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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443525

RESUMO

The epidemiology of yeast infections and resistance to available antifungal drugs are rapidly increasing, and non-albicans Candida species and rare yeast species are increasingly emerging as major opportunistic pathogens. In order to identify new strategies to counter the threat of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms, essential oils (EOs) have become an important potential in the treatment of fungal infections. EOs and their bioactive pure compounds have been found to exhibit a wide range of remarkable biological activities. We investigated the in vitro antifungal activity of nine commercial EOs such as Thymus vulgaris (thyme red), Origanum vulgare (oregano), Lavandula vera (lavender), Pinus sylvestris (pine), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), Salvia officinalis (sage), Eugenia caryophyllata (clove) and Pelargonium asperum (geranium), and some of their main components (α-pinene, carvacrol, citronellal, eugenol, γ-terpinene, linalool, linalylacetate, terpinen-4-ol, thymol) against non-albicans Candida strains and uncommon yeasts. The EOs were analyzed by GC-MS, and their antifungal properties were evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration parameters, in accordance with CLSI guidelines, with some modifications for EOs. Pine exhibited strong antifungal activity against the selected non-albicans Candida isolates and uncommon yeasts. In addition, lemon balm EOs and α-pinene exhibited strong antifungal activity against the selected non-albicans Candida yeasts. Thymol inhibited the growth of all uncommon yeasts. These data showed a promising potential application of EOs as natural adjuvant for management of infections by emerging non-albicans Candida species and uncommon pathogenic yeasts.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/patogenicidade , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Foeniculum/química , Humanos , Lavandula/química , Melissa/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Origanum/química , Pinus sylvestris/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Salvia officinalis/química , Syzygium/química , Thymus (Planta)/química
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 103-111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270007

RESUMO

Doubled haploidy technology is a powerful tool to accelerate the breeding of new crop varieties. Protocols are not universal, as even species within the same family require a specific process. Here we describe methods for developing doubled haploids for fennel and dill, both Apiaceae species which are used for food, flavorings, and medicine.


Assuntos
Anethum graveolens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anethum graveolens/genética , Foeniculum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Foeniculum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Diploide , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
3.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066799

RESUMO

Honey has good antimicrobial properties and can be used for medical treatment. The antimicrobial properties of unifloral honey varieties are different. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of nine kinds of Chinese monofloral honeys. In addition, headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) technology was used to detect their volatile components. The relevant results are as follows: 1. The agar diffusion test showed that the diameter of inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus of Fennel honey (21.50 ± 0.41 mm), Agastache honey (20.74 ± 0.37 mm), and Pomegranate honey (18.16 ± 0.11 mm) was larger than that of Manuka 12+ honey (14.27 ± 0.10 mm) and Manuka 20+ honey (16.52 ± 0.12 mm). The antimicrobial activity of Chinese honey depends on hydrogen peroxide. 2. The total antioxidant capacity of Fennel honey, Agastache honey, and Pomegranate honey was higher than that of other Chinese honeys. There was a significant positive correlation between the total antioxidant capacity and the total phenol content of Chinese honey (r = 0.958). The correlation coefficient between the chroma value of Chinese honey and the total antioxidant and the diameter of inhibition zone was 0.940 and 0.746, respectively. The analyzed dark honeys had better antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. 3. There were significant differences in volatile components among Fennel honey, Agastache honey, Pomegranate honey, and Manuka honey. Hexanal-D and Heptanol were the characteristic components of Fennel honey and Pomegranate honey, respectively. Ethyl 2-methylbutyrate and 3-methylpentanoic acids were the unique compounds of Agastache honey. The flavor fingerprints of the honey samples from different plants can be successfully built using HS-GC-IMS and principal component analysis (PCA) based on their volatile compounds. Fennel honey, Agastache honey, and Pomegranate honey are Chinese honey varieties with excellent antimicrobial properties, and have the potential to be developed into medical grade honey.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mel/análise , Mel/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Agastache/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , China , Cromatografia Gasosa , Foeniculum/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Leptospermum/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/química
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073180

