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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250550, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345536

RESUMO

Abstract Vanillin is the major component which is responsible for flavor and aroma of vanilla extract and is produced by 3 ways: natural extraction from vanilla plant, chemical synthesis and from microbial transformation. Current research was aimed to study bacterial production of vanillin from native natural sources including sewage and soil from industrial areas. The main objective was vanillin bio-production by isolating bacteria from these native sources. Also to adapt methodologies to improve vanillin production by optimized fermentation media and growth conditions. 47 soil and 13 sewage samples were collected from different industrial regions of Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Kasur. 67.7% bacterial isolates produced vanillin and 32.3% were non-producers. From these 279 producers, 4 bacterial isolates selected as significant producers were; A3, A4, A7 and A10. These isolates were identified by ribotyping as A3 Pseudomonas fluorescence (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) and A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Vanillin producers were further tested for improved production of vanillin and were grown in different fermentation media under optimized growth conditions for enhanced production of vanillin. The fermentation media (FM) were; clove oil based, rice bran waste (residues oil) based, wheat bran based and modified isoeugenol based. In FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36, and FM37, the selected 4 bacterial strains produced significant amounts of vanillin. A10 B. subtilis produced maximum amount of vanillin. This strain produced 17.3 g/L vanillin in FM36. Cost of this fermentation medium 36 was 131.5 rupees/L. This fermentation medium was modified isoeugenol based medium with 1% of isoeugenol and 2.5 g/L soybean meal. ech gene was amplified in A3 P. fluorescence using ech specific primers. As vanillin use as flavor has increased tremendously, the bioproduction of vanillin must be focused.


Resumo A vanilina é o principal componente responsável pelo sabor e aroma do extrato de baunilha e é produzida de três formas: extração natural da planta da baunilha, síntese química e transformação microbiana. A pesquisa atual teve como objetivo estudar a produção bacteriana de vanilina a partir de fontes naturais nativas, incluindo esgoto e solo de áreas industriais. O objetivo principal era a bioprodução de vanilina por meio do isolamento de bactérias dessas fontes nativas. Também para adaptar metodologias para melhorar a produção de vanilina por meio de fermentação otimizada e condições de crescimento. Foram coletadas 47 amostras de solo e 13 de esgoto de diferentes regiões industriais de Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad e Kasur; 67,7% dos isolados bacterianos produziram vanilina e 32,3% eram não produtores. Desses 279 produtores, 4 isolados bacterianos selecionados como produtores significativos foram: A3, A4, A7 e A10. Esses isolados foram identificados por ribotipagem como fluorescência A3 Pseudomonas (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) e A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Os produtores de vanilina foram posteriormente testados para produção aprimorada de vanilina e foram cultivados em diferentes meios de fermentação sob condições de crescimento otimizadas para produção aprimorada de vanilina. Os meios de fermentação (FM) foram: à base de óleo de cravo, à base de resíduos de farelo de arroz (resíduos de óleo), à base de farelo de trigo e à base de isoeugenol modificado. Em FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36 e FM37, as 4 cepas bacterianas selecionadas produziram quantidades significativas de vanilina. A10 B. subtilis produziu quantidade máxima de vanilina. Essa cepa produziu 17,3 g / L de vanilina em FM36. O custo desse meio de fermentação 36 foi de 131,5 rúpias / L. Esse meio de fermentação foi um meio à base de isoeugenol modificado com 1% de isoeugenol e 2,5 g / L de farelo de soja. O gene ech foi amplificado em A3 P. fluorescence usando primers específicos para ech. Como o uso da vanilina como sabor aumentou tremendamente, a bioprodução da vanilina deve ser focada.


