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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255529, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364534

RESUMO

Reports from popular medicine usually act as a basis for the development of new drugs from natural compounds with therapeutic actions for serious diseases and prevalence such as cancer. Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. is a species of the Bromeliaceae family, considered an unconventional food plant, found in the south and midwest regions of Brazil. Despite the high nutritional content and pharmacological potential of its fruits, few scientific studies report its biological actions. Thus, this study evaluates the phytochemical profile of aqueous and ethanol extracts obtained from B. antiacantha fruits, as well as their possible antioxidant, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities. The aqueous extract exhibited phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while ethanol extracts indicated the presence of flavonoids and coumarin in their composition, regardless of the region of collection. The ethanolic extract demonstrated a more promising antioxidant effect than the aqueous extract and also induced a significant inhibition in the viability of human cervical cancer cells of the SiHa strain. In addition, treatment with both extracts did not alter the viability of non-tumor cells of the immortalized human keratinocyte lineage (HaCaT). These results bring new data about extracts obtained from a native plant, edible and traditionally used in popular medicine, opening new perspectives for its possible therapeutic application.


Relatos da medicina popular costumam atuar como referencial para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a partir de moléculas naturais com ações terapêuticas para doenças de alta gravidade e prevalência como o câncer. Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. é uma espécie da família Bromeliaceae, considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional (PANC), encontrada nas regiões sul e centro-oeste do Brasil. Apesar do alto teor nutritivo e potencial farmacológico de seus frutos, poucos estudos científicos relatam suas ações biológicas. Desta forma, este estudo avalia o perfil fitoquímico de extratos aquoso e etanólico obtidos de frutos de B. antiacantha, bem como a sua possível ação antioxidante, antitumoral e citotóxica. O extrato aquoso apresentou compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, enquanto os extratos etanólicos apontam a presença de flavonóides e cumarina em sua composição, independente da região de coleta. O extrato etanólico demonstrou efeito antioxidante mais promissor do que o extrato aquoso e também induziu uma inibição significativa na viabilidade de células humanas de câncer cervical da linhagem SiHa. Além disso, o tratamento com ambos extratos não alterou a viabilidade de células não tumorais da linhagem de queratinócitos humanos imortalizados (HaCaT). Estes dados trazem novas informações sobre extratos obtidos de uma espécie vegetal nativa, comestível e já utilizada tradicionalmente, mas abrindo novas perspectivas quanto a possíveis aplicações terapêuticas.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Bromeliaceae , Bromelia , Usos Terapêuticos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Fitoterapia
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255120, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364532

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk) seed ethanolic extract in rats. We assessed the antioxidant potential using free radical scavenging on DPPH, ß-carotene bleaching activity, ferric reducing power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In the antiulcerogenic study, pre-treatment with Plantago ovata seeds ethanolic extract (POE) (400 mg/kg b.wt) significantly protected against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats by decreasing the ulcer index value and preserving the integrity of the gastric mucosa. The oxidative stress status in the stomach tissues showed a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase with a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation during pre-treatment with POE. In conclusion, the POE protects against gastric ulcer due to its antioxidant potential and presence of bioactive molecules.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar as atividades antiulcerogênica e antioxidante das sementes de Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk) em ratos. O potencial antioxidante foi avaliado utilizando o método do sequestro do radical livre DPPH, autooxidação do ß-caroteno, poder redutor de ferro e atividade de sequestro do radical hidroxila. No estudo antiulcerogênico, o pré-tratamento com o extrato etanólico das sementes de Plantago ovata (POE) (400 mg/Kg b.wt) reduziu a úlcera gástrica induzida pelo etanol em ratos, diminuindo o valor do índice de úlcera e preservando a integridade da mucosa gástrica. O estudo do estresse oxidativo nos tecidos estomacais mostrou um aumento significativo dos níveis das enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase, com uma diminuição significativa da peroxidação lipídica enquanto pré-tratamento com POE. Em conclusão, o POE protege contra úlcera gástrica devido aos seus potenciais antioxidantes e à presença de moléculas bioativas.


