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1.
Anim Sci J ; 94(1): e13801, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606309

RESUMO

Linseed as a common oil crop that has been implicated in regulating the meat quality of animals. The aim of this investigation was to establish the effects of dietary linseed supplementation on carcass traits, meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, volatile compounds and antioxidant capacity of sheep. Twenty-four Sunit sheep were distributed into 2 groups with different diet: control (CO) fed a standard diet and linseed (LS, 8% of extruded linseed). The results showed that linseed not only increased M. longissimus thoracis (LT) increased the loin-eye area but also decreased pH24h, L* and shear force. Meanwhile, linseed increased mRNA expression of MyHCI and MyHCIIx and decreased in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle fiber diameter. In addition, linseed altered the composition of meat volatile flavor compounds, such as Z-10-Pentadecen-1-ol, pentanal, 2-Octenal, (E)-, decanal, butane, and 2-heptanone. Moreover, linseed increased total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity, the mRNA expression of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Overall, the results suggest that linseed is an effective feed additive in improving meat quality and flavor. The underlying mechanisms for its effectiveness may be partly due to a change in muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidant capacity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Linho , Animais , Ovinos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Linho/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Carne/análise , RNA Mensageiro , Ração Animal/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
2.
Food Funct ; 14(2): 675-690, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622248

RESUMO

Many clinical trials have revealed that flaxseed supplementation might exert a potent antihypertensive influence, but the findings are inconsistent. In this regard, a meta-analysis was carried out to provide a more accurate estimate of the impact of flaxseed supplementation on blood pressure. We searched international databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar till July 2022. A random-effects model was used to calculate weighted mean differences (WMDs). Non-linear dose-response analysis and meta-regression were performed. Meta-analysis of 33 trials (comprising 43 treatment arms) with 2427 participants revealed significant reductions in both systolic (WMD: -3.19 mmHg; 95% CI: -4.15 to -2.24, p < 0.001; I2 = 92.5%, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (WMD = -2.61 mmHg; 95% CI: -3.27, -1.94, p < 0.001; I2 = 94.1%, p < 0.001) following flaxseed supplementation. Greater effects on SBP and DBP were found in trials with an intervention duration of >20 weeks, ≥30 g day-1 of flaxseed, subjects with BMI 25-30 kg m-2, and in patients with hypertension. Supplementation with various flaxseed products significantly reduced SBP and DBP levels, confirming the hypothesis that flaxseed could be used as an effective supplement for blood pressure management, alongside routine medications.


Assuntos
Linho , Hipertensão , Humanos , Pressão Sanguínea , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Linho , Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Biofilmes , Metanol
4.
Environ Res ; 218: 114757, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36511326

RESUMO

This study aimed to synthesize Ag NPs as a green catalyst for photocatalytic activity and to examine their biological activities. It was determined that they have high activity in catalytic and biological activities. The green synthesis which is an environmentally friendly and inexpensive method was used to synthesize Ag-NPs using Linum usitatissimum as a reducing agent. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the Ag NPs. In UV-Vis examination, Ag-NPs had intense peaks in the 435 nm region. The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs was investigated, and Ag NPs showed a high lethal effect against S. aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, and MRSA. In addition, Ag NPs were tested for anticancer activity against the HT-29 colon cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line, healthy cell line L929-Murine Fibroblast cell Lines, and MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cell line at various concentrations (1-160 µg/mL) and showed a high anticancerogenic properties against MDA-MB-231 cells. Ag NPs showed the ability of DNA cleavage activity. Also, the antioxidant activity of Ag NPs against DPPH was found to be 80% approximately. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of Ag NPs against methylene blue (MB) was determined to be 67.13% at the 180th min. In addition, it was observed that biogenic Ag NPs have high electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection. In the sensor based on Ag NPs, linearity from 1 µM to 5 µM was observed with a detection limit (LOD) of 1.323 µM for H2O2. According to these results, we conclude that the biogenic Ag NPs synthesized using Linum usitatissimum extract can be developed as an efficient biological agent as an antibacterial and anticancer also can be used as a photocatalyst for industrial wastewater treatment to prevent wastewater pollution.