Assuntos
Benzaldeídos/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolismo , Enterococcus faecium/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Alcaligenes faecalis/metabolismo , Fermentação
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(31): 9722-9729, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913050

RESUMO

Southern mountain mint, Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoides (Leavenw.) Fernald, is a mountain mint species endemic to the southeastern United States. The odorants responsible for the plant's odor have not been previously characterized. In this study, 28 odorants were identified in a high-vacuum distillate of P. pycnanthemoides employing gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis. Ten odorants with FD factors ≥16 were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays, odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated, and the stereochemistry of chiral odorants was determined. Odorants with OAV ≥1 included ß-ionone (floral, violet; OAV 310), piperitenone (mint; OAV 100), piperitone (mint; OAV 87), linalool (floral, citrus; OAV 45), myrcene (terpeny; OAV 35), (R)-(+)-pulegone (mint, medicinal; OAV 18), (2S,5R)-(-)-menthone (mint, fresh; OAV 6.6), and 1,8-cineole (eucalyptus; OAV 4.0). An odor simulation model based on the quantitative analysis was a close match to the sensory attributes of an aqueous infusion of dried P. pycnanthemoides. The study's results establish insights into the complex odor profile of P. pycnanthemoides and provide a foundation for future studies on the odor variability within P. pycnanthemoides and other species of the Pycnanthemum genus.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Mentha , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Aromatizantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
3.
Food Res Int ; 159: 111648, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940773

RESUMO

Plant-based milk alternatives (PBAs) are growing in popularity, which has led to the creation of many novel beverages from cereals, legumes, nuts, seeds, and pseudocereals. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate consumer attitudes towards, and perception of PBAs currently offered on the market in Canada. First, a survey was conducted asking participants (n = 323) to complete a word association task investigating PBAs. Then six different PBAs (oat, almond, soy, pea, cashew, and coconut) were evaluated using nine-point hedonic scales and check-all-that-apply questions by consumers (n = 88). Lastly, consumers (n = 80) evaluated the acceptability of flavoured PBAs (chocolate and vanilla). Participants associated PBAs with health benefits, sustainability, and sensory characteristics. PBAs made from almond, oat, and pea were liked significantly more than PBAs made from cashews, but not more than coconut or soy PBAs. Perception of sweet, creamy, smooth, nutty, and white attributes increased the participants' liking of PBAs, while attributes such as aftertaste, brown, beany, watery, and off-flavour detracted from it. The flavouring (chocolate and vanilla) increased the participants' liking of almond and oat PBAs. Future studies should investigate other PBAs made from different ingredients and how flavouring can improve the acceptability of PBAs.


Assuntos
Anacardium , Cacau , Prunus dulcis , Vanilla , Alérgenos , Animais , Cocos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Leite , Percepção , Paladar
4.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956962

