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1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1316: 342867, 2024 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kanamycin (KAN) residues in animal-derived foods continuously enter the human body, which will pose serious threats to human health such as hearing loss, nephrotoxicity and other complications. Therefore, to sensitively detect KAN residues by a reliable technology is extremely urgent in food quality and safety. Compared with traditional methods being limited by cost and complexity, photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensors benefit from some merits such as rapid response, excellent sensitivity and good stability. In this study, the construction of a highly efficient PEC platform to realize KAN residues detection is discussed. RESULTS: Herein, a novel p-n heterojunction consisting of flower-like BiOI microspheres and graphite carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanoflakes was developed to establish a PEC aptasensor for KAN detection at 0 V. The prepared g-C3N4/BiOI heterostructure showed not only significantly enhanced PEC activity due to the larger specific surface area but also greatly increased charge separation efficiency owing to the strong internal electric field. Meanwhile, using g-C3N4/BiOI as a highly efficient photoactive material for binding amine-functionalized aptamers to capture KAN, the photocurrent signals showed a 'turn off' mode to achieve the sensitive detection of KAN. The proposed PEC aptasensor exhibited linear response for KAN from 5 × 10-9 to 3 × 10-7 mol L-1 with a low detection limit of 1.31 × 10-9 mol L-1, and satisfactory recoveries (97.44-107.38 %) were obtained in real food samples analysis. SIGNIFICANCE: This work presented a novel p-n heterojunction-based PEC aptasensor with strong selectivity and stability, rendering it allowed to detect KAN in animal-derived foods including milk, honey and pork. Additionally, the detection range satisfied the MRLs for KAN specified by the national standards, demonstrating the potential application for food analysis. The study provides a new insight into the development of efficient and practical biosensors for antibiotic residues detection.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Grafite , Canamicina , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Grafite/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Canamicina/análise , Processos Fotoquímicos , Limite de Detecção , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos de Nitrogênio/química , Animais , Nitrilas/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Bismuto
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 684, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954087

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination in leafy vegetables poses significant health risks, highlighting the urgent need for stringent monitoring and intervention measures to ensure food safety and mitigate potential adverse effects on public health. This study investigates the levels of heavy metals, including cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu), in locally grown and commercially available leafy vegetables, comparing them to the safety limits established by WHO/FAO. The results revealed that levels of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in the vegetables exceeded WHO/FAO limits, while Zn and Cu remained within permissible bounds. Marketed vegetables exhibited higher metal concentrations than those from nearby farms. For Cu (0.114-0.289 mg/kg) and Zn (0.005-0.574 mg/kg), the daily intake of metals (DIM) was below the dietary intake (DI) and upper limit (UL). Cd's DIM (0.031-0.062 mg/kg) remained below the UL but exceeded the DI. Marketed kale and mint surpassed both DI and UL limits for Ni, while local produce only exceeded the DI. All vegetables had DIM below the DI, except for mint and kale. For Pb, every vegetable exceeded DI limits, with market samples contributing significantly. Cr's DIM ranged from 0.028 to 1.335 mg/kg, for which no set maximum daily intake exists. The health risk index (HRI) values for Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb suggested potential health risks associated with leafy greens, while Cr's HRI was below 1. The study underscores the need for stringent monitoring and intervention measures to mitigate the health risks posed by heavy metal contamination in leafy vegetables. These findings suggest that consuming these leafy greens may put consumers at considerable risk for health problems related to Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn exposure.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos , Metais Pesados , Saúde Pública , Poluentes do Solo , Verduras , Metais Pesados/análise , Verduras/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco
3.
Mikrochim Acta ; 191(8): 441, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954045

RESUMO

A ratiometric SERS aptasensor based on catalytic hairpin self-assembly (CHA) mediated cyclic signal amplification strategy was developed for the rapid and reliable determination of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The recognition probe was synthesized by modifying magnetic beads with blocked aptamers, and the SERS probe was constructed by functionalizing gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with hairpin structured DNA and 4-mercaptobenzonitrile (4-MBN). The recognition probe captured E. coli O157:H7 specifically and released the blocker DNA, which activated the CHA reaction on the SERS probe and turned on the SERS signal of 6-carboxyl-x-rhodamine (ROX). Meanwhile, 4-MBN was used as an internal reference to calibrate the matrix interference. Thus, sensitive and reliable determination and quantification of E. coli O157:H7 was established using the ratio of the SERS signal intensities of ROX to 4-MBN. This aptasensor enabled detection of 2.44 × 102 CFU/mL of E. coli O157:H7 in approximately 3 h without pre-culture and DNA extraction. In addition, good reliability and excellent reproducibility were observed for the determination of E. coli O157:H7 in spiked water and milk samples. This study offered a new solution for the design of rapid, sensitive, and reliable SERS aptasensors.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Escherichia coli O157 , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Leite , Análise Espectral Raman , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Ouro/química , Leite/microbiologia , Leite/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Animais , Catálise , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia da Água , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(9): 258, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954148