RESUMO

In this work, microwave-assisted ionic liquids treatment, followed by hydro-distillation (MILT-HD), as an efficient extraction technology, was used to extract essential oil. The purpose for this was to use multivariate analysis (MVA) models to investigate the effects of potential critical process parameters on the extraction efficiency of essential oil, and explore the mechanism of ionic liquids (ILs). According to the design of experiment (DoE), under optimal process conditions, the extraction efficiency of essential oil was dramatically enhanced, and had low energy demands. Since little is known regarding those mechanisms, according to the non-covalent interaction analysis, the underlying mechanism for ILs improving extraction efficiency was explored based on the density functional theory (DFT). The results showed that ILs could form intense non-covalent bond interaction with cellulose. It helped destroy the network hydrogen bond structure of cellulose in plant cells and caused the essential oils in the cells to be more easily exposed to the extraction solution, thereby accelerating extraction efficiency. Based on this work, it is conducive to understand the MILT-HD process better and gain knowledge of the mechanism of ILs.


Assuntos
Foeniculum/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Celulose/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Destilação/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Imidazóis/química , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Micro-Ondas , Análise Multivariada , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
5.
J Complement Integr Med ; 18(2): 261-269, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most common complaints for women is dysmenorrhea. Several studies investigated the treatment effects of medicinal plants on primary dysmenorrhea. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the effect of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) on pain in primary dysmenorrhea in comparison to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as mefenamic acid. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Science Direct, ProQuest, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, Magiran, SID, Iran Medex, and Irandoc were searched up to January 2019. Quality assessment of clinical trials was conducted using Jadad scoring system. Totally, 12 studies were entered in the meta-analysis. I 2 was calculated to determine heterogeneity. Fixed effects and/or random effects models were applied. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of these trials showed that F. vulgare intake decreased significantly the intensity of dysmenorrhea compared to the placebo (SMD -0.632; CI: -0.827 to -0.436; p<0.001; heterogeneity p=0.807; I 2=0%; fixed effect model; seven articles). However, the effect of Mefenamic acid with F. vulgare was not different from each other (SMD=-0.214; CI: -0.446 to 0.017; p=0.07; heterogeneity p=0.58; I 2=0%; fixed effect model; six trials). CONCLUSION: The F. vulgare alleviates dysmenorrhea. Regarding the same effect of F. vulgare with NSAIDs, it is highly recommend to the women suffered from dysmenorrhea specifically the ones who have high tendency toward herbal medicine.


Assuntos
Dismenorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Foeniculum , Fitoterapia/métodos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Mefenâmico/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico
6.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 31(2): 401-408, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158792

RESUMO

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases. Drug resistance, limitary efficacy, and severe side effects remain a challenge for treatment. Foeniculum vulgare is known as a medicinal plant belonging to the Apiaceae, and anti-microbial properties of this plant have already been confirmed. Method: The F.vulgare sterile aqueous and alcoholic extracts were prepared. In vitro has used RAW 264.7 cell line and L. major parasite (MRHO/IR/75/ER). Cytotoxicity assay on macrophages (CC50), cytotoxicity assay on promastigotes (IC50), and cytotoxicity assay on infected macrophages (EC50) were accomplished with both extracts by MTT and light microscopy methods. Four in vivo were allocated in four groups and five BALB/c mice each group. Stationary phase promastigotes were inoculated into the base of mice tails subcutaneously (SC). Measurement of the body weight, lesion size, parasite burden of the lesion, and spleen after 4 weeks for evaluation effects of the alcoholic extract on CL was done. Results: The results of in vitro revealed that the optimal concentrations of both extracts reducing the promastigotes and amastigotes growth. Alcoholic extract no harmful side effects for the host macrophages, while were indicated has a potent action against L. major. In vivo results after 4 weeks did not show any variation in lesion size and body weight. Also, lesion size and spleen parasite burden decreased in comparison to no treatment group. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract could be a new alternative treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. However this extract needs more investigation for novel herbal drugs against CL.