RESUMO

Lipids in food are a source of essential fatty acids and also play a crucial role in flavor and off-flavor development. Lipids contribute to food flavor generation due to their degradation to volatile compounds during food processing, heating/cooking, and storage and/or interactions with other constituents developed from the Maillard reaction and Strecker degradation, among others. The degradation of lipids mainly occurs via autoxidation, photooxidation, and enzymatic oxidation, which produce a myriad of volatile compounds. The oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids generates hydroperoxides that then further break down to odor-active volatile secondary lipid oxidation products including aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones. In this contribution, a summary of the most relevant and recent findings on the production of volatile compounds from lipid degradation and Maillard reactions and their interaction has been compiled and discussed. In particular, the effects of processing such as cooking, drying, and fermentation as well as the storage of lipid-based foods on flavor generation are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Reação de Maillard , Culinária , Lipídeos , Odorantes
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e059821, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Local, national and international policies are being proposed to ban the sale of menthol-flavoured tobacco products. With more bans being implemented, it is increasingly important to understand reactions to these bans among smokers of low socioeconomic status. This study examined public housing residents' behavioural intentions if menthol-flavoured cigarettes were no longer sold. SETTING: 15 District of Columbia Housing Authority properties between March 2019 and March 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 221 District of Columbia Housing Authority residents ages 18-80 years who reported smoking menthol cigarettes (83.3% African-American/black). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Cigarette quitting and switching intentions due to a hypothetical menthol-flavoured cigarette sales ban. RESULTS: Nearly one-half (48.0%) of residents said they intended to quit cigarette use if menthol-flavoured products were no longer sold, while 27.2% were unsure if they would quit, and 24.9% reported they would not quit. Older residents (OR 0.94 per year, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.97), senior/disabled building versus family building residents (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.97), those who smoked within 30 min of waking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98) and daily smokers (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.84) had lower odds of reporting quit intentions associated with a menthol ban. Of those not intending to quit, 40.7% reported they would switch to non-menthol cigarettes, 20.4% to another non-menthol product, 13.0% to menthol e-cigarettes and 20.4% to another menthol product. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest banning the sale of menthol-flavoured products has the potential to impact cigarette smoking cessation. Nearly three-quarters of smokers in public housing indicated a possibility of quitting smoking because of a menthol cigarette ban. Bans that include all flavours in all tobacco products may be most effective for facilitating overall tobacco cessation.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , District of Columbia , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Intenção , Mentol , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Habitação Popular , Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto Jovem
6.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(7): e34114, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On May 18, 2020, the New York State Department of Health implemented a statewide flavor ban to prohibit the sales of all flavored vapor products, except for tobacco or any other authorized flavor. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the discussion changes in e-cigarette-related tweets over time with the implementation of the New York State flavor ban. METHODS: Through the Twitter streaming application programming interface, 59,883 e-cigarette-related tweets were collected within the New York State from February 6, 2020, to May 17, 2020 (period 1, before the implementation of the flavor ban), May 18, 2020-June 30, 2020 (period 2, between the implementation of the flavor ban and the online sales ban), July 1, 2020-September 15, 2020 (period 3, the short term after the online sales ban), and September 16, 2020-November 30, 2020 (period 4, the long term after the online sales ban). Sentiment analysis and topic modeling were conducted to investigate the changes in public attitudes and discussions in e-cigarette-related tweets. The popularity of different e-cigarette flavor categories was compared before and after the implementation of the New York State flavor ban. RESULTS: Our results showed that the proportion of e-cigarette-related tweets with negative sentiment significantly decreased (4305/13,246, 32.5% vs 3855/14,455, 26.67%, P<.001), and tweets with positive sentiment significantly increased (5246/13,246, 39.6% vs 7038/14,455, 48.69%, P<.001) in period 4 compared to period 3. "Teens and nicotine products" was the most frequently discussed e-cigarette-related topic in the negative tweets. In contrast, "nicotine products and quitting" was more prevalent in positive tweets. The proportion of tweets mentioning mint and menthol flavors significantly increased right after the flavor ban and decreased to lower levels over time. The proportions of fruit and sweet flavors were most frequently mentioned in period 1, decreased in period 2, and dominated again in period 4. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of e-cigarette-related tweets with different attitudes and frequently discussed flavor categories changed over time after the implementation of the New York State ban of flavored vaping products. This change indicated a potential impact of the flavor ban on public discussions of flavored e-cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Aromatizantes , Humanos , New York , Nicotina
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886599

RESUMO

This study assesses the use of e-cigarette devices and flavors using a large, cross-sectional survey of adolescents, young adults, and adults (N = 6131; ages 13-40 years old; Mage = 21.9) conducted from November to December 2021, 22 months after the FDA announced its prioritized enforcement policy against some flavored pod/cartridge-based e-cigarettes. We analyzed the patterns of use by age group: adolescents and young adults (AYAs) under 21 (minimum age of e-cigarette sales), young adults (21-24 years old), and adults (25-40 years old). The participants reported using e-cigarettes ever (44.2% < 21; 67.1% 21-24; 58.0% > 24), in the past 30 days (29.8% < 21; 52.6% 21-24; 43.3% > 24), and in the past 7 days (24.5% < 21; 43.9% 21-24; 36.5% > 24). Disposables were the most used e-cigarette device type across age groups (39.1% < 21; 36.9% 21-24; 34.5% > 24). Fruit, sweet, mint, and menthol flavors were popular across age groups; however, chi-squared tests for trends in proportions revealed age-related trends in past 30-day flavor use by device type. Findings suggest current AYA e-cigarette use may be higher than recorded by the NYTS 2021. The FDA, states, and localities should adopt more comprehensive restrictions on flavored e-cigarette products in order to reduce adolescent and young adult e-cigarette use.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adolescente , Adulto , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Food Res Int ; 158: 111513, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840221