Assuntos
Linho , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Staphylococcus aureus , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
5.
Nutrition ; 105: 111870, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368262

RESUMO

Effects of dietary fiber on obesity-related traits in previous studies were inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to explore whether variants in genes related to satiety and appetite can modulate the effect of dietary fiber on obesity-related traits. Fifty-one overweight or obese adults were randomly allocated to two groups to consume control biscuits (n = 24) or biscuits containing defatted flaxseed flour (n = 27) at breakfast for 8 wk. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to satiety and appetite were genotyped: rs11076023 on the FTO gene, rs16147 on the NPY gene, rs155971 on the PCSK1 gene, and rs6265 on the BDNF gene. A linear regression model was used to evaluate the gene-diet interaction between obesity-related traits. Compared with control biscuits, defatted flaxseed-flour biscuits significantly reduced body weight (P = 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.001) in A-allele carriers (AA + AT) of rs11076023 on the FTO gene but not in non-carriers (TT) (P for the interaction = 0.005 and 0.006) and decreased fasting serum glucose in participants with CC genotype (P = 0.019) but had less effect in T-allele carriers (TT + TC) (P = 0.021) of rs16147 on the NPY gene (P for the interaction = 0.002). Compared with the control biscuits, defatted flaxseed flour significantly reduced body weight (P < 0.001) in T-allele carriers (TT + TC) of rs155971 on the PCSK1 gene but not in non-carriers (CC) (P for the interaction = 0.041) and reduced body weight (P = 0.001) and BMI (P < 0.001) in A-allele carriers (AA + AG) of rs6265 on the BDNF gene but not non-carriers (GG) (P for the interaction = 0.017 and 0.018). Variants of genes related to satiety and appetite could modulate the effect of defatted flaxseed flour on obesity-related traits.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Linho , Farinha , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Humanos , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , China , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Genótipo , Obesidade/genética , Sobrepeso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes , Neuropeptídeo Y/genética
6.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 22(1): 587-614, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529880

RESUMO

Whole flaxseed (flour) as a good source of omega-3 fatty acid and phytochemicals with excellent nutritional and functional attributes has been used to enrich foods for health promotion and disease prevention. However, several limitations and contemporary challenges still impact the development of whole flaxseed (flour)-enriched products on the global market, such as naturally occurring antinutritional factors and entrapment of nutrients within food matrix. Whole flaxseed (flour) with different existing forms could variably alter the techno-functional performance of food matrix, and ultimately affect the edible qualities of fortified food products. The potential interaction mechanism between the subject and object components in fortified products has not been elucidated yet. Hence, in this paper, the physical structure and component changes of flaxseed (flour) by pretreatments coupled with their potential influences on the edible qualities of multiple fortified food products were summarized and analyzed. In addition, several typical food products, including baked, noodle, and dairy products were preferentially selected to investigate the potential influencing mechanisms of flaxseed (flour) on different substrate components. In particular, the altered balance between water absorption of flaxseed protein/gum polysaccharides and the interruption of gluten network, lipid lubrication, lipid-amylose complexes, syneresis, and so forth, were thoroughly elucidated. The overall impact of incorporating whole flaxseed (flour) on the quality and nutritional attributes of fortified food products, coupled with the possible solutions against negative influences are aimed. This paper could provide useful information for expanding the application of whole flaxseed (flour) based on the optimal edible and nutritional properties of fortified food products.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Linho , Linho/química , Proteínas , Farinha/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Controle de Qualidade
7.
J Plant Physiol ; 280: 153893, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502559

RESUMO

Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an important oil crop in arid and semi-arid regions of North and Northwest China, and its seeds are rich in nutritious storage reserves, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) and proteins. However, the regulatory networks that control the accumulation of seed storage reserves in flax are still largely unknown. In this study, we found that LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2 homologs from the flax cultivar 'Longya 10' play important roles in regulating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis thaliana. The results of subcellular localization and transcriptional activity assays showed that both LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2 function as transcription factors. Overexpression of either LuABI3-1 or LuABI3-2 resulted in the significant increase in the contents of total seed FAs and storage proteins, but did not alter other key agronomic traits in A. thaliana. Accordingly, the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of FAs and storage proteins was also greatly up-regulated in the developing seeds of LuABI3-1-overexpression lines. Additionally, both LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2 enhanced the tolerance to the high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination and seedling establishment in A. thaliana. These results increase our understanding of the LuABI3 regulatory functions and provide promising targets for genetic manipulation of L. usitatissimum to innovate the germplasm resources and cultivate high yield and quality varieties.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Linho , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Linho/genética , Linho/metabolismo , Germinação/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 228: 506-516, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36572078