Assuntos
Foeniculum , Leishmania major , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Animais , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112253, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015424

RESUMO

Estragole and anethole are secondary metabolites occurring in a variety of commonly used herbs like fennel, basil, and anise. Estragole is genotoxic and carcinogenic in rodents, which depends on the formation of 1'-sulfoxyestragole after hydroxylation and subsequent sulfoconjugation catalyzed by CYP and SULT, respectively. It was hypothesized recently that anethole may be bioactivated via the same metabolic pathways. Incubating estragole with hepatic S9-fractions from rats and humans, specific adducts with hemoglobin (N-(isoestragole-3-yl)-valine, IES-Val) and DNA (isoestragole-2'-deoxyguanosine and isoestragole-2'-deoxyadenosine) were formed. An isotope-dilution technique was developed for the quantification of IES-Val after cleavage with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) according to a modified Edman degradation. The same adducts, albeit at lower levels, were also detected in reactions with anethole, indicating the formation of 3'-hydroxyanethole and the reactive 3'-sulfoxyanethole. Finally, we conducted a pilot investigation in which IES-Val levels in human blood were determined during and after the consumption of an estragole- and anethole-rich fennel tea for four weeks. A significant increase of IES-Val levels was observed during the consumption phase and followed by a continuous decrease during the washout period. IES-Val may be used to monitor the internal exposure to the common reactive genotoxic metabolites of estragole and anethole, 1'-sulfoxyestragole and 3'-sulfoxyanethole, respectively.


Assuntos
Derivados de Alilbenzenos/toxicidade , Anisóis/toxicidade , Adutos de DNA/química , Foeniculum/química , Hemoglobinas/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/metabolismo , Animais , Anisóis/metabolismo , Bebidas/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Ratos
8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 260: 119956, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049008

RESUMO

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) are widely used seasonings and play a very important role in industries such as breeding, cosmetics, winemaking, drug discovery, and nano-synthetic materials. However, studies have shown that cumin and fennel from different regions not only differ greatly in the content of lipids, phenols and proteins but also the substances contained in their essential oils are also different. Therefore, realizing precise identification of cumin and fennel from different regions will greatly help in quality control, market fraud and production industrialization. In this experiment, cumin and fennel samples were collected from each region, a total of 480 NIR spectra were collected. We used deep learning and traditional machine learning algorithms combined with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to identify their origin. To obtain the model with the best generalization performance and classification accuracy, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce spectral data dimensionality after Rubberband baseline correction, and then established classification models including quadratic discriminant analysis based on PCA (PCA-QDA) and multilayer perceptron based on PCA (PCA-MLP). We also directly input the spectral data after baseline correction into convolutional neural networks (CNN) and generative adversarial networks (GAN). The experimental results show that GAN is more accurate than the PCA-QDA, PCA-MLP and CNN models, and the classification accuracy reached 100%. In the cumin and fennel classification experiment in the same region, the four models achieve great classification results from three regions under the condition that all model parameters remain unchanged. The experimental results show that when the training data are limited and the dimension is high, the model obtained by GAN using competitive learning has more generalization ability and higher classification accuracy. It also provides a new method for solving the problem of limited training data in food research and medical diagnosis in the future.


Assuntos
Cuminum , Foeniculum , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
9.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807371