RESUMO

Consumer interest in plant-based cheeses (PBCs) has increased in the last few years due to consumer concern for animal welfare, environmental impact, and health. In order to increase the acceptability of PBCs, sensory studies must be conducted. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, sensory properties, and emotional responses to PBCs currently being sold in Canada. There were two different sensory trials conducted. In the first trial (n = 100), raw PBCs were evaluated, and in the second trial (n = 93) melted PBCs were evaluated. In both trials, five different PBCs were evaluated using nine-point hedonic scales, a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question, and the CATA variant of the EsSense25 profile. Participants were also asked to answer open-ended comment questions about PBCs. The results showed that participants thought PBCs are healthier than regular dairy cheese, but they did not like the flavour or textural properties of PBCs. PBCs that are buttery, smooth, and have soft attributes were preferred by the participants. Participants mainly disliked PBCs that were mouthcoating, rubbery, and had off-flavours. The PBCs with higher overall liking scores were associated with positive emotions.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Emoções , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Percepção , Paladar
9.
Am J Public Health ; 112(8): 1147-1150, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830660

RESUMO

In June 2020, Massachusetts implemented a first in the nation statewide law that restricts sales of menthol and other flavored tobacco. Since implementation, sales data indicate high retailer compliance. Drastic decreases were seen in sales of all flavored tobacco. Most neighboring states did not see increases in overall tobacco sales, although New Hampshire saw an initial increase in menthol sales, which was not sustained. We found that menthol restrictions are effective and that federal-level legislation is important, as some cross-border sales highlight. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(8):1147-1150. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306879).


Assuntos
Mentol , Produtos do Tabaco , Comércio , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Massachusetts , Tabaco
10.
Prev Med ; 161: 107143, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803351

RESUMO

Use of flavored tobacco has been associated with lower likelihood of short-term abstinence from tobacco. It is unknown whether longer-term associations exist, particularly for a variety of products and specific flavor categories. This study used adult survey data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study (2013-2018). We tested associations of past 30-day tobacco product use at wave 2 using both a 2-category any flavor versus unflavored variable and 4-category specific flavor (menthol/mint, sweet, and both menthol/mint and sweet) versus unflavored variable with past 12-month cessation from the same product two years later at wave 4. Separate models were run for each product (combustible cigarettes, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless), adjusting for wave 1 sociodemographic characteristics. For all five products, past 30-day use of any flavored (versus unflavored) product at wave 2 was associated with reduced likelihood of same-product cessation at wave 4. Most specific flavor categories were associated with reduced odds of same-product cessation across all products. Any flavor use was also associated with reduced likelihood of longer-term cessation (i.e., past 24-months at both waves 3 and 4) and cessation from all five tobacco products in several analyses. Exploratory moderation results indicated that the association between e-cigarette flavor use and lower likelihood of cessation was stronger for young adults (18-24) versus older adults (25+). Current use of flavored tobacco products is associated with lower likelihood of product cessation. Flavored tobacco products warrant consideration in regulatory policy to reduce the adverse public health impact of tobacco use.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Idoso , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Mentol , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine conversations among JUUL users on Reddit related to restrictions on flavored ENDS and the shifting policy landscape. METHODS: Posts and comments (n = 166,169) between May 2019 and May 2020 on the subreddit r/JUUL were scraped using pushshift.io API. Keyword filters were used to identify texts discussing flavored ENDS products (n = 33,884 texts). These were further narrowed down to texts discussing flavor policy workaround strategies (n = 7429) and N-gram analysis was performed. Finally, findings from the N-gram analysis were triangulated through qualitative review of a separate sample of texts (n = 488) from the flavor policy-related posts and comments. RESULTS: Overall activity on the subreddit r/JUUL peaked around the time of the EVALI outbreak (September 2019) and when FDA issued guidance restricting flavored ENDS product sales (January 2020). The N-gram analysis revealed an active discussion of banned products one can "still get" or "JUUL compatible" alternatives, including specific brands, brick and mortar locations, and specific flavors. Ten dominant themes emerged from the qualitative review, with some posts containing more than one theme. CONCLUSION: Many users turned to Reddit for information related to the shifting regulatory landscape concerning flavored ENDS. Discussions focused on both legal alternatives to banned products as well as illegal means of acquiring JUUL pods, including residual retail supply, online, and mail vendors.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Produtos do Tabaco , Comércio , Aromatizantes , Marketing , Políticas
12.
Meat Sci ; 192: 108890, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809532