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to develop a pH-sensing biopolymer film based on the immobilization of red cabbage extract (RCE) within bacterial cellulose (BC) to detect contamination and gamma radiation exposure in cucumbers. The results obtained show a sensitivity to pH changes for RCE in its aqueous form and that incorporated within BC films (RCE-BC), both showed color change correlated to bacterial growth (R2 = 0.91), this was supported with increase in pH values from 2 to 12 (R2 = 0.98). RCE and RCE-BC exposure to gamma radiation (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 kGy) resulted in gradual decrease in color that was more evident in RCE aqueous samples. To sense bacterial contamination of cucumbers, the total count was followed at 0, 5, 10 and 15 days in cold storage conditions and was found to reach 9.13 and 5.47 log cfu/mL for non-irradiated and 2 kGy irradiated samples, respectively. The main isolates detected throughout this storage period were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Erwinia sp. Pantoea agglomerans using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-ms (MALDI-TOF-MS). Bacterial growth in stored irradiated cucumbers was detected by color change within 5 and 10 days of storage, after which there was no evident change. This is very useful since contamination within the early days of storage cannot be sensed with the naked eye. This study is the first to highlight utilizing RCE and RCE-BC as eco-friendly pH-sensing indicator films for intelligent food packaging to detect both food contamination and gamma preservation for refrigerator stored cucumbers.


Assuntos
Brassica , Celulose , Cucumis sativus , Raios gama , Extratos Vegetais , Brassica/microbiologia , Brassica/química , Celulose/química , Cucumis sativus/microbiologia , Cucumis sativus/química , Cucumis sativus/efeitos da radiação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Irradiação de Alimentos/métodos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
5.
Mikrochim Acta ; 191(8): 460, 2024 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38987355

RESUMO

The facile sonochemical synthesis is reported of zinc cobalt oxide (ZnCo2O4) composited with carbon nanofiber (CNF). Structural, chemical, and morphological were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoluminescent spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. ZnCo2O4/CNF-modified GCE was applied to the detection of bisphenol A (BPA). The modified GCE shows enhanced sensing performance towards BPA, which includes a linear range (0.2 to 120 µM L-1) alongside a low limit of detection (38.2 nM L-1), low interference, and good stability. Detection of lower concentrations of BPA enables real sample analysis in the food industries (milk, orange juice, yogurt, tap water, and baby feeding bottles). Surprisingly, the BPA was detected in milk 510 nM L-1, orange juice 340 nM L-1, yogurt 1050 nM L-1, and tap water 140 nM L-1. Moreover, an interaction mechanism between the BPA analyte and ZnCo2O4 was discussed.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Carbono , Cobalto , Leite , Nanofibras , Fenóis , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Cobalto/química , Carbono/química , Leite/química , Nanofibras/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais , Óxidos/química , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Química Verde/métodos , Iogurte/análise
6.
Mikrochim Acta ; 191(8): 454, 2024 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976069

RESUMO

An intelligent colorimetric sensing platform integrated with in situ immunomagnetic separation function was developed for ultrasensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157: H7 (E. coli O157: H7) in food. Captured antibody modified magnetic nanoparticles (cMNPs) and detection antibody/horseradish peroxidase (HRP) co-functionalized AuNPs (dHAuNPs) were firstly synthesized for targeted enrichment and colorimetric assay of E. coli O157: H7, in which remarkable signal amplification was realized by loading large amounts of HRP on the surface of AuNPs. Coupling with the optical collimation attachments and embedded magnetic separation module, a highly integrated optical device was constructed, by which in situ magnetic separation and high-quality imaging of 96-well microplates containing E. coli O157: H7 was achieved with a smartphone. The concentration of E. coli O157: H7 could be achieved in one-step by performing digital image colorimetric analysis of the obtained image with a custom-designed app. This biosensor possesses high sensitivity (1.63 CFU/mL), short detecting time (3 h), and good anti-interference performance even in real-sample testing. Overall, the developed method is expected to be a novel field detection platform for foodborne pathogens in water and food as well as for the diagnosis of infections due to its portability, ease of operation, and high feasibility.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Colorimetria , Escherichia coli O157 , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ouro , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre , Separação Imunomagnética , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Colorimetria/métodos , Ouro/química , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/química , Separação Imunomagnética/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Smartphone , Anticorpos Imobilizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15616, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971802