RESUMO

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) waste contains a broad range of bioactive molecules, including polyphenols, which have poor bioaccessibility during gastrointestinal digestion. This work aimed to investigate the bioaccessibility of total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity during simulated gastrointestinal digestion using two nutraceutical formulations based on non-acid-resistant (NAR) and acid-resistant (AR) capsules containing aqueous-based extracts from fennel waste. Moreover, to obtain a comprehensive investigation of the polyphenolic constituents of the fennel waste extract, a high-resolution mass spectrometry (Q-Orbitrap) analysis was performed. Notably, chlorogenic acids, such as 4-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, were the most detected compounds found in assayed samples (1.949 and 0.490 mg/g, respectively). After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, the extract contained in AR capsules displayed higher bioaccessibility in both the duodenal and colonic stages (1.96 and 5.19 mg GAE/g, respectively) than NAR capsules (1.72 and 3.50 mg GAE/g, respectively), suggesting that the acidic gastric conditions negatively affected the polyphenol compounds released from the NAR capsules. Therefore, the aqueous extract of fennel waste could be proposed as an innovative and easily available source of dietary polyphenols. Furthermore, the use of an AR capsule could improve the polyphenol bioaccessibility and can be proposed as a nutraceutical formulation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Foeniculum , Extratos Vegetais , Polifenóis/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão , Foeniculum/química , Foeniculum/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
10.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 90, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the expression and serum level of AMH in first-generation female mice pups following fennel and flaxseed consumption. METHODS: Twenty pregnant NMRI mice were allocated into four groups including control (CTL), fennel (FV), flaxseed (LU) and FV+ LU. Sixty-four female offsprings after lactation period, received the same regimen as their mothers for 56 and 240 days. The ovarian follicles development, serum concentration of AMH, as well as gene and protein expression of AMH were evaluated in the female offsprings at post-natal day 56 (PND56) and 240 (PND240). RESULTS: The number of total growing follicles were raised in the FV group in compression to the all experimental groups. In contrast, LU group showed a marked decrease in their numbers. The highest level of serum AMH was seen in the FV-diet mice, whereas LU negatively affected it. The expression level of AMH also increased in the FV and FV + LU groups, while a reduction was observed in the LU group. As well, IHC data showed that the number of AMH-positive cells in almost ovarian follicles of FV and FV + LU-treated mice was in compared to those of the LU group. CONCLUSIONS: The overall effect of fennel treatment (alone and in combination with flaxseed) on ovary might be maintain primordial follicle storage through increased expression and serum level of AMH.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Linho , Foeniculum , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Camundongos , Gravidez
11.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 43: 101360, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725577

RESUMO

This review aimed to evaluate the current evidence on the effectiveness and safety of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) for managing menopausal women's health. Fourteen databases were searched. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated any type of fennel treatment in menopausal women. Seven RCTs that met our inclusion criteria were identified and analyzed. The included RCTs had concerning risks of bias in general. Two RCTs compared the effects of fennel with placebo, and the meta-analysis results favored fennel for improving menopausal symptoms (n = 145, standard mean difference -1.32 [-1.76, -0.87], p < 0.00001). Other studies failed to show beneficial effects of fennel in terms of sexual function, quality of life (QoL), and psychological health. No serious adverse events were reported. Our review presented evidence for fennel improving menopausal symptoms. However, the effectiveness and safety of fennel in improving QoL, and psychological health remains unclear.


Assuntos
Foeniculum , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Fitoterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Saúde da Mulher
12.
Br Poult Sci ; 62(4): 562-572, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530744

RESUMO

1. The effect of Foeniculi aetheroleum essential oil (EO) on growth performance, nutrient utilisation, serum biochemistry, immune response, ileum morphology, microbial population and meat quality of broiler chickens fed a corn- or wheat-based diet were determined.2. A total of 360 broiler chickens were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial assay in a completely randomised design with six replicates and 15 birds per experimental unit. Birds were fed corn- or wheat-based diets supplemented with (200 mg/kg) or without fennel EO.3. Birds fed wheat-based diets had lower BWG and FCR during grower period and lower FI during finisher period as compared to those fed corn-based diet (P < 0.05) whereas addition of fennel EO decreased chickens BWG during finisher period and EPEF, both in wheat or in corn-based diets. Dietary treatments had no effect on serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT, ALP, and MDA concentrations (P < 0.05).4. Antibody titres against avian influenza and sheep red blood cell antibody titres, crude protein and crude fat utilisation, villus height, crypt depth and epithelium thickness were not influenced by dietary treatments (P > 0.05). Inclusion of Fennel EO to the corn-based diet resulted in greater villus width and villus surface area while it reduced lamina propria thickness (P < 0.05). Fennel EO reduced ileal E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. populations (P < 0.05). Dietary treatments had no significant effect on meat pH, cooking loss, drip loss, crude protein, crude fat content and cholesterol concentration of breast and thigh meat, total phenolic and MDA concentrations, and breast meat sensory parameters (P > 0.05).5. These results showed that addition of fennel EO to wheat-based diets had a negative effect on chicken growth performance variables and decreased gut E. coli populations. However, immunity, meat quality and nutrient utilisation were not affected by dietary treatments.