Assuntos
Ratos , Plantago , Úlcera Gástrica , Mucosa Gástrica , Fitoterapia , Antioxidantes
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250256, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355912

RESUMO

Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Resumo As samambaias são frequentemente usadas pelos indígenas em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Este estudo foi desenhado para coletar o conhecimento etnomedicinal e tradicional desses moradores sobre este grupo de plantas vasculares. Quarenta táxons pertencem a dezenove gêneros, e dez famílias são utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes doenças. Pteridaceae foi a família mais representativa com doze táxons (30%), seguida por Athyriaceae e Dryopteridaceae com seis táxons cada (30%), e Thelypteridaceae com cinco táxons (12,5%). Em relação aos gêneros, Adiantum, Asplenium e Dryopteris ficaram em primeiro lugar com quatro táxons cada (30%), seguidos por Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris e Equisetum com três táxons cada (30%), e Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum e Pseudophegopteris com dois táxons cada (20%). Estes táxons foram comumente usados ​​no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios, isto é, asma, bronquite, enfisema, pneumonia; úlcera intestinal, estômago, doenças urinárias e doenças da pele pelos métodos de decocção e infusão. O conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas etnomedicinais é uma fonte valiosa e essencial para a descoberta de medicamentos alopáticos, fitoterápicos e homeopáticos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Gleiquênias , Traqueófitas , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2023: 2657278, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36654868

RESUMO

Aim: This study is aimed at establishing phenolic compound profile and assessing the possible antiulcer activities of aqueous extracts of some staple plant foods from the West and North-West regions of Cameroon against chronic gastric ulcer models in rats. Materials and Methods: Phenolic constituents of extracts were evaluated using HPLC-DAD. Aqueous extracts of Corchorus olitorius, Solanum nigrum, Vigna unguiculata, Triumfetta pentandra, "nkui" spices, and "yellow soup" spices were tested at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg). After treatments, animals were sacrificed, healing percentage and antioxidant status (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) were evaluated, and histological examination of gastric mucosa was realized. Results: HPLC-DAD revealed that p-hydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acids were the phenolic compound present in all extracts. Oral administration of extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced ulcer surface value and significantly increased mucus production compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). Histological study supported the observed healing activity of different extracts characterized by a reduced inflammatory response. Moreover, administration of aqueous extracts increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: This study revealed that aqueous extracts of Solanum nigrum, Corchorus olitorius, Vigna unguiculata, Triumfetta pentandra, "yellow soup" spices, and "nkui" spices possess healing antiulcer effects against models of gastric ulcers. The antiulcer mechanisms involved may include increase of gastric mucus production and improvement of the antioxidant activity of gastric tissue. These activities may be due to the phenolic compounds identified in the extracts, especially p-hydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acids present in all extracts and with known antioxidant, cytoprotective, and healing properties. However, all the diets may promote the healing process of chronic ulcers caused by excessive alcohol consumption/stress.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos , Úlcera Gástrica , Ratos , Animais , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Camarões , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Fenóis/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia
5.
PeerJ ; 11: e14639, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627919

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes is one of the fastest-growing health emergencies of the 21st century, placing a severe economic burden on many countries. Current management approaches have improved diabetic care, but several limitations still exist, such as decreased efficacy, adverse effects, and the high cost of treatment, particularly for developing nations. There is, therefore, a need for more cost-effective therapies for diabetes management. The evidence-based application of phytochemicals from plants in the management of diseases is gaining traction. Methodology: Various plants and plant parts have been investigated as antidiabetic agents. This review sought to collate and discuss published data on the cellular and molecular effects of medicinal plants and phytochemicals on insulin signaling pathways to better understand the current trend in using plant products in the management of diabetes. Furthermore, we explored available information on medicinal plants that consistently produced hypoglycemic effects from isolated cells to animal studies and clinical trials. Results: There is substantial literature describing the effects of a range of plant extracts on insulin action and insulin signaling, revealing a depth in knowledge of molecular detail. Our exploration also reveals effective antidiabetic actions in animal studies, and clear translational potential evidenced by clinical trials. Conclusion: We suggest that this area of research should be further exploited in the search for novel therapeutics for diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Humanos
6.
Database (Oxford) ; 20232023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625159