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the heavy metal concentration in fifteen species of vegetables as well as associated health risk. Atomic absorption spectrometry is used to assess heavy metals. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe in vegetables were 4.78, 0.713, 9.266, 0.083, 5.06 mg/kg/fw exceeding the reference value of FAO/WHO indicating unsafe to consumption. Based on principal component analysis, the Pb, Cr, Ni and Fe are from same sources. Health risk was estimated in terms of estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient, hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR). The EDI values of metals except Cr were found to be lower than maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI). The total THQs of metals were > 1 indicating non-carcinogenic health risk. The individual HI values for vegetables except potato (0.831) and total HI values were found to be > 1 (94.747). The TCR of Pb, Cd and Cr were > 1.0E-04 which indicating carcinogenic risk. Fruit and pod vegetables contribute much in carcinogenic risk for Pb and Cr whereas fruit, root and stems vegetables for Cd. The study revealed potential human health risk associated with the consumption of different types of vegetables in Bangladeshi adult population that might assist the regulatory bodies to develop new strategies to minimize the risk to human.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Metais Pesados , Verduras , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Verduras/química , Medição de Risco , Bangladesh , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
8.
Molecules ; 29(13)2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38998975

RESUMO

The contamination risks of plant-derived foods due to the co-existence of pesticides and veterinary drugs (P&VDs) have not been fully understood. With an increasing number of unexpected P&VDs illegally added to foods, it is essential to develop a non-targeted screening method for P&VDs for their comprehensive risk assessment. In this study, a modified support vector machine (SVM)-assisted metabolomics approach by screening eligible variables to represent marker compounds of 124 multi-class P&VDs in maize was developed based on the results of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis indicate the existence of variables with obvious inter-group differences, which were further investigated by S-plot plots, permutation tests, and variable importance in projection to obtain eligible variables. Meanwhile, SVM recursive feature elimination under the radial basis function was employed to obtain the weight-squared values of all the variables ranging from large to small for the screening of eligible variables as well. Pairwise t-tests and fold changes of concentration were further employed to confirm these eligible variables to represent marker compounds. The results indicate that 120 out of 124 P&VDs can be identified by the SVM-assisted metabolomics method, while only 109 P&VDs can be found by the metabolomics method alone, implying that SVM can promote the screening accuracy of the metabolomics method. In addition, the method's practicability was validated by the real contaminated maize samples, which provide a bright application prospect in non-targeted screening of contaminants. The limits of detection for 120 P&VDs in maize samples were calculated to be 0.3~1.5 µg/kg.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Praguicidas , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Drogas Veterinárias , Zea mays , Zea mays/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
9.
Molecules ; 29(13)2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lincomycin (LIN) is extensively used for treating diseases in livestock and promoting growth in food animal farming, and it is frequently found in both the environment and in food products. Currently, most of the methods for detecting lincomycin either lack sensitivity and precision or require the use of costly equipment such as mass spectrometers. RESULT: In this study, we developed a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UVD) method and used it to detect LIN residue in 11 types of matrices (pig liver and muscle; chicken kidney and liver; cow fat, liver and milk; goat muscle, liver and milk; and eggs) for the first time. The tissue homogenates and liquid samples were extracted via liquid-liquid extraction, and subsequently purified and enriched via sorbent and solid phase extraction (SPE). After nitrogen drying, the products were derivatized with p-toluene sulfonyl isocyanic acid (PTSI) (100 µL) for 30 min at room temperature. Finally, the derivatized products were analyzed by HPLC at 227 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the method displayed impressive performance and demonstrated its reliability and practicability, with a limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of LIN in each matrix of 25-40 µg/kg and 40-60 µg/kg, respectively. The recovery ranged from 71.11% to 98.30%. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that this method had great selectivity, high sensitivity, satisfactory recovery and cost-effectiveness-fulfilling the criteria in drug residue and actual detection requirements-and proved to have broad applicability in the field of detecting LIN in animal-derived foods.