RESUMO

Dry ageing of mutton may enhance mutton's consumer appeal; however, consumer acceptance of mutton is heterogeneous. To identify which consumers prefer dry aged mutton, dry (DA) and wet aged mutton (WA) loin and topside were rated by consumers (n = 540) for tenderness, juiciness, liking of flavour and overall liking on a 0-100 scale. Two predictive liking models were developed, utilising either consumer clusters (identified by agglomerative hierarchical clustering) which related to mutton liking and ageing method preference, or demographic factors. The cluster based model had the highest explanatory power. Cluster 1 (n = 219) preferred DA (p < 0.001), rating it 5.9 points higher than WA, cluster 2 (n = 235) had no ageing method preference (p > 0.05), and cluster 3 (n = 79) preferred WA (p < 0.001), rating WA liking 8.3 points higher than DA. Cluster characterisation identified some differences between clusters that may relate to consumer ethnicity and familiarity with mutton.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Carne Vermelha , Análise por Conglomerados , Aromatizantes , Preferências Alimentares , Paladar
13.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897847

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of broccoli leaf powder (BLP) incorporation on the technological properties, sensory quality and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of durum wheat pasta. Incorporation of BLP increased cooking loss; however, all pasta samples were found to be in the acceptable range of 8 g/100 g. The addition of BLP decreased optimal cooking time and water absorption but increased the swelling index. Firmness and total shearing force decreased with increased BLP content. The obtained pasta was greener than the control, with a higher content of minerals, and an increasing tendency with respect to protein was observed. The VOC profile of enriched pasta was richer and contained compounds typical of broccoli (e.g., dimethyl sulphide), affecting its aroma. The sensory evaluation results indicate that the addition of BLP did not affect the overall acceptance of pasta. Up to 5% BLP content afforded an interesting, more nutritious pasta without compromising its technological and sensory quality.


Assuntos
Brassica , Triticum , Culinária , Aromatizantes , Farinha/análise , Folhas de Planta , Pós
14.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 35(8): 1410-1417, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830545

RESUMO

Flavorants, nicotine, and organic acids are common additives found in the e-liquid carrier solvent, propylene glycol (PG) and/or glycerol (GL), at various concentrations. Some of the most concentrated and prevalent flavorants in e-liquids include trans-cinnamaldehyde, vanillin, and benzaldehyde. Aldehyde flavorants have been shown to react with PG and GL to form flavorant-PG and -GL acetals that have unique toxicity properties in e-liquids before aerosolization. However, there is still much that remains unknown about the effects of different e-cigarette solvents, water, nicotine, and organic acids on the rate of acetalization in e-liquids. We used 1H NMR spectroscopy to determine the first-order initial rate constant, half-life, and % acetal formed at equilibrium for flavorant-acetal formation in simulated e-liquids. Herein, we report that acetalization generally occurs at a faster rate and produces greater yields in e-liquids with higher ratios of GL (relative to PG). trans-Cinnamaldehyde acetals formed the fastest in 100% PG-simulated e-liquids, followed by benzaldehyde and vanillin based on their half-lives and rate constants. The acetal yield was greatest for benzaldehyde in PG e-liquids, followed by trans-cinnamaldehyde and vanillin. Acetalization in PG e-liquids containing aldehyde flavorants was inhibited by water and nicotine but catalyzed by benzoic acid. Flavorant-PG acetal formation was generally delayed in the presence of nicotine, even if benzoic acid was present at 2-, 4-, or 10-fold the nicotine concentration, as compared to the PG e-liquids with 2.5 mg/mL flavorant. Thus, commercial e-liquids with aldehyde flavorants containing a higher GL ratio (relative to PG), little water, no nicotine, nicotine with excess organic acids, or organic acids without nicotine would undergo acetalization the fastest and with the highest yield. Many commercial e-liquids must therefore contain significant amounts of flavorant acetals.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Acetais , Aldeídos , Benzaldeídos , Benzoatos , Aromatizantes/análise , Glicerol/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Nicotina , Propilenoglicol/química , Solventes/química , Água
15.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 35(8): 1344-1358, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849830