RESUMO

Medicinal herbs databases have become a crucial part of organizing new scientific literature generated in medicinal herbs field, as well as new drug discoveries in the information era. The aim of this review was to track the current status of medicinal herbs databases. Search for finding medicinal herbs databases was carried out via Google and PubMed. PubMed was searched for papers introducing medicinal herbs databases by the recruited search strategy. Papers with an active database on the web were included in the review. Google was also searched for medicinal herbs databases. Both retrieved papers and databases were reviewed by the authors. In this review, the current status of 25 medicinal herbs databases was reviewed, and the important characteristics of databases were mentioned. The reviewed databases had a great variety in terms of characteristics and functions. Finally, some recommendations for the efficient development of medicinal herbs databases were suggested. Although contemporary medicinal herbs databases represent much useful information, adding some features to these databases could assist them to have better functionality. This work may not cover all the necessary information, but we hope that our review can provide readers with fundamental concepts, perspectives and suggestions for constructing more useful databases.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Fitoterapia , PubMed
7.
Phytomedicine ; 109: 154615, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a double-edged sword in the pathophysiology of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The global rise in the prevalence of T2DM in one hand, and poor disease control with currently-available treatments on the other hand, along with an increased tendency towards the use of natural products make scientists seek herbal medicines for the management of diabetes and its complications by reducing C-reactive protein (CRP) as an inflammatory marker. PURPOSE: To systematically review the literature to identify the efficacy of various medicinal plants with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties considering their effect on CRP in animal models of T2DM. STUDY DESIGN: systematic review. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochran Library were searched using the search terms "herbal medicine", "diabetes", "c-reactive protein", "antioxidants" till August 2021. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory animal Experimentation (SYRCLE's) tool. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO with an ID number CRD42020207190. A manual search to detect any articles not found in the databases was also made. The identified studies were then critically reviewed and relevant data were extracted and summarized. RESULTS: Among total of 9904 primarily-retrieved articles, twenty-three experimental studies were finally included. Our data indicated that numerous herbal medicines, compared to placebo or hypoglycemic medications, are effective in treatment of diabetes and its complications through decreasing CRP concentrations and oxidative stresses levels. Medicinal plants including Psidium guajava L., Punica granatum L., Ginkgo biloba L., Punica granatum L., Dianthus superbusn L.. Moreover, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Curcuma longa L., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Morus alba L., and Ficus racemosa L. demonstrated potential neuroprotective effects in animal models of diabetes. CONCLUSION: Hypoglycemic medicinal plants discussed in this review seem to be promising regulators of CRP, and oxidative stress. Thus, these plants are suitable candidates for management of diabetes' complications. Nevertheless, further high-quality in vivo studies and clinical trials are required to confirm these effects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Proteína C-Reativa/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675206

RESUMO

Natural products used for their health-promoting properties have accompanied the evolution of humanity. Nowadays, as an effort to scientifically validate the health-promoting effects described by traditional medicine, an ever-growing number of bioactivities are being described for natural products and the phytochemicals that constitute them. Among them, medicinal plants and more specifically the Thymus genus spp., arise as products already present in the diet and with high acceptance, that are a source of phytochemicals with high pharmacological value. Phenolic acids, flavonoid glycoside derivatives, and terpenoids from Thymus spp. have been described for their ability to modulate cell death and survival pathways, much-valued bioactivities in the pharmaceutical industry, that continually sought-after new formulations to prevent undesired cell death or to control cell proliferation. Among these, wound treatment, protection from endogenous/exogenous toxic molecules, or the induction of selective cell death, such as the search for new anti-tumoral agents, arise as main objectives. This review summarizes and discusses studies on Thymus spp., as well as on compounds present in their extracts, with regard to their health-promoting effects involving the modulation of cell death or survival signaling pathways. In addition, studies regarding the main bioactive molecules and their cellular molecular targets were also reviewed. Concerning cell survival and proliferation, Thymus spp. present themselves as an option for new formulations designed for wound healing and protection against chemicals-induced toxicity. However, Thymus spp. extracts and some of their compounds regulate cell death, presenting anti-tumoral activity. Therefore Thymus spp. is a rich source of compounds with nutraceutical and pharmaceutical value.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Thymus (Planta) , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Morte Celular
9.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677731