RESUMO

Impaired wound healing is a severe complication of sufferers, related to prolonged wound closure, a high infection rate, and eventually disabilities of organs. To aid resolve this issue, we developed the electrospun polyvinyl alcohol and chitosan (PVA/CS) nanofibrous scaffold-loaded flaxseed extract. The scaffold containing 10 wt% of the extract indicated a three-dimensional cross-network with a nano-scale diameter (257 ± 37 nm) and smooth surface. Also, the relevant analyses confirmed high water absorption, porosity, and wettability of the scaffold. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), degradation, and mechanical studies revealed the intact presence and loading of the extract into the scaffold, the complete degradation over 48 h, and a high tensile elastic modulus. Besides, the advanced scaffold displayed remarkable anti-oxidant and could inhibit the growth of both Gram-positive and negative bacteria compared to the free PVA/CS scaffold. Desired fibroblast viability and blood compatibility of flaxseed-loaded scaffold endorsed the biocompatibility for wound zones. The in vitro studies showed that the flaxseed-loaded scaffold resulted in an accelerated wound healing process and 100 % closure of the scratched area within 48 h. The results obtained reveal that the flaxseed-loaded PVA/CS electrospun scaffold could be effectively applied for wound healing promotion.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Linho , Nanofibras , Álcool de Polivinil , Cicatrização
9.
J Oleo Sci ; 72(1): 59-67, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36504188

RESUMO

In this research, extracts from five flaxseed cakes (hot-pressed cake (HPC), cold-pressed cake (CPC), n-hexane extracted cake (HEC), supercritical CO2 extracted cake (SCEC) and subcritical n-butane extracted cake (SBEC)) were analyzed for the contents of total phenolic, total flavonoid and antioxidant ability. At the same time, the antioxidant capacity of HPC extract and synthetic butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in the oxidative evolution of flaxseed oil was compared by accelerated storage experiment (8 days at 65°C). The results showed that compared with other flaxseed cake extract, the extract of HPC contained the highest content of total phenolic (78.01 mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoid (2.73 mg RE/g extract), and showed the strongest antioxidant ability on DPPH, ABTS FRAP and total reducing power assay. We also found that different concentrations (800, 1000, 2000 ppm) of flaxseed cake extract could significantly slow down the oxidation of flaxseed oil during storage at 65°C, and the antioxidant effect strengthened with the increase of extract dosage. The antioxidant effect of the 2000 ppm extract was higher than that of 200 ppm BHA. The results indicated that flaxseed cake extract could effectively inhibit the oxidation of flaxseed oil and was a good substitute for synthetic antioxidants in oil industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Linho , Antioxidantes/análise , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Fenóis/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Sementes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
10.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 36(1): 59-63, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36537804

RESUMO

Fungal genus Septoria causes diseases in a wide range of plants. Here, we report the first genome sequences of two strains of Septoria linicola, the causal agent of the pasmo disease of flax (Linum usitatissimum). The genome of the first strain, SE15195, was fully assembled in 16 chromosomes, while 35 unitigs were obtained for a second strain, SE14017. Structural annotations predicted 13,096 and 13,085 protein-encoding genes and transposable elements content of 19.0 and 18.1% of the genome for SE15195 and SE14017, respectively. The four smaller chromosomes 13 to 16 show genomics features of potential accessory chromosomes. The assembly of these two genomes is a new resource for studying S. linicola and improving management of pasmo. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Linho , Genômica , Ascomicetos/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Doenças das Plantas
11.
J Dairy Res ; 89(4): 355-366, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36510795