Assuntos
Foeniculum , Óleos Voláteis , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Escherichia coli , Íleo , Carne/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ovinos , Triticum , Zea mays
13.
Food Chem ; 350: 129060, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610846

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three Lebanese wild plant extracts on acrylamide (AA) content in French fries, and to investigate the impact of air frying (AF) and deep frying (DF) techniques against AA formation. HPLC showed higher level of AA in DF (1384.79 ng/g) than in AF (163.1 ng/g). Indeed, the plant extracts of ginger, borage and fennel succeeded to decrease AA (59.67, 67.99, and 73.36% in (AF) and 21.91, 66.29 and 29.15% in (DF) respectively)in both fryers. Accordingly, borage fennel and ginger with their high scavenging activity (86.09%, 89.11% 93.67% respectively) and total phenolic contents (298.61, 117.79 and 97.36 of GAE respectively) can act as healthy beneficial pre-treatment, overall reducing AA in potato fries particularly in AF. This study was the first to reveal the importance of using plant extract in reducing AA in potato fries, a staple Lebanese food.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Borago/química , Culinária/métodos , Foeniculum/química , Gengibre/química , Temperatura Alta , Solanum tuberosum/química , Acrilamida/análise , Eletricidade , Extratos Vegetais/química
14.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572507

RESUMO

In the current study, by-product seed pastes (VSPs) from Vitis vinifera, Foeniculum vulgare, Cannabis sativa and Punica granatum, generated during the oil production process, were investigated for their potential exploitation as dermo-cosmetic agent. The extraction pipeline of all the raw materials was developed with emphasis on green methodologies and employed on laboratory scale based on industry-adopted techniques. Two different protocols were applied, Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE); the by-product pastes were defatted with supercritical CO2 and n-Hexane, respectively. Then, two SFE extracts (CO2 with 10% and 20% of ethanol as co-solvent) and two UAE extracts (with ethanol and ethanol/water 1:1 v/v) were obtained from each raw material. The providing yield range was between 2.6 to 76.3 mg/g raw material. The extracts were analyzed with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometer (LC-HRMS), and the major compounds, were identified. All the extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant and inhibition activity against collagenase, elastase and tyrosinase enzymes. Grapevine by-product extracts found rich in proanthocyanidins and presented the higher inhibition activity. A holistic green experimental methodology is proposed for the obtainment of extracts from significant medicinal plants by-products that provides us with promising results concerning dermo-cosmetic properties, especially for grape seeds extracts.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Cosméticos/farmacologia , Foeniculum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Sementes/química
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 135: 111213, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395604

RESUMO

The factors behind the pathogenesis of lung cancer are not clear, and treatment failure is generally caused by drug resistance, recurrence, and metastasis. Development of new therapeutic agents to overcome drug-resistance remains a challenge clinically. Various extracts of Foeniculum vulgare have shown promising anticancer activity; however, effects on lung cancer and the underlying molecular mechanisms of action are not clear. In the present study, we found that the ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare seeds (EEFS) significantly reduced lung cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. EEFS decreased the viability of and triggered apoptosis in the lung cancer cell lines NCI-H446 and NCI-H661. EEFS induced apoptosis mainly through inhibition of Bcl-2 protein expression, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and release of Cytochrome C. Moreover, EEFS significantly inhibited colony formation and cell migration in lung cancer cells. EEFS also effectively inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors derived from NCI-446 cells by reducing Bcl-2 protein expression and inducing apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that EEFS exerts anti-lung cancer activity by targeting the Bcl-2 protein and may have potential as a therapeutic drug for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Foeniculum , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Foeniculum/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Sementes , Transdução de Sinais , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 270: 113782, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421603