RESUMO

Despite the current management options and therapeutics used in the treatment of diarrhoea, in Africa and Asia, diarrhoea remains a major concern, especially in children under the age of 5 years. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used in the management of diarrhoea symptoms can be explored for their efficacy. In Nigeria, the TMPs (Traditional Medicine Practitioners) have, over the years, employed medicinal plants in the management of diarrhoea symptoms. In our current and previous studies, we aimed at validating the effectiveness of Neorautanenia mitis in the management of diarrhoea as claimed by the TMPs. Out of the 20 compounds isolated from N. mitis, the compounds neodulin, pachyrrhizine, neotenone and dolineone were the most abundant, and in this study, neodulin showed a pronounced relaxation of the rhythmic contraction of the isolated rabbit jejunum in an organ bath in a concentration-dependent manner, with a complete relaxation at 60 µg/mL. Neotenone and dolineone showed a dose-dependent inhibition of defecation of 65.07%, and 50.01%, respectively, at 20 mg/kg in a castor-oil-induced diarrhoea model. This is a strong indication that compounds from N. mitis possess antidiarrhoeal properties, thereby giving credence to its traditional usage in diarrhoea therapy, and therefore validating its antidiarrhoeal activity and its being worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Coelhos , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Antidiarreicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Óleo de Rícino , Nigéria
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675101

RESUMO

Sepsis leads to multi-organ failure due to aggressive systemic inflammation, which is one of the main causes of death clinically. This study aimed to evaluate whether ginseng sprout extracts (GSE) can rescue sepsis and explore its underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6J male mice (n = 15/group) were pre-administered with GSE (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o) for 5 days, and a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 30 mg/kg, i.p) was administered to construct a sepsis model. Additionally, RAW264.7 cells were treated with LPS with/without GSE/its main components (Rd and Re) to explain the mechanisms corresponding to the animal-derived effects. LPS injection led to the death of all mice within 38 h, while GSE pretreatment delayed the time to death. GSE pretreatment also notably ameliorated LPS-induced systemic inflammation such as histological destruction in both the lung and liver, along with reductions in inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß, in both tissues and serum. Additionally, GSE markedly diminished the drastic secretion of nitric oxide (NO) by suppressing the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in both tissues. Similar changes in TNF-α, IL-1ß, NO, iNOS, and COX2 were observed in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and protein expression data and nuclear translocation assays suggested GSE could modulate LPS-binding protein (LBP), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and NF-κB. Ginsenoside Rd could be a major active component in GSE that produces the anti-sepsis effects. Our data support that ginseng sprouts could be used as an herbal resource to reduce the risk of sepsis. The corresponding mechanisms may involve TLR4/NF-κB signaling and a potentially active component.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Panax , Extratos Vegetais , Sepse , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Panax/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/genética , Sepse/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Plântula
11.
Epilepsy Res ; 189: 107075, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in the treatment of epilepsy. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the database in both Chinese and English was performed. Data from the selected studies were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors. RESULTS: 30 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis with a total of 2471 patients. Among them, 4 trials (n = 235) focused on TCM monotherapy, while the other 26 trials (n = 2236) assessed the benefit of TCM as an add-on therapy to antiseizure medications (ASMs). For the efficacy, the meta-analysis found (1) The effective rate in TCM monotherapy group was higher than that in control group (OR = 4.92, 95 % CI: 2.29-10.57, Z = 4.08, P 0.0001); (2) The add-on of TCM also increased the effective rate (OR = 3.37, 95 % CI: 2.65-4.30, Z = 9.85, P 0.00001) and seizure freedom rate (OR = 1.93, 95 % CI: 1.53-2.44, Z = 5.58, P 0.00001). In terms of safety, the add-on of TCM reduced the rate of total adverse events (OR = 0.46, 95 % CI: 0.31-0.67, Z = 3.96, P 0.0001) as well as adverse events of the gastrointestinal and nervous system. 26 different TCM prescriptions were used in these included RCTs. Among them, the 5 most frequently used herbs were Acorus tatarinowii (19 out of 26), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (13 out of 26), Gastrodia elata (12 out of 26), Pinellia ternata (11 out of 26) and Poria cocos (11 out of 26). CONCLUSION: This study suggested that TCM may be a relatively efficacious and safe clinical strategy for the treatment of epilepsy. Several limitations still exist, such as the risk of bias in the included studies, the diversified composition of TCM prescriptions, and the relatively low quality of study design.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Epilepsia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 305: 116079, 2023 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603784

