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1.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 1994-2001, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219451

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Brassica incana Ten. (Brassicaceae) is an edible plant with very limited available information. Previous studies have demonstrated the polyphenolic profile and the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of the leaf and flowering top hydroalcoholic extracts. OBJECTIVE: The volatile composition and the antidiabetic and anti-obesity potential of B. incana leaf and flowering top extracts have been investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The volatile characterization of the extracts was attained by HS-SPME-GC/MS analysis. The antidiabetic and anti-obesity potential was investigated spectrophotometrically in vitro by the ability to modulate pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase at different concentrations using orlistat and acarbose as reference drugs. The inhibition of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) was measured with aminoguanidine as reference and the antioxidant activity with the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and Trolox for comparative purposes. RESULTS: Several volatiles belonging to different chemical classes were identified, being sulphur compounds the most abundant in both leaf and flowering top extracts (56.33% and 64.40% of all volatiles). Although the leaf extract showed lower IC50 values in most of the assays (0.968 and 1.921 mg/mL for α-glucosidase; 0.192 and 0.262 mg/mL for AGEs; 0.022 and 0.038 mg/mL for superoxide scavenging), there were no statistically significant differences between both samples. These extracts showed a similar behaviour to Trolox in the xanthine oxidase assay (IC50 values of 0.022 mg/mL for leaf extract; 0.038 mg/mL for flowering top and 0.028 for Trolox). CONCLUSIONS: Leaves and flowering tops from B. incana can be used as sources of functional compounds that could act as antidiabetic and anti-obesogenic agents.


Assuntos
Brassica , Hipoglicemiantes , Acarbose , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Topos Floridos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Lipase , Orlistate , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos de Enxofre , Superóxidos , Xantina Oxidase , Xantinas , alfa-Glucosidases
2.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(1): 1-8, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247996

RESUMO

In the present work, the antioxidant properties of methanolic (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and chloroformic (CHCl3) fractions of Rosa damascena petals were evaluated. Antioxidant capacity was assessed by free radical scavenging assays (DPPH•) and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and IC50. Qualitative analysis of chemical composition was carried out by HPLC and showed variability in the chemical constituents with a richness in flavonones and phenolic acids. Acute toxicity study and hemolysis test were also assessed. The MeOH and EtOAc fractions are of real and potential interest by their antioxidant activities. Furthermore, the microbiological study of the fractions showed a high activity of the EtOAc fraction which possesses bactericidal properties, followed by a moderate activity of the methanolic MeOH. The most sensitive strains were S. aureus and B. cereus while the most resistant were P. aeruginosa and E. coli (R). On the other side, no cytotoxicity was observed towards erythrocytes isolated from human blood and on a warm-blooded animal model. Therefore, the R. damascena petals constitute a promising source of molecules for clinical use without cytoxicity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Topos Floridos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosa , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Topos Floridos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9398, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931706

RESUMO

Although spikelet-related traits such as size of anther, spikelet, style, and stigma are associated with sexual reproduction in grasses, no QTLs have been reported in sorghum. Additionally, there are only a few reports on sorghum QTLs related to grain size, such as grain length, width, and thickness. In this study, we performed QTL analyses of nine spikelet-related traits (length of sessile spikelet, pedicellate spikelet, pedicel, anther, style, and stigma; width of sessile spikelet and stigma; and stigma pigmentation) and six grain-related traits (length, width, thickness, length/width ratio, length/thickness ratio, and width/thickness ratio) using sorghum recombinant inbred lines. We identified 36 and 7 QTLs for spikelet-related traits and grain-related traits, respectively, and found that most sorghum spikelet organ length- and width-related traits were partially controlled by the dwarf genes Dw1 and Dw3. Conversely, we found that these Dw genes were not strongly involved in the regulation of grain size. The QTLs identified in this study aid in understanding the genetic basis of spikelet- and grain-related traits in sorghum.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sorghum/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Topos Floridos/genética , Topos Floridos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(4): 877-891, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903955