RESUMO

The popularity of disposable fourth-generation electronic cigarettes (ECs) among young adults and adolescents has been increasing since the ban on flavored cartridge EC products such as JUUL. Although the constituents and toxicity of some cartridge-based fourth-generation ECs, such as JUUL, have been studied, limited data exist for other disposable ECs such as Puff. The purpose of this study was to determine flavor chemicals, synthetic coolants, and nicotine concentrations in 16 disposable Puff devices, evaluate the cytotoxicity of the different flavors from the Puff brand using in vitro assays, and investigate the health risks of synthetic coolants in EC products. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify chemicals in Puff EC fluids. One hundred and twenty-six flavor chemicals were identified in Puff fluids, and 16 were >1 mg/mL. WS-23 (2-isopropyl-N,2,3-trimethylbutyramide) was present in all products, and concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 45.1 mg/mL. WS-3 (N-ethyl-p-menthane-3-carboxamide) concentrations ranged from 1.5 to 16.4 mg/mL in 6/16 products. Nicotine concentrations ranged from 40.6 to 52.4 (average 44.8 mg/mL). All unvaped fluids were cytotoxic at dilutions between 0.1 and 10% in the MTT and neutral red uptake assays when tested with BEAS-2B lung epithelial cells. The cytotoxicity of Puff fluids was highly correlated with total chemical concentrations, nicotine, WS-23, both synthetic coolants, and synthetic coolants plus ethyl maltol. Lower concentrations of WS-23 than those in the fluids adversely affected cell growth and morphology. Concentrations of synthetic coolants exceeded levels used in consumer products. The margin of exposure data showed that WS-3 and WS-23 concentrations were high enough in Puff products to present a health hazard. Our study demonstrates that disposable Puff ECs have high levels of cytotoxic chemicals. The data support the regulation of flavor chemicals and synthetic coolants in ECs to limit potentially harmful health effects.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Células Epiteliais , Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Pulmão , Nicotina/análise , Produtos do Tabaco/análise , Adulto Jovem
16.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807543

RESUMO

Spanish-style table olives are one of the most common processed foods in the Mediterranean countries. Lack of control during fermentation can lead to one of the main defects of the olive, called 'Zapateria', caused by the combination of volatile fatty acids reminiscent of rotten leather. In this study, table olives altered with 'Zapateria' defect were stuffed with a hydrocolloid flavoured with the aroma 'Mojo picón' to improve consumer acceptance. Sensory analysis, determination of volatile compounds and electronic nose (E-nose) were used to evaluate the quality of the olives. The control samples had a high concentration of the defect 'Zapateria' and were classified in the second commercial category, while higher 'Mojo picón' flavour concentrations resulted in these olives being classified as 'extra category' (a masking effect). The main volatile compounds in olives with 'Zapateria' defect were cyclohexanecarboxylic acid and pentanoic acid. E-nose allowed discrimination between stuffed olives without added flavouring and olives with 'Mojo picón' flavouring at different concentrations. Finally, PLS regression allowed a predictive linear model to be established between E-nose and sensory analysis values. The RP2 values were 0.74 for perceived defect and 0.86 for perceived aroma. The E-nose was successfully applied for the first time to classify Spanish-style table olives with 'Zapateria' defect intensity and with the addition of the 'Mojo picón' aroma masking the defect.