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ardisia gigantifolia Stapf, known as Zou-ma-tai (in Chinese), is a traditional folk medicine, which was commonly used by Dong, Jing, Li, Maonan, Miao, Mulam, Yao, and Zhuang people. The main use of A. gigantifolia is the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, fractures, osteoproliferation, traumatic injuries, gynecological, and neurological diseases. Current studies have shown that the plant has various bioactive components, especially gigantifolinol, which has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-tuberculosis, and neuroprotective activities. However, to date, few reviews have been made to summarize A. gigantifolia's related studies. AIMS OF THE REVIEW: This review aimed to summarize the traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, clinical applications, and toxicity of A. gigantifolia, which expect to provide theoretical support for future utilization and highlight the further investigation of this vital plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information related to A. gigantifolia were collated by surveying the traditional medicine books, ethnomedicinal publications, and searching academic resource databases including Web of Science, SciFinder, Springer Link, Pub Med, Science Direct, CNKI, and CQVIP database. RESULTS: A. gigantifolia has been used as a traditional folk medicine for more than 400 years in China. Different parts of the plant, including the aerial part, root, rhizome, and leaf, are mainly used as herbal medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic injuries, gynecological, etc. Currently, 165 compounds have been identified from the plant, including triterpenes, phenolics, coumarins, quinones, volatile oil, and sterols, 137 of which were identified from the rhizome parts. Pharmacological research showed that A. gigantifolia has various bioactivities, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-thrombus, anti-tuberculosis, cough expectorant, and neuroprotective activities. Clinical studies have shown that the plant has no toxic side effects. In vivo administration at the maximum dose was not lethal, indicating the plant's safety. CONCLUSION: To date, most bioactive compounds are identified from the rhizomes of A. gigantifolia, which pharmacological activity and clinical observational studies have validated the plant's traditional use as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. It would be helpful to verify the mechanism of some components in vivo, such as gigantifolinol. Moreover, the plant's triterpenoid saponins demonstrated valid anti-tumor effects, especially the AG4 and AG36 compounds, which were shown to have anti-breast cancer effects both in vitro and in vivo. Further research on these components, including molecular mechanisms and in vivo metabolic regulation, needs to be confirmed.


Assuntos
Ardisia , Primulaceae , Humanos , Etnobotânica , Fitoterapia , Etnofarmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 305: 116004, 2023 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535336