RESUMO

In a rapidly changing climate, flowering time (FL) adaptation is important to maximize seed yield in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). However, our understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying FL in this multipurpose crop remains limited. With the aim of dissecting the genetic architecture of FL in flax, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 200 accessions of the flax core collection evaluated in four environments. Two single-locus and six multi-locus models were applied using 70,935 curated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A total of 40 quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) associated with 27 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified in at least two environments. The number of QTL with positive-effect alleles in accessions was significantly correlated with FL (r = 0.77 to 0.82), indicating principally additive gene actions. Nine QTL were significant in at least three of the four environments accounting for 3.06-14.71% of FL variation. These stable QTL spanned regions that harbored 27 Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa FL-related orthologous genes including FLOWERING LOCUS T (Lus10013532), FLOWERING LOCUS D (Lus10028817), transcriptional regulator SUPERMAN (Lus10021215), and gibberellin 2-beta-dioxygenase 2 (Lus10037816). In silico gene expression analysis of the 27 FL candidate gene orthologous suggested that they might play roles in the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase, flower development and fertilization. Our results provide new insights into the QTL architecture of flowering time in flax, identify potential candidate genes for further studies, and demonstrate the effectiveness of combining different GWAS models for the genetic dissection of complex traits.


Assuntos
Linho , Topos Floridos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Topos Floridos/genética , Linho/genética , Linho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corn silk is the elongated stigma of the female flower of Zea mays and traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the beneficial effects of corn silk extract (CSE) on HFD/STZ-induced diabetic C56BL/6J mice. METHODS: Establishment of a T2DM model through feeding HFD combined with STZ. T2DM was randomly divided into 5 groups: diabetic control mice treated with vehicle (model group, n=10), metformin- treated group (metformin: 150 mg/kg.d, n=10), three CS-treated groups (CS: 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg.d, n=10). After four weeks of CS treatment, the body weight, FBG, IR, TC, TG, LDL-C, MDA and SOD levels of mice were measured. In addition, the liver tissue was histomorphologically analyzed by HE stain followed a light microscopy observation. RESULTS: 4-week CSE treatment significantly reduced FBG and enhanced the glucose tolerance; improved IR indicated by decreased HOMA-IR and elevated ISI; alleviated hyperlipidemia indicated by decreased TC, TG, LDL-C, and increased HDL-C; reduced oxidative stress by decreased MDA and elevated SOD activity; decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and prevented liver tissue morphological change in T2DM. In addition, CSE treatments effectively prevent the weight gain loss of diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: These results confirmed the traditionally claimed benefits of corn silk on DM, which suggested that the corn silk possessed the anti-diabetic potential and could be further developed as a cheap and plant-derived agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Topos Floridos/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Zea mays/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Estreptozocina
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15155, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939023

RESUMO

High temperatures have significant impacts on heat-tolerant bolting in lettuce. In this study, it was found that high temperatures could facilitate the accumulation of GA in lettuce to induce bolting, with higher expression levels of two heat shock protein genes LsHsp70-3701 and LsHsp70-2711. By applying VIGS technology, these two Hsp70 genes were incompletely silenced and plant morphological changes under heat treatment of silenced plants were observed. The results showed that lower expression levels of these two genes could enhance bolting stem length of lettuce under high temperatures, which means these two proteins may play a significant role in heat-induced bolting tolerance. By using the yeast two-hybrid technique, it was found that a calmodulin protein could interact with LsHsp70 proteins in a high-temperature stress cDNA library, which was constructed for lettuce. Also, the Hsp70-calmodulin combination can be obtained at high temperatures. According to these results, it can be speculated that the interaction between Hsp70 and calmodulin could be induced under high temperatures and higher GA contents can be obtained at the same time. This study analyses the regulation of heat tolerance in lettuce and lays a foundation for additional studies of heat resistance in lettuce.