RESUMO

We compared the potential of dietary lipid supplements of different fatty acid compositions to affect milk performance when early lactation dairy goats were fed a high-concentrate diet. Thirty Alpine goats at 23 ± 5 d in milk were allocated to 1 of 10 blocks according to parity and milk fat concentration. Within each block, goats were randomly assigned to receive, during a period of 41 d, either CONT) a basal diet with a forage to concentrate ratio of 45:55, used as control, or PALM) the basal diet + 2% of a palmitic acid-enriched fat supplement, or FLAX) the basal diet + 7% of extruded flaxseed. Body weight, dry matter intake and milk yield were not different between treatments. As compared with CONT, goats fed PALM and FLAX had a greater milk fat concentration. Moreover, milk fat yield was numerically (but non-significantly) greater with PALM than with CONT. Milk fat from goats receiving PALM had a greater concentration of 16:0 as compared with CONT and FLAX, whereas a greater concentration of cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 was observed when goats were fed FLAX as compared with CONT and PALM. Under the conditions of the current experiment, dietary fat supplementation had only minor impacts on the yield of major milk constituents, with the exception of a modest increase in fat yield when goats were fed PALM. The impact of a greater concentration of 16:0 in milk fat of goats receiving this feed ingredient on the nutritive value of dairy products remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Linho , Leite , Feminino , Animais , Ácido Palmítico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Lactação , Ácidos Graxos , Gorduras na Dieta , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise
12.
Animal ; 16(12): 100677, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481350

RESUMO

Weaning is a critical phase in intensive piglet production marked by the frequent occurrence of digestive disorders posing health and economic burden. To stave off such weaning-related problems, antibiotics and supplements containing high levels of ZnO are often used. In this study, we investigated whether natural fibres obtained from two plants known for their dietary fibre profile and antioxidant properties: flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), can serve as a health-promoting diet supplement. The study was conducted on a total of 191 Polish Large White piglets from 18 L, from their birth to 56 days of age. Piglets were divided by litters into six groups: W1.5, F1.5, H1.5, W2.0, F2.0, and H2.0. Groups W1.5, F1.5, and H1.5 received feed supplemented with 1.5% fibre from wood cellulose (W), flax (F), and hemp (H), respectively, while groups W2.0, F2.0, and H2.0 received feed with a higher 2.0% content of the same fibres. Flax and hemp fibres were characterised by a complex composition, antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic acids, and low risk of mycotoxin contamination. Flax fibre resulted in best weight gains and feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05) of piglets, while hemp fibre had higher positive effect on antioxidant status (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the other two fibre additives. Neither flax nor hemp fibres had any adverse effect on the haematological and biochemical blood parameters. Piglets receiving a diet with 1.5% added fibre showed better growth performance, while diet supplementation with 2% fibre had a beneficial effect on the content of butyric acid in the small intestinal chyme (P ≤ 0.05). The results suggested that both flax and hemp fibres can be innovative feed additives for weaned piglets. However, further studies should be conducted in commercial farms, as the effects of dietary fibre could vary in more challenging environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Linho , Animais , Suínos , Antioxidantes , Linho/química , Cannabis/química , Desmame , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Nível de Saúde , Ração Animal/análise
13.
Lipids Health Dis ; 21(1): 140, 2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green algae contain many polysaccharides. However, there is no information on whether Chaetomorpha linum polysaccharides (CLP) can modulate lipid and glucose metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CLP were extracted from chlorella and their components were characterized. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomized and provided with control chow as the control, or high fat diet (HFD) to induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD mice were treated orally with water as the HFD group or with 50 or 150 mg/kg CLP daily for 10 weeks. The impact of CLP treatment on lipid and glucose metabolism and the PPARα signaling was examined by histology, Western blotting and biochemistry. RESULTS: CLP mainly contained arabinogalactan sulfate. Compared with the control, HFD feeding increased body weights, lipid droplet liver deposition and induced hyperlipidemia, liver functional impairment and glucose intolerance in mice. Treatment with CLP, particularly with a higher dose of CLP, limited the HFD-increased body weights and liver lipid droplet deposition, mitigated the HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and improved liver function and glucose tolerance in mice. Mechanistically, feeding with HFD dramatically decreased the expression of liver PPARα, CPT-1, and MCAD, but treatment with CLP enhanced their expression in a trend of dose-dependent in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that CLP treatment alleviated the gain in body weights, NAFLD, and glucose intolerance in mice after HFD feeding by enhancing the PPARα/CPT-1/MCAD signaling.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Linho , Intolerância à Glucose , Hiperlipidemias , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Aumento de Peso , Glucose/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
14.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500618