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman (Rosaceae), commonly known as "Pygeum" or "African cherry", occurs in mainland montane forests scattered across sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, and some surrounding islands. Traditionally, decoctions of the stem-bark are taken orally for the treatment of a wide variety of conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), stomach ache, chest pain, malaria, heart conditions, and gonorrhoea, as well as urinary and kidney diseases. The timber is used to make axe handles and for other household needs. The dense wood is also sawn for timber. AIM: The fragmented information available on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and biological activities of the medicinally important P. africana was collated, organised, and analysed in this review, to highlight knowledge voids that can be addressed through future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bibliometric analysis of research output on P. africana was conducted on literature retrieved, using the Scopus® database. The trend in the publications over time was assessed and a network analysis of collaborations between countries and authors was carried out. Furthermore, a detailed review of the literature over the period 1971 to 2021, acquired through Scopus, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Pubmed, Scirp, DOAJ and Google Scholar, was conducted. All relevant abstracts, full-text articles and various book chapters on the botanical and ethnopharmacological aspects of P. africana, written in English and German, were consulted. RESULTS: A total of 455 documents published from 1971 to 2021, were retrieved using the Scopus search. Analysis of the data showed that the majority of these documents were original research articles, followed by reviews and lastly a miscellaneous group comprising conference papers, book chapters, short surveys, editorials and letters. Data were analysed for annual output and areas of intense research focus, and countries with high research output, productive institutions and authors, and collaborative networks were identified. Prunus africana is reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, antiviral, antimutagenic, anti-asthmatic, anti-androgenic, antiproliferative and apoptotic activities amongst others. Phytosterols and other secondary metabolites such as phenols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and linear alcohols have been the focus of phytochemical investigations. The biological activity has largely been ascribed to the phytosterols (mainly 3-ß-sitosterol, 3-ß-sitostenone, and 3-ß-sitosterol-glucoside), which inhibit the production of prostaglandins in the prostate, thereby suppressing the inflammatory symptoms associated with BPH and chronic prostatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the ethnobotanical assertions for the biological activity of P. africana have been confirmed through in vitro and in vivo studies. However, a disparity exists between the biological activity of the whole extract and that of single compounds isolated from the extract, which were reported to be less effective. This finding suggests that a different approach to biological activity studies should be encouraged that takes all secondary metabolites present into consideration. A robust technique, such as multivariate biochemometric data analysis, which allows for a holistic intervention to study the biological activity of a species is suggested. Furthermore, there is a need to develop rapid and efficient quality control methods for both raw materials and products to replace the time-consuming and laborious methods currently in use.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Prostática , Prunus africana , Rosaceae , Humanos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Etnofarmacologia , Etnobotânica , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Fitoterapia
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 303: 115895, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513263

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants have been used in various parts of the world to treat various diseases. The genus Zanthoxylum L. (Rutaceae) is the second largest genus of this family and comprises approximately 225-549 species distributed in the tropical and temperate regions of the world. Plants of this genus are trees and shrubs with various applications in folklore medicine for food, medicine, construction, and other uses. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The goal of this review is to give an updated data on the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of the Zanthoxylum species to investigate their medicinal potential and identify research gaps for future research studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was obtained through a systematic search of published literature and online databases such as Google Scholar, Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, and Sci-Finder. The botanical names were confirmed using the World Flora Online and chemical structures were drawn using the ChemBio Draw Ultra Version 14.0 Software. RESULTS: The Zanthoxylum species have a wide use in different parts of the continents as a remedy for various diseases such as digestive diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, venereal diseases, respiratory diseases, rheumatism, bacterial diseases, viral, and other diseases. Various parts of the plant comprising fruits, seeds, twigs, leaves, oils, and stems are administered singly or in the form of decoction, infusion, powder, paste, poultice, juice, or mixed with other medicinal plants to cure the disease. More than 400 secondary metabolites have been isolated and characterized in this genus with various biological activities, which comprise alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, alcohols, fatty acids, amides, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, and hydrocarbons. The crude extracts, fractions, and chemical compounds isolated from the genus have demonstrated a wide range of biological activities both in vivo and in vitro, including; anti-cancer, antimicrobial, anti-sickling, hepatoprotective, antipyretic, antitumor, and other pharmacological activities. CONCLUSION: This genus has demonstrated an array of phytoconstituents with therapeutic potential. The ethnobotanical uses of this genus have been confirmed in modern pharmacological research. This genus is a potential source for modern drug discovery and health care products. Further and extensive research is therefore required on the safety approval and therapeutic application of the species of this genus as well as clinical trials and pharmacokinetic studies.


Assuntos
Rutaceae , Zanthoxylum , Etnofarmacologia , Fitoterapia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Etnobotânica , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 305: 116057, 2023 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574790