Assuntos
Calmodulina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alface/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Topos Floridos/genética , Topos Floridos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Topos Floridos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Alface/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394782

RESUMO

Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (AAs) have multiple biological effects, which are of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. To unleash the potential of Amaryllidaceae plants as pharmaceutical crops and as sources of AAs, a thorough understanding of the AA biosynthetic pathway is needed. However, only few enzymes in the pathway are known. Here, we report the transcriptome of AA-producing paperwhites (Narcissus papyraceus Ker Gawl). We present a list of 21 genes putatively encoding enzymes involved in AA biosynthesis. Next, a cDNA library was created from 24 different samples of different parts at various developmental stages of N. papyraceus. The expression of AA biosynthetic genes was analyzed in each sample using RT-qPCR. In addition, the alkaloid content of each sample was analyzed by HPLC. Leaves and flowers were found to have the highest abundance of heterocyclic compounds, whereas the bulb, the lowest. Lycorine was also the predominant AA. The gene expression results were compared with the heterocyclic compound profiles for each sample. In some samples, a positive correlation was observed between the gene expression levels and the amount of compounds accumulated. However, due to a probable transport of enzymes and alkaloids in the plant, a negative correlation was also observed, particularly at stage 2.


Assuntos
Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Narcissus/genética , Transcriptoma , Topos Floridos/genética , Topos Floridos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Narcissus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 67-77, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100654

RESUMO

For more than four centuries, the intake of Narthecium ossifragum has been associated with poisoning in domesticated animals. Saponins occurring in flowering tops of the plant are considered to cause kidney damage in calves. At present, there are more than 30 papers on the saponins of N. ossifragum in the literature, although the structures of these compounds have hitherto not been determined. Here, we identify the saponins of N. ossifragum as sarsasapogenin, sarsasapogenin-3-O-ß-galactopyranoside, sarsasapogenin-3-O-(2'-O-ß-glucopyranosyl-ß-galactopyranoside) and sarsasapogenin-3-O-(2'-O-ß-glucopyranosyl-3'-O-α-arabinopyranosyl-ß-galactopyranoside). Moreover, six aromatic natural products were isolated and characterized from the methanolic extract from flowers of N. ossifragum. Five of these aromatic compounds, chrysoeriol 6-C-ß-arabinofuranoside-8-C-ß-glucopyranoside, chrysoeriol 6-C-ß-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-ß-glucopyranoside, chrysoeriol 6-C-ß-xylopyranosyl-8-C-ß-galactopyranoside, chrysoeriol 6-C-ß-galactopyranosyl-8-C-ß-glucopyranoside and chrysoeriol 6-C-ß-glucopyranosyl-8-C-ß-galactopyranoside are undescribed. All compounds were tested for cytotoxicity in mammalian cell lines derived from the heart, kidney, and haematological tissues. The saponins exhibited cytotoxicity in the micromolar range, with proportionally increasing cytotoxicity with increasing number of glycosyl substituents. The most potent compound was the main saponin sarsasapogenin-3-O-(2'-O-ß-glucopyranosyl-3'-O-α-arabinopyranosyl-ß-galactopyranoside), which produced cell death at concentrations below 3-4 µM in all three cell lines tested. This indicates that the saponins are the toxicants mainly responsible for kidney damage observed in cattle after ingestion of N. ossifragum. Our findings also pave the way for analysis of individual compounds isolated during the biopsies of intoxicated animals.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Topos Floridos/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Conformação Molecular , Ratos , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Plant Cell Environ ; 42(7): 2165-2182, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847928

RESUMO

Photoperiod is a key environmental cue affecting flowering and biomass traits in plants. Key components of the photoperiodic flowering pathway have been identified in many species, but surprisingly few studies have globally examined the diurnal rhythm of gene expression with changes in day length. Using a cost-effective 3'-Tag RNA sequencing strategy, we characterize 9,010 photoperiod responsive genes with strict statistical testing across a diurnal time series in the C4 perennial grass, Panicum hallii. We show that the vast majority of photoperiod responses are driven by complex interactions between day length and sampling periods. A fine-scale contrast analysis at each sampling time revealed a detailed picture of the temporal reprogramming of cis-regulatory elements and biological processes under short- and long-day conditions. Phase shift analysis reveals quantitative variation among genes with photoperiod-dependent diurnal patterns. In addition, we identify three photoperiod enriched transcription factor families with key genes involved in photoperiod flowering regulatory networks. Finally, coexpression networks analysis of GIGANTEA homolog predicted 1,668 potential coincidence partners, including five well-known GI-interacting proteins. Our results not only provide a resource for understanding the mechanisms of photoperiod regulation in perennial grasses but also lay a foundation to increase biomass yield in biofuel crops.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Panicum/genética , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Topos Floridos/genética , Topos Floridos/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
10.
Insect Sci ; 26(3): 555-568, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29115041

