflammatory disorders. Various in vitro and in vivo studies have reported the anti-inflammatory role of berberine (BRB), an organic heteropentacyclic phytochemical and natural isoquinoline, in inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent inflammation against many disorders. This review summarizes the mechanism and regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its involvement in inflammatory diseases, and discusses the current scientific evidence on the repressive role of BRB on NLRP3 inflammasome pathways along with the possible mechanism(s) and their potential in counteracting various inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Berberina/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/química , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Biológicos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684830

RESUMO

Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (GP), also named Jiaogulan in Chinese, was known to people for its function in both health care and disease treatment. Initially and traditionally, GP was a kind of tea consumed by people for its pleasant taste and weight loss efficacy. With the passing of the centuries, GP became well known as more than just a tea. Until now, numbers of bioactive compounds, including saponins (also named gypenosides, GPS), polysaccharides (GPP), flavonoids, and phytosterols were isolated and identified in GP, which implied the great medicinal worth of this unusual tea. Both in vivo and in vitro tests, ranging from different cell lines to animals, indicated that GP possessed various biological activities including anti-cancer, anti-atherogenic, anti-dementia, and anti-Parkinson's diseases, and it also had lipid-regulating effects as well as neuroprotection, hepatoprotective, and hypoglycemic properties. With the further development and utilization of GP, the research on the chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of GP were deepening day by day and had made great progress. In this review, the recent research progress in the bioactive compounds, especially gypenosides, and the pharmacological activities of GP were summarized, which will be quite useful for practical applications of GP in the treatment of human diseases.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Gynostemma/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Estrutura Molecular , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684831

RESUMO

In our in vitro and in vivo studies, we used Acalypha indica root methanolic extract (AIRME), and investigated their free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Primarily, phytochemical analysis showed rich content of phenols (70.92 mg of gallic acid/g) and flavonoids (16.01 mg of rutin/g) in AIRME. We then performed HR-LC-MS and GC-MS analyses, and identified 101 and 14 phytochemical compounds, respectively. Among them, ramipril glucuronide (1.563%), antimycin A (1.324%), swietenine (1.134%), quinone (1.152%), oxprenolol (1.118%), choline (0.847%), bumetanide (0.847%) and fenofibrate (0.711%) are the predominant phytomolecules. Evidence from in vitro studies revealed that AIRME scavenges DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner (10-50 µg/mL). Similarly, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were also remarkably inhibited by AIRME as concentration increases (20-100 µg/mL). In vitro antioxidant activity of AIRME was comparable to ascorbic acid treatment. For in vivo studies, carrageenan (1%, sub-plantar) was injected to rats to induce localized inflammation. Acute inflammation was represented by paw-edema, and significantly elevated (p < 0.05) WBC, platelets and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, AIRME pretreatment (150/300 mg/kg bodyweight) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased edema volume. This was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of WBC, platelets and CRP with both doses of AIRME. The decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in paw tissue were restored (p < 0.05 / p < 0.01) with AIRME in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AIRME attenuated carrageenan-induced neutrophil infiltrations and vascular dilation in paw tissue. For the first time, our findings demonstrated the potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of AIRME, which could be considered to develop novel anti-inflammatory drugs.


Assuntos
Acalypha/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/enzimologia , Edema/patologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684833

RESUMO

Cassia obtusifolia L., of the Leguminosae family, is used as a diuretic, laxative, tonic, purgative, and natural remedy for treating headache, dizziness, constipation, tophobia, and lacrimation and for improving eyesight. It is commonly used in tea in Korea. Various anthraquinone derivatives make up its main chemical constituents: emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, obtusifolin, obtusin, au rantio-obtusin, chryso-obtusin, alaternin, questin, aloe-emodin, gluco-aurantio-obtusin, gluco-obtusifolin, naphthopyrone glycosides, toralactone-9-ß-gentiobioside, toralactone gentiobioside, and cassiaside. C. obtusifolia L. possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties (e.g., antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties) and may be used to treat Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and cancer. In addition, C. obtusifolia L. contributes to histamine release and antiplatelet aggregation. This review summarizes the botanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological features of C. obtusifolia and its therapeutic uses.


Assuntos
Cassia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Antraquinonas/química , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , República da Coreia
19.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684834

RESUMO

Palmatine (PLT) is a natural isoquinoline alkaloid that belongs to the class of protoberberines and exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological properties, including anti-cancer activity. The aim of our study was to isolate PLT from the roots of Berberis cretica and investigate its cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects in vitro alone and in combination with doxorubicine (DOX) using human ER+/HER2- breast cancer cell lines. The alkaloid was purified by column chromatography filled with silica gel NP and Sephadex LH-20 resin developed in the mixture of methanol: water (50:50 v/v) that provided high-purity alkaloid for bioactivity studies. The purity of the alkaloid was confirmed by high resolution mass measurement and MS/MS fragmentation analysis in the HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS-based analysis. It was found that PLT treatment inhibited the viability and proliferation of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner as demonstrated by MTT and BrdU assays. PLT showed a quite similar growth inhibition on breast cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 5.126 to 5.805 µg/mL. In contrast, growth of normal human breast epithelial cells was not affected by PLT. The growth inhibitory activity of PLT was related to the induction of apoptosis, as determined by Annexin V/PI staining. Moreover, PLT sensitized breast cancer cells to DOX. Isobolographic analysis revealed synergistic and additive interactions between studied agents. Our studies suggest that PLT can be a potential candidate agent for preventing and treating breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides de Berberina/administração & dosagem , Berberis/química , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fitoterapia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo
20.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 61, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional medicine has remained the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system among communities unable to get modern medication. Ethiopian indigenous people have a long history of traditional plant utilization for treating ailments. The objectives of this study were to identify, document, and analyze the cultural significances of medicinal plants and their associated indigenous knowledge among Guji Semi-Pastoralist People, in Suro Barguda District, West Guji Zone, southern Ethiopia. METHODS: Semi-structured interview, focus group discussions, participant observation, and walk-in-the-woods methods were used to gather medicinal plants data. The informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL) values were calculated using quantitative approaches to check the level of informants' agreement on plant use and the healing potential of medicinal plant species, respectively. Indigenous knowledge of the use of medicinal plants for medicinal purposes among different informant groups was compared using t tests with R software. RESULTS: A total of 98 medicinal plant species belonging to 87 genera and 48 families were reported to be used for treating human ailments such as gastrointestinal diseases, breathing system diseases, dermatological diseases, and febrile diseases. Family Fabaceae was represented by 10 species followed by Lamiaceae (7 species). Four of the medicinal plants (Bothriocline schimperi Oliver & Hiern ex Bentham, Erythrina brucei Schweinf. emend. Gillett, Lippia adoensis Hochst. ex Walp. var. adoensis, and Millettia ferruginea (Hochst.) Hochst. ex Baker) were found endemic to Ethiopia and shrubs were more dominant (36 species). Ninety-one medicinal plant species were used for remedy preparation as soon as they were collected in their fresh form; 35.6% herbal medicine preparation was through crushing the plant parts and homogenizing them with cold and clean water; 159 (70.4%) traditional medicinal preparations were reported to be taken in their drinking form (orally). CONCLUSION: The study indicated that the district is rich in different species of medicinal plants used to treat human ailments and indigenous knowledge about using these resources. Species with the recorded highest consensus for curative purposes are useful sources for further phytochemical and pharmacological validation for better utilization. Declining wild medicinal flora of the area calls for conservation priority.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Plantas Medicinais , Cultura , Etiópia , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Fitoterapia , População Rural
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