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd is widely used as a traditional medinal plant in Mexico for protective and healing purposes and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the gastroprotective effect of extract of Caesalpinia coriaria pods against ethanol-induced and indomethacin-induced gastric lesion models, its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities, and its main compounds through LC-MS analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were orally administered a methanol extract obtained from the pods of C. coriaria at doses of 10, 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg prior to inducing gastric lesions with ethanol or indomethacin. Gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated by macroscopic and histopathological alterations. Determination of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), alpha tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), nitrites/nitrates, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and H2S gastric levels were investigated. Its main compounds of the active extract through LC-MS analysis. RESULTS: Phenolic compounds were identified as major components of methanol extract. LC-MS analysis identified 15 constituents, and the significant compounds were gallic acid, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, digalloylglucose, tetragalloylglucose, valoneic acid dilactone, pentagalloylglucose, digalloylshikimic acid, and ellagic acid. Pretreatment with the extract at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced gastric ulcer lesions in both models. Compared with the reference drugs (omeprazole or ranitidine, respectively), no significant difference was found (p < 0.05). The extract's gastroprotective effect was accompanied by significant decreases in leukocyte recruitment, and gastric levels of TNF-α and LTB4 by two to fourfold (p < 0.05). Also, gastric levels of PGE2 gastric levels were maintained and the antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD and nitrate/nitrite in the gastric tissue were improved (p < 0.05). The LC-MS analysis indicated the presence of hydrolyzable tannins (mainly gallic acid derivatives). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the gastroprotective effect of the methanol extract of C. coriaria pods occurs through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and NO modulation properties, and gallic acid derivatives may be the main possible compounds responsible for its actions.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos , Caesalpinia , Magnoliopsida , Úlcera Gástrica , Ratos , Animais , Indometacina , Metanol/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Etanol/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Fitoterapia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ácido Gálico/uso terapêutico , Superóxido Dismutase , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 305: 116066, 2023 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577491

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Berberis ruscifolia Lam. are a usual preparation as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antibacterial, and digestive in folk medicine. However, there were no previous studies of its chemical composition and biological activity related to analgesic effects. THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: The evaluation of the anti-nociception of the infusion (I), the decoction (D), and the ethanolic extract (EE) obtained from aerial parts of B. ruscifolia and its main chemical constituent in them, in mouse models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The chemical constituent of B. ruscifolia extracts was evaluated and quantified by LC-MS and HPLC methodology. The inhibition of nociception in mice was analyzed by formalin and acetic acid-induced contortions tests. Also, when the formalin test was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity, the inhibition of edema formation and the antipyretic effect of each extract were simultaneously evaluated in the same experiment. For the oral administration in the in vivo assays, doses ranging from 10 to 1000 mg/kg and 10-30 mg/kg were used for extract and the chemical compound, respectively. RESULTS: The presence of berberine (Berb) was identified in the three evaluated extracts where the EE showed the highest content of this compound getting a yield of 2%, while in the I and D, Berb is present at 0.2%. The three extracts promoted a reduction of the contortions induced by acetic acid, being observed in EE the highest activity with 63 ± 6% of significant inhibition of the nociceptive behavior at a dose of 300 mg/kg, while D significantly inhibited 32 ± 12% at the same dose and for I at a dose of 1000 mg/kg an inhibition of 44 ± 8% was observed. Likewise, in the formalin trial, I and EE reduced nociception at a dose of 1000 (31 ± 5%) and 300 (35 ± 3%) mg/kg, respectively in the neurogenic phase, while in the second phase of the experiment, all the extracts evaluated showed an antinociceptive effect, with significant inhibition of I of 54 ± 6% and D of 44 ± 5% at a dose of 1000 mg/kg and for EE showed a 63 ± 2% inhibition at a dose of 300 mg/kg being the one with the highest antinociceptive activity. These extracts showed no inhibition in temperature and formalin-injected paw edema formation when compared to the control. As for Berb, at a 30 mg/kg dose, it showed significant inhibition of 70 ± 5% in the acetic acid-induced contortion test. CONCLUSION: Altogether, the present results evidenced the analgesic properties of B. ruscifolia, scientific information presented for the first time, and also provided important knowledge not reported so far about the chemical composition of its extracts, by identifying the presence of Berb in them. Finally, we were able to conclude that the analgesic effect demonstrated by this medicinal plant is partly due to the presence of Berb.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Berberina , Berberis , Camundongos , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Berberina/uso terapêutico , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Ácido Acético/uso terapêutico , Etanol/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Formaldeído
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 305: 116085, 2023 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584919