RESUMO

Interactions between ecological communities of herbivores and microbes are commonly mediated by a shared plant. A tripartite interaction between a pathogenic fungus-host plant-herbivorous insect is an example of such mutual influences. In such a system a fungal pathogen commonly has a negative influence on the morphology and biochemistry of the host plant, with consequences for insect herbivore performance. Here we studied whether the biotrophic fungus Podosphaera ferruginea, attacking the great burnet Sanguisorba officinalis, affects caterpillar performance of the endangered scarce large blue butterfly Phengaris teleius. Our results showed that the pathogenic fungus affected the number and size of inflorescences produced by food-plants and, more importantly, had indirect, plant-mediated effects on the abundance, body mass and immune response of caterpillars. Specifically, we found the relationship between caterpillar abundance and variability in inflorescence size on a plant to be positive among healthy food-plants, and negative among infected food-plants. Caterpillars that fed on healthy food-plants were smaller than those that fed on infected food-plants in one studied season, while there was no such difference in the other season. We observed the relationship between caterpillar immune response and the proportion of infected great burnets within a habitat patch to be positive when caterpillars fed on healthy food-plants, and negative when caterpillars fed on infected food-plants. Our results suggest that this biotrophic fungal infection of the great burnet may impose a significant indirect influence on P. teleius caterpillar performance with potential consequences for the population dynamics and structure of this endangered butterfly.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Borboletas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbivoria , Sanguisorba/microbiologia , Animais , Borboletas/imunologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Topos Floridos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/imunologia , Densidade Demográfica , Sanguisorba/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Food Funct ; 9(9): 4936-4947, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178790

RESUMO

Syzygium aromaticum L., commonly named clove, is widely used in the food industry due to its antioxidant and antibacterial capabilities. However, little information is available regarding its role in resisting skin photoaging. This study investigated 50% ethanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum L. (SA) and eugenol (EO) for anti-aging effects in UVB-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) and hairless mice. In vitro, SA and EO suppressed matrix metalloproteinase-1, 3 (MMP-1 and MMP-3) secretion as well as the activator protein 1 (AP-1) phosphorylation. SA and EO also activated nuclear erythroid 2-related factor/antioxidant-response element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling which improves the antioxidant activity and inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression, pro-inflammatory factors. Furthermore, SA and EO suppressed the nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) which is a known activator of MMPs, cooperator transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) and NF-κB in Ca2+/calcineurin-regulated transcription. In vivo, SA significantly improved the levels of procollagen type I and elastin through TGF/Smad signaling. The histopathological studies found that SA reduced wrinkles. SA also increased filament aggregating protein (filaggrin), which repairs the skin barrier function and improved the skin's hydration. Altogether, SA effectively ameliorated UVB-induced photoaging. It is expected to become a promising natural product.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Topos Floridos/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/terapia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Syzygium/química , Cicatrização , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Eugenol/uso terapêutico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Pelados , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos da radiação , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/imunologia , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/metabolismo , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/imunologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/patologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
14.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 936, 2017 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038434

RESUMO

The barley inflorescence (spike) comprises a multi-noded central stalk (rachis) with tri-partite clusters of uni-floretted spikelets attached alternately along its length. Relative fertility of lateral spikelets within each cluster leads to spikes with two or six rows of grain, or an intermediate morphology. Understanding the mechanisms controlling this key developmental step could provide novel solutions to enhanced grain yield. Classical genetic studies identified five major SIX-ROWED SPIKE (VRS) genes, with four now known to encode transcription factors. Here we identify and characterise the remaining major VRS gene, VRS3, as encoding a putative Jumonji C-type H3K9me2/me3 demethylase, a regulator of chromatin state. Exploring the expression network modulated by VRS3 reveals specific interactions, both with other VRS genes and genes involved in stress, hormone and sugar metabolism. We show that combining a vrs3 mutant allele with natural six-rowed alleles of VRS1 and VRS5 leads to increased lateral grain size and greater grain uniformity.The VRS genes of barley control the fertility of the lateral spikelets on the barley inflorescence. Here, Bull et al. show that VRS3 encodes a putative Jumonji C-type histone demethylase that regulates expression of other VRS genes, and genes involved in stress, hormone and sugar metabolism.