Assuntos
Olea , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/análise , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 294: 119781, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868793

RESUMO

This study explored the effect of the degree of substitution (DS) of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch on the retention and release properties of spray-dried mint flavour microcapsules. The results showed that a higher DS (0.0287, 0.0379) led to greater flavour retention (86.68 %, 90.10 %). The flavour release was negatively correlated with DS during simulated oral processing. A mechanism by which DS affects flavour release was proposed. The emulsifying capacity was improved with increasing DS, thus forming an effective interface. The effective interface increased the partition coefficient, thereby reducing the release. During oral processing, a lower friction coefficient and higher microstructural stability and carrier enzymatic resistance jointly promoted interface stabilization. Data obtained using the EPI suite, a gas chromatograph, a mini traction machine, a Mastersizer analyser and confocal scanning laser microscopy validated this mechanism. This study provides a strategy for designing flavour microcapsules with high retention and slow-release properties using OSA-modified starch.


Assuntos
Mentha , Anidridos Succínicos , Cápsulas , Aromatizantes , Amido/química , Anidridos Succínicos/química
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(13-16): 4929-4944, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851416

RESUMO

There is a growing appreciation for the role that yeast play in biotransformation of flavour compounds during beverage fermentations. This is particularly the case for brewing due to the continued popularity of aromatic beers produced via the dry-hopping process. Here, we review the current literature pertaining to biotransformation reactions mediated by fermentative yeasts. These reactions are diverse and include the liberation of thiols from cysteine or glutathione-bound adducts, as well as the release of glycosidically bound terpene alcohols. These changes serve generally to increase the fruit and floral aromas in beverages. This is particularly the case for the thiol compounds released via yeast ß-lyase activity due to their low flavour thresholds. The role of yeast ß-glucosidases in increasing terpene alcohols is less clear, at least with respect to fermentation of brewer's wort. Yeast acetyl transferase and acetate esterase also have an impact on the quality and perceptibility of flavour compounds. Isomerization and reduction reactions, e.g. the conversion of geraniol (rose) to ß-citronellol (citrus), also have potential to alter significantly flavour profiles. A greater understanding of biotransformation reactions is expected to not only facilitate greater control of beverage flavour profiles, but also to allow for more efficient exploitation of raw materials and thereby greater process sustainability. KEY POINTS: • Yeast can alter and boost grape- and hop-derived flavour compounds in wine and beer • ß-lyase activity can release fruit-flavoured thiols with low flavour thresholds • Floral and citrus-flavoured terpene alcohols can be released or interconverted.


Assuntos
Liases , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Álcoois/metabolismo , Cerveja , Biotransformação , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Liases/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo
19.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684530

RESUMO

Since 1975, the Weurman Flavour Research Symposium has been held every three years in different European countries, and has been finally established as an international event that offers unique opportunities for distinguished scientists from academia and industry, from different disciplines, and from all over the world, to discuss trends and new paradigms in the field of flavour research [...].


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Paladar , Europa (Continente)
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742467

RESUMO

This study asks young adult cigarillo users to categorize their preferred flavor in order to examine user consensus and potential methodological and regulatory implications of flavor name-based categorization systems. Young adult (21-28 years) cigarillo users (n = 426) named and categorized their favorite cigarillo flavor into one of seven categories: Fruit, Sweet and Candy, Mint, Alcohol, Menthol, Tobacco, and Other. Flavor responses were coded as characterizing (ex: Grape, Wine) or concept (ex: Jazz, Diamond) flavors. Variation within and between categories was assessed, including the presence of concept flavors and the placement of flavors in multiple categories. Of the 66 unique flavor names provided, participants placed 20 (30.1%) in more than one flavor category. Most of the Tobacco (76.9%) and Other (69.2%) flavor names appeared in multiple categories. The majority of flavor names in the Tobacco (69.2%) and Other (61.5%) categories were concept flavors. Concept flavors were placed in multiple categories (45.0%) twice as often as characterizing flavors (23.9%). This study has identified dissonance among cigarillo users' flavor categorizations, particularly for concept flavored and unflavored products. Flavor names may obscure how and whether a product is flavored. Research on and regulation of flavored tobacco products should classify products by flavor additives rather than by name alone.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Paladar , Uso de Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
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