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: 'Salt-processed Psoraleae Fructus & salt-processed Foeniculi Fructus' (sPF&sFF) is a common Chinese medicinal combination for treating diarrhoea. However, it is not clear how sPF and sFF work together, and why salt-processing is necessary. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the compatibility mechanism of sPF&sFF and the influence of salt-processing on it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, the metabolomics approach was appliedto screen the differential components between four (s)PF&(s)FF extracts, i.e., sPF&sFF, sPF&FF, PF&sFF, and PF&FF extracts. Then, an in vivo metabolomics study was carried out to filter critical metabolites reflecting the curative effects of (s)PF&(s)FF, and construct a metabolic network. Finally, a correlation analysis between chemical components in extracts and critical metabolites in vivo was performed to find out the synergistic and/or antagonistic effects between herbs as well as the influence of salt-processing. RESULTS: Salt-processing had a direct influence on the contents of chemical components in sPF and sFF extracts, and there existed positive/negative correlations between the content change of chemical components and the effects of critical metabolites. Therefore, salt-processing indirectly affected on these correlations and was (i) conducive to the positive effects of sPF and sFF on bile acids, making sFF play a synergistic role, thereby, sPF&sFF could perform better than sPF and other three combinations and effectively relieve the symptoms of fatty diarrhoea, osmotic diuresis, malnutrition, and weight loss; (ii) conducive to the positive effects of sPF on triacylglycerol, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, cholesterol, and arachidonic acid, and adverse to that of sFF, making sFF play an antagonistic role, thereby, sPF&sFF could prevent a series of side effects caused by over-regulation and suitably relieve the symptoms of osmotic diuresis, polyuria, malnutrition, and weight loss; and (iii) adverse to the positive effects of sPF and sFF on thromboxane A2, sphinganine and sphingosine, making sFF play a synergistic role, thereby, sPF&sFF could prevent a series of side effects and moderately relieve the symptoms of metabolic diarrhoea and polyuria. CONCLUSIONS: Salt-processing indirectly affected on the correlations between chemical components in extracts and critical metabolites in vivo, and exhibited both conducive and adverse effects on the efficacy, making sPF and sFF cooperate with each other to moderately repair the metabolic disorders. Thereby, sPF&sFF could suitably relieve the diarrhoea and polyuria symptoms in the model and exert the most appropriate efficacy. Moreover, this novel strategy provided a feasible approach for further studying the compatibility mechanism of herbs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Foeniculum/química , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Psoralea/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , Correlação de Dados , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Foeniculum/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Poliúria/tratamento farmacológico , Poliúria/metabolismo , Psoralea/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sais/química , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 464-474, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465361

RESUMO

Porous starch (PS) was used as the core material carrier to adsorb fennel essential oil (FEO). Using sodium alginate (SA)-chitosan (CS) as the wall material and glutaraldehyde as the curing cross-linking agent, CS/SA/PS-FEO microcapsules were successfully prepared by polyelectrolyte complex coagulation method. The formation process, structural properties and release behavior of CS/SA/PS-FEO microcapsules were analyzed. The results showed that the essential oil was encapsulated in the form of micro-capsules according to infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. In open and closed systems, the 16-day cumulative release rate of FEO obtained was 70.62% and 43.87%, respectively indicating that the prepared CS/SA/PS-FEO microcapsules had a good sustained-release ability. The fennel essential oil micro-capsules exhibited good antibacterial and antioxidant activities, delayed the oxidation of fat and protein, reduced the total viable counts, total volatile-base nitrogen and methemoglobin. The textural property and status of water (analyzed by NMR) suggested that the quality of the meat can be maintained for an extended period by incorporating the CS/SA/PS-FEO microcapsules in the minced pork meat.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Foeniculum/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Amido/química , Alginatos/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cápsulas , Quitosana/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metemoglobina/análise , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Carne de Porco/análise , Porosidade , Suínos
18.
Food Funct ; 12(4): 1498-1515, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481979