Assuntos
Topos Floridos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Fertilidade , Haplótipos , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Mutação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Seleção Genética , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0185112, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28945821

RESUMO

Floret, leaf, and root tissues were harvested from broccoli and collard cultivars and extracted to determine their glucosinolate and hydrolysis product profiles using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromotography. Quinone reductase inducing bioactivity, an estimate of anti-cancer chemopreventive potential, of the extracts was measured using a hepa1c1c7 murine cell line. Extracts from root tissues were significantly different from other tissues and contained high levels of gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin. Targeted gene expression analysis on glucosinolate biosynthesis revealed that broccoli root tissue has elevated gene expression of AOP2 and low expression of FMOGS-OX homologs, essentially the opposite of what was observed in broccoli florets, which accumulated high levels of glucoraphanin. Broccoli floret tissue has significantly higher nitrile formation (%) and epithionitrile specifier protein gene expression than other tissues. This study provides basic information of the glucosinolate metabolome and transcriptome for various tissues of Brassica oleracea that maybe utilized as potential byproducts for the nutraceutical market.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/metabolismo , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/genética , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Anticarcinógenos/análise , Brassica/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Topos Floridos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucose/análise , Glucose/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise , Imidoésteres/análise , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/biossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
16.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 59(9): 693-707, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28843032

RESUMO

Grasses display highly diversified inflorescence architectures that differ in the arrangement of spikelets and flowers and determine cereal yields. However, the molecular basis underlying grass inflorescence morphogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we investigate the role of a functionally diversified SEPALLATA MADS-box transcription factor, OsMADS34, in regulating rice (Oryza sativa L.) inflorescence and spikelet development. Microarray analysis showed that, at the very early stages of inflorescence formation, dysfunction of OsMADS34 caused altered expression of 379 genes that are associated with protein modification and degradation, transcriptional regulation, signaling and metabolism activity. Genetic analysis revealed that OsMADS34 controls different aspects of inflorescence structure, branching and meristem activity synergistically with LAX PANICLE1 (LAX1) and FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER4 (FON4), as evidenced by the enhanced phenotypes of osmads34 lax1 and osmads34 fon4 compared with the single mutants. Additionally, double mutant between osmads34 and the sterile lemma defective mutant elongated empty glume (ele) displayed an enhanced phenotype, that is, longer and wider sterile lemmas that were converted into lemma/palea-like organs, suggesting that ELE and OsMADS34 synergistically control the sterile lemma development. OsMADS34 may act together with OsMADS15 in controlling sterile lemma development. Collectively, these findings provide insights into the regulatory function of OsMADS34 in rice inflorescence and spikelet development.


Assuntos
Topos Floridos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/fisiologia , Oryza/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Topos Floridos/ultraestrutura , Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Oryza/ultraestrutura
17.
New Phytol ; 215(2): 825-839, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28556940

RESUMO

YABBY genes play important roles in the development of lateral organs such as leaves and floral organs in Angiosperms. However, the function of YABBY genes is poorly understood in monocots. We focused on three rice (Oryza sativa) YABBY genes, TONGARI-BOUSHI (TOB1, TOB2, TOB3), which are closely related to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL). To elucidate the function of these YABBY genes, we employed a reverse genetic approach. TOB genes were expressed in bract and lateral organ primordia, but not in meristems. RNAi knockdown of TOB2 or TOB3 in the tob1 mutant caused abnormal spikelet development. Furthermore, simultaneous knockdown of both TOB2 and TOB3 in tob1 affected not only spikelet, but also inflorescence development. In severe cases, the inflorescences comprised naked branches without spikelets. Analysis of inflorescence development at an early stage showed that the observed phenotypic defects were closely associated with a failure to initiate and maintain reproductive meristems. These results indicate that the TOB genes regulate the maintenance and fate of all reproductive meristems. It is likely that the function of FIL/TOB clade YABBY genes has been conserved between Arabidopsis and rice to maintain the proper function of meristems, even though these genes are expressed in lateral organ primordia.