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of roasting linseeds on the pigment, lipid profile, bioactive components, and oxidative stability of the extracted oils. The linseed varieties Giza 11, Giza 12, Sakha 3, and Sakha 6 were roasted at 180 °C for 10 min, and the oils were extracted by cold pressing. The results showed that, after roasting, there was an increase in oil percentage and peroxide value, as well as small increases in p-anisidine and acid values. Roasting also caused an increase in chlorophyll content, while lutein and ß-carotene tend to slightly decrease, except in the Giza 11 variety. The total phenolics content was markedly enhanced after roasting. Omega-3 fatty acids were not affected by the roasting process. The total amounts of tocochromanol were found to decrease in the Giza 12 and Sakha 6 varieties after roasting. Plastochromanol-8 increased in all varieties after roasting. The phytosterol composition was minimally affected by roasting. Roasting enhanced the stability of the extracted oils, increasing the induction period and decreasing EC50 values. These results may thus help to discriminate between the different linseed varieties and serve to recommend the use of roasting to enhance the oxidative stability of extracted oil.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Linho , Fitosteróis , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Ácidos Graxos
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36555340

RESUMO

The imbalance in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition in human food is ubiquitous and closely related to obesity and cardiovascular diseases. The development of n-3 PUFA-enriched poultry products is of great significance for optimizing fatty acid composition. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the effects of dietary linseed oil on hepatic metabolism using untargeted metabolomics and 4D label-free proteome analysis. A total of 91 metabolites and 63 proteins showed differences in abundance in duck livers between the high linseed oil and control groups. Pathway analysis revealed that the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, glycerophospholipid, and pyrimidine metabolisms were significantly enriched in ducks fed with linseed oil. Meanwhile, dietary linseed oil changed liver fatty acid composition, which was reflected in the increase in the abundance of downstream metabolites, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) as a substrate, including n-3 PUFA and its related glycerophospholipids, and a decrease in downstream n-6 PUFA synthesis using linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) as a substrate. Moreover, the anabolism of PUFA in duck livers showed substrate-dependent effects, and the expression of related proteins in the process of fatty acid anabolism, such as FADS2, LPIN2, and PLA2G4A, were significantly regulated by linseed oil. Collectively, our work highlights the ALA substrate dependence during n-3 PUFA synthesis in duck livers. The present study expands our knowledge of the process products of PUFA metabolism and provides some potential biomarkers for liver health.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Linho , Animais , Humanos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Patos , Linho/metabolismo , Proteômica , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498863

RESUMO

In this paper, we explore potential genetic factors in control of flax phenotypes associated with fiber by mining a collection of 306 flax accessions from the Federal Research Centre of the Bast Fiber Crops, Torzhok, Russia. In total, 11 traits were assessed in the course of 3 successive years. A genome-wide association study was performed for each phenotype independently using six different single-locus models implemented in the GAPIT3 R package. Moreover, we applied a multivariate linear mixed model implemented in the GEMMA package to account for trait correlations and potential pleiotropic effects of polymorphisms. The analyses revealed a number of genomic variants associated with different fiber traits, implying the complex and polygenic control. All stable variants demonstrate a statistically significant allelic effect across all 3 years of the experiment. We tested the validity of the predicted variants using gene expression data available for the flax fiber studies. The results shed new light on the processes and pathways associated with the complex fiber traits, while the pinpointed candidate genes may be further used for marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Linho , Linho/genética , Linho/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Alelos , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 35(11): 1087-94, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different concentrations of linolenin on inhibiting apoptosis of chondrocytes in the growth plate, and to screen the optimal concentration of linolenin, so as to provide theoretical support for delaying epiphyseal closure and promoting long bone growth in rats. METHODS: Two 4-week-old male SD rats (SPF grade) with a body mass of 80 g were selected. The growth plate cartilage of rat tibia and femur was dissected and isolated in vitro to obtain growth plate chondrocytes for culture. The chondrocytes were observed and identified by inverted phase contrast microscope and typeⅡ collagen immunofluorescence test, and then 20 ng/ml IL-1ß was used to induce apoptosis of growth plate chondrocytes as model group, and added with 1, 10, 20, 40 µM linolenin as the experimental group, and 5 µM letrozole as the positive control group. The cells were cultured for 24 and 48 hours respectively. The drug promoted cell proliferation was observed by MTT method, and the drug inhibited cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Contents 1, 10, 20, 40 µM could promote cell proliferation in varying degrees, and the principle was that the drug inhibits IL-1ß induced chondrocyte apoptosis in the growth plate, and the optimal concentration of drugs to inhibit apoptosis was 20 µM. CONCLUSION: The appropriate concentration of linseed lignans can significantly inhibit the apoptosis of chondrocytes in the growth plate of rats, and the optimal drug concentration is 20 µM. It provides possibility for delayed bone closure and longer growth time to promote bone growth during development.