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhododendron dauricum L. is a traditional herb mainly distributed in the northeast China, Mongolia, Korea Peninsula, and Russia Far East. The dried leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L. (LRD), generally known "Man Shan Hong" have been traditionally applied as folk medicines to treat fever, copious phlegm, asthma, acute and chronic bronchitis, sore throat, dysentery, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and hypertension. To date, no comprehensive review on R. dauricum leaves has been published. AIM OF THE STUDY: Recent progresses in traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and quality control of R. dauricum leaves are systematically presented and critically evaluated in order to provide scientifical basis for its reasonable utilization and further study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All information about R. dauricum leaves were retrieved from internet scientific databases including Sci-Finder, Web of Science, PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Wiley, ACS publications, SpringerLink, and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia between 1970 and 2022. Plant names were validated by "The Plant List" (http://www.theplantlist.org/). RESULTS: So far, 114 structurally diverse compounds have been isolated and identified from LRD, mainly including flavonoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, meroterpenoids, phenols, and 54 volatile components were identified from the essential oils of LRD. Among these, flavonoids are considered as characteristic components and major bioactive phytochemicals. The crude extracts and compounds from LRD have been reported to possess broad pharmacological effects including antitussive and expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, antibacterial, and cytotoxic effects, etc. CONCLUSIONS: As a traditional herb medicine, LRD have been used popularly. On the one hand, traditional uses of LRD provide valuable directions for current research; on the other hand, modern phytochemical and pharmacological studies verify the traditional uses to make its reasonable utilization. However, several defects such as active components determination, in vivo and clinical pharmacological evaluation, toxicology assessment, and quality control of LRD need further study.


Assuntos
Rhododendron , Humanos , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade , Flavonoides , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246803, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339417

RESUMO

Abstract Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Resumo A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados ​​por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das plantas da área para suas necessidades de saúde e outros usos como vegetal, lenha, forragem etc. O resultado atual de RFC, UV, ICF, FL e JI mostra que a flora medicinal precisa ser investigada farmacológica e fitoquimicamente para comprovar sua eficácia. A documentação do conhecimento medicinal é importante para preservar esse precioso conhecimento antigo antes que se perca para sempre, devido às mudanças tecnológicas e ambientais do mundo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Plantas Medicinais , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Folhas de Planta , Etnobotânica , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
20.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 70, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Starting from the idea that unexplored areas may yield new and different ethnobotanical information, we performed a survey of traditional uses of plants in two neighboring districts situated in east Serbia (Bor and Aleksinac), both lacking in previous ethnobotanical reports, but characterized by an interesting history and culture, together with some specific features. In this study, we hypothesized that such small and specific areas could be of high ethnobotanical importance. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were used with 155 informants. Relative cultural importance (RCI) indices, such as the frequency of citation (FC), relative frequency of citation (RFC), relative importance index (RI), informant consensus factor (ICF-FIC), use value (UV), fidelity level (FL) and Jaccard index (JI), were calculated, and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) was performed. RESULTS: In this study, 2333 use-reports and 114 plants were recorded. Of the 101 medical herbs, 33 are included in the European Pharmacopoeia Edition 8.0. The most frequently used mode of preparation was as an infusion (50.0%), while leaf (44.7%) was the most used plant part. The highest FC and RFC values were recorded for Hypericum perforatum L. (13.1 and 0.2, respectively), while the highest RI was documented for Urtica dioica L. (1.0). ICF and FL indices showed important differences among selected groups of informants. The PCoA showed three homogeneous plant groups. Plants were mostly used for the treatment of digestive (49.1%), circulatory (41.2%) and respiratory system disorders (35.1%). Thirty-seven (32.5%) herbs were used for human nutrition, 14 (12.3%) in veterinary medicine, 17 (14.9%) in rituals and ethnoculture, while 24 (21.0%) for miscellaneous purposes. The highest degree of similarity was determined with studies conducted in close proximity. Four species are new to Balkan ethnobotany. New uses for some well-known plants are highlighted. CONCLUSION: The study indicated that small and specific areas in the Balkans may be an important reservoir of ethnobotanical knowledge.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Península Balcânica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fitoterapia
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