Assuntos
Meristema/fisiologia , Oryza/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Topos Floridos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inflorescência/genética , Inflorescência/fisiologia , Meristema/genética , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Interferência de RNA
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(2): 587-594, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27098241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clonal selection is one of the tools used for grapevine improvement and therefore is very important for obtaining clones with better characteristics than the variety population. The aim of this study was to select superior grapevines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Muscat Hamburg grown for fresh consumption. RESULTS: The viticultural parameters and fruit composition of 35 selected vines were determined during a 5-year period. The evaluated parameters showed high variability among selected vines. The significant effect of vintage was observed for all descriptors with the exception of the number of seeds per berry and sugar concentration. Additionally, all vines were examined for their tolerance to low temperatures and the results showed 73% and 90% of primary bud injury at -20 and -25 °C, respectively. In relation to berry classification, the percentage of first-class grapes ranged from 60% to 69% for all selected grapevines. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to classify grapevines based on their performance. CONCLUSION: Fourteen grapevines were identified as the most promising among the 35 vines initially planted, based on high yield, bunch and berry weight, sugar content and percentage of first-grade grapes. Those grapevines were selected for the next phase of the clonal selection. This study highlighted the importance of clonal selection for improvement of the variety population. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Melhoramento Vegetal , Vitis/química , Aclimatação , Análise por Conglomerados , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Dissacarídeos/análise , Dissacarídeos/biossíntese , Topos Floridos/classificação , Topos Floridos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Valor Nutritivo , Epiderme Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sérvia , Vitis/classificação , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/metabolismo
19.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 9(3): 223-9, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27117608

RESUMO

Heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in various vegetables (cabbage, green onion, lettuce, parsley, rocket, spinach, carrot, onion, potato and cauliflower) from the market in Jordan were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn ranged from 0.009-0.275 mg kg(-1) wet weight, 0.004-0.060 mg kg(-1), 0.003-0.401 mg kg(-1), 0.105-3.51 mg kg(-1), 0.15-1.15 mg kg(-1), 0.93-14.39 mg kg(-1), 0.044-0.702 mg kg(-1), 0.072-0.289 mg kg(-1) and 2.23-6.65 mg kg(-1), respectively. Parsley, followed by spinach, contained the highest concentration of heavy metals. Onion contained high levels of toxic heavy metals. The content of Cu in parsley and spinach and Pb in onion exceeded the Codex limits. However, the daily intake of heavy metals from the tested vegetables was lower than the maximum limits for allowable intake.


Assuntos
Arsênio/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Metais Pesados/análise , Verduras/química , Adulto , Arsênio/toxicidade , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/normas , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , União Europeia , Topos Floridos/efeitos adversos , Topos Floridos/química , Inspeção de Alimentos , Humanos , Jordânia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Folhas de Planta/efeitos adversos , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Tubérculos/efeitos adversos , Tubérculos/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Nações Unidas , Verduras/efeitos adversos , Verduras/economia , Verduras/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 96(13): 4465-74, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26847375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change can affect the productivity and geographic distribution of crops. Therefore, evaluation of adaptive management options is crucial in dealing with negative impacts of climate change. The objectives of this study were to simulate the impacts of climate change on maize production in the north-east of Iran. Moreover, vulnerability index which indicated that how much of the crop yield loss is related to the drought was computed for each location to identify where adaptation and mitigation strategies are effective. Different sowing dates were also applied as an adaptation approach to decrease the negative impacts of climate change in study area. RESULTS: The results showed that the maize yield would decline during the 21st century from -2.6% to -82% at all study locations in comparison with the baseline. The result of vulnerability index also indicated that using the adaptation strategies could be effective in all of the study areas. Using different sowing dates as an adaptation approach showed that delaying the sowing date will be advantageous in order to obtain higher yield in all study locations in future. CONCLUSION: This study provided insight regarding the climate change impacts on maize production and the efficacy of adaptation strategies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Mudança Climática , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Sementes/fisiologia , Zea mays/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos da radiação , Mudança Climática/economia , Simulação por Computador , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos da radiação , Clima Desértico , Secas/economia , Topos Floridos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Topos Floridos/fisiologia , Topos Floridos/efeitos da radiação , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Previsões , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Estações do Ano , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/efeitos da radiação
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