RESUMO

The genus Foeniculum is known for its wide ethnobotanical use in the Mediterranean region. Herein, we explored the compositional differences of volatile oils and headspace aroma of Florence fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell.) based on its different organs and various geographical origins via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty-seven volatile components were detected with phenylpropenes and monoterpenes, including trans-anethole, limonene, α-pinene, trans-ß-ocimene, fenchyl acetate, and fenchone, as major constituents. Phenylpropenes were dominant in fennel hydro-distilled oils, whereas monoterpenes were dominant in most of the headspace aroma. The infraspecific variability was assessed using the unsupervised multivariate data analysis tools PCA and HCA, resulting in segregate clustering of accessions from different organs and locations with trans-anethole, limonene, trans-ß-ocimene, fenchone, myristicin, and apiole as major phytomarkers contributing to this segregation. The antiviral activities of samples against hepatitis A and C viruses were investigated using the plaque reduction assay, HAV 3C proteinase and HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitory assays with a percentage inhibition between 66% and 85% and IC50 values from 1.8 to 26.7 µg mL-1. In silico molecular docking scores in latter enzyme binding pockets revealed key allosteric interactions with trans-ß-ocimene and ß-fenchyl acetate showing the best Gibb's free energy. Florence fennel exhibited interesting new perspectives for medicinal and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Foeniculum/química , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Vegetais , Antivirais/análise , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite A/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
19.
Food Funct ; 12(4): 1482-1497, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502415

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. The prognosis of HCC is very poor due to the absence of symptoms and a lack of effective treatments. Studies have shown that various Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) extracts exhibit anti-cancer effects on malignant tumors such as skin cancer and prostate cancer. However, the anti-tumor activity of Foeniculum vulgare and its underlying molecular mechanisms towards HCC are unknown. Here, we provide fundamental evidence to show that the 75% ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare seeds (FVE) reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis, and effectively inhibited cell migration in HCC cells in vitro. HCC xenograft studies in nude mice showed that FVE significantly inhibited HCC growth in vivo. Mechanistic analyses showed that FVE reduced survivin protein levels and triggered mitochondrial toxicity, subsequently inducing caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Survivin inhibition effectively sensitized HCC cells to FVE-induced apoptosis. Moreover, FVE did not induce a decrease in survivin or apoptotic toxicity in normal liver cells. Collectively, in vivo and in vitro results suggest that FVE exerts inhibitory effects in HCC by targeting the oncoprotein survivin, suggesting FVE may be a potential anti-cancer agent that may benefit patients with HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Foeniculum/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sementes/química , Survivina/metabolismo
20.
Food Res Int ; 139: 109919, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509486

RESUMO

A rapid shot-gun method by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) is proposed for the characterization of fennel proteins. After enzymatic digestion with trypsin, few microliters of extract were analyzed by direct infusion in positive ion mode. A custom-made non-redundant fennel-specific proteome database was derived from the well-known NCBI database; additional proteins belonging to recognized allergenic sources (celery, carrot, parsley, birch, and mugwort) were also included in our database, since patients hypersensitive to these plants could also suffer from fennel allergy. The peptide sequence of each protein from that derived list was theoretically sequenced to produce calculated m/z lists of possible m/z ions after tryptic digestions. Then, by using a home-made Matlab algorithm, those lists were matched with the experimental FT-ICR mass spectrum of the fennel peptide mixture. Finally, Peptide Mass Fingerprint searches confirmed the presence of the matched proteins inside the fennel extract with a total of 70 proteins (61 fennel specific and 9 allergenic proteins).


Assuntos
Foeniculum , Ciclotrons , Análise de Fourier , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Mapeamento de Peptídeos
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