Assuntos
Linho , Lignanas , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Lâmina de Crescimento , Condrócitos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Apoptose , Lignanas/farmacologia
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(46): 14600-14612, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355404

RESUMO

Linusorbs (LOs) and peptides from flaxseed protein have documented biological activity, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and immunosuppressive activities, but their mechanism and structure-related bioactivity have not been summarized previously. Therefore, this study reviews the structure, composition, bioavailability, and health benefits of flaxseed peptides and LOs as well as peptide generation and LO modification. However, these peptides and LOs are long linear and cyclic structures, which affect the absorption and bioavailability of these substances in living beings and, thus, impair their overall efficiency and pharmacological effectiveness. Therefore, the development of novel strategies for optimizing the bioavailability of these peptide compounds is critical to ensure their successful application and delivery to the target sites via specially designed methods that will significantly improve their in vivo concentration and also investigate the structure-related activity of distinct amino acid and functional groups in physiological activity. Additionally, these native peptides and their analogues can be used as scaffolds for the production of antibodies.


Assuntos
Linho , Linho/química , Proteômica , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362031

RESUMO

High-quality genome sequences help to elucidate the genetic basis of numerous biological processes and track species evolution. For flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)-a multifunctional crop, high-quality assemblies from Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) data were unavailable, largely due to the difficulty of isolating pure high-molecular-weight DNA. This article proposes a scheme for gaining a contiguous L. usitatissimum assembly using Nanopore data. We developed a protocol for flax nuclei isolation with subsequent DNA extraction, which allows obtaining about 5 µg of pure high-molecular-weight DNA from 0.5 g of leaves. Such an amount of material can be collected even from a single plant and yields more than 30 Gb of ONT data in two MinION runs. We performed a comparative analysis of different genome assemblers and polishers on the gained data and obtained the final 447.1-Mb assembly of L. usitatissimum line 3896 genome using the Canu-Racon (two iterations)-Medaka combination. The genome comprised 1695 contigs and had an N50 of 6.2 Mb and a completeness of 93.8% of BUSCOs from eudicots_odb10. Our study highlights the impact of the chosen genome construction strategy on the resulting assembly parameters and its eligibility for future genomic studies.


Assuntos
Linho , Nanoporos , Linho/genética , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , DNA
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 882455, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36238310

RESUMO

Omega-3 fatty acids support cardiometabolic health and reduce chronic low-grade inflammation. These fatty acids may impart their health benefits partly by modulating the endocannabinoidome and the gut microbiome, both of which are key regulators of metabolism and the inflammatory response. Whole hemp seeds (Cannabis sativa) are of exceptional nutritional value, being rich in omega-3 fatty acids. We assessed the effects of dietary substitution (equivalent to about 2 tablespoons of seeds a day for humans) of whole hemp seeds in comparison with whole linseeds in a diet-induced obesity mouse model and determined their effects on obesity and the gut microbiome-endocannabinoidome axis. We show that whole hemp seed substitution did not affect weigh gain, adiposity, or food intake, whereas linseed substitution did, in association with higher fasting glucose levels, greater insulin release during an oral glucose tolerance test, and higher levels of liver triglycerides than controls. Furthermore, hemp seed substitution mitigated diet-induced obesity-associated increases in intestinal permeability and circulating PAI-1 levels, while having no effects on markers of inflammation in epididymal adipose tissue, which were, however, increased in mice fed linseeds. Both hemp seeds and linseeds were able to modify the expression of several endocannabinoidome genes and markedly increased the levels of several omega-3 fatty acid-derived endocannabinoidome bioactive lipids with previously suggested anti-inflammatory actions in a tissue specific manner, despite the relatively low level of seed substitution. While neither diet markedly modified the gut microbiome, mice on the hemp seed diet had higher abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 and Rikenellaceae than mice fed linseed or control diet, respectively. Thus, hemp seed-containing foods might represent a source of healthy fats that are not likely to exacerbate the metabolic consequences of obesogenic diets while producing intestinal permeability protective effects and some anti-inflammatory actions.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Linho , Insulinas , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos , Linho/metabolismo , Glucose , Humanos , Inflamação , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , Sementes/metabolismo , Sacarose , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
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