Assuntos
Lincomicina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Animais , Lincomicina/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Leite/química , Suínos , Galinhas , Limite de Detecção , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cabras , Bovinos , Ovos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise
10.
Molecules ; 29(13)2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999071

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess potential health risks among children and adolescents consuming various grilled marshmallows using a survey and to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in these food products. PAH analysis in grilled marshmallows included a dilution stage with deionized water and liquid-liquid extraction with cyclohexane and solid-phase extraction (SPE). PAH fractions were initially analyzed via high-performance thin-layer chromatography, and PAH concentrations were determined via gas chromatography with a tandem mass detector using the selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. This study on the consumption of grilled marshmallows was conducted among approximately 300 children and adolescents. The preliminary results indicated that "raw" marshmallows did not contain PAHs. However, the obtained data suggested the exposure of young people to carcinogenic PAHs from grilled marshmallows (63.5% of them consumed marshmallows). Carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was determined in all samples. The profile of PAH concentrations in the extracts isolated from various grilled types of marshmallows was similar (r2 > 0.8000), regardless of the grilling method. Compared to the white sugar confection, higher concentrations of PAHs were determined in multicolored marshmallows. The lack of social awareness about exposure to carcinogenic substances is alarming.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Culinária/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Masculino , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos
11.
Nutrients ; 16(13)2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999779

RESUMO

Changing eating habits and an increase in consumption of thermally processed products have increased the risk of the harmful impact of chemical substances in food on consumer health. A 2002 report by the Swedish National Food Administration and scientists at Stockholm University on the formation of acrylamide in food products during frying, baking and grilling contributed to an increase in scientific interest in the subject. Acrylamide is a product of Maillard's reaction, which is a non-enzymatic chemical reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids that takes place during thermal processing. The research conducted over the past 20 years has shown that consumption of acrylamide-containing products leads to disorders in human and animal organisms. The gastrointestinal tract is a complex regulatory system that determines the transport, grinding, and mixing of food, secretion of digestive juices, blood flow, growth and differentiation of tissues, and their protection. As the main route of acrylamide absorption from food, it is directly exposed to the harmful effects of acrylamide and its metabolite-glycidamide. Despite numerous studies on the effect of acrylamide on the digestive tract, no comprehensive analysis of the impact of this compound on the morphology, innervation, and secretory functions of the digestive system has been made so far. Acrylamide present in food products modifies the intestine morphology and the activity of intestinal enzymes, disrupts enteric nervous system function, affects the gut microbiome, and increases apoptosis, leading to gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that it interacts with other substances in food in the intestines, which increases its toxicity. This paper summarises the current knowledge of the impact of acrylamide on the gastrointestinal tract, including the enteric nervous system, and refers to strategies aimed at reducing its toxic effect.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Exposição Dietética , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Acrilamida/efeitos adversos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Reação de Maillard , Compostos de Epóxi
12.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 113(1): 7, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980455

RESUMO

A collaborative assessment approach, including impact index of comprehensive quality (IICQ), food pollution index (FPI), and single factor pollution index (PI), was used to simultaneously select priority metal pollutants and assess metal contamination status in the plastic-shed soil (PSS)-vegetable system of the industrial towns situated in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Overall, significant Cr increment as well as Cd and Cu pollution in PSS existed, which was related to anthropogenic activities, especially industrial wastewater irrigation. The evaluation using PI and FPI demonstrated that priority metal pollutants were Cu and Cd in PSS while Cr and Cd in vegetables. Additionally, the estimation using IICQ method revealed that 23.3% and 13.3% of the sampling sites were sub-moderately and heavily contaminated by metals, respectively. These sites especially with heavy pollution need priority pollution management. These data will be beneficial to metal pollution control in PSS-vegetable system around industrial areas.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos , Metais Pesados , Plásticos , Poluentes do Solo , Verduras , Verduras/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , China , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Plásticos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
13.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 113(1): 5, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980525

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different irrigation sources on the levels of potentially toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn) in the edibles of citrus fruits (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limetta). The samples of fruit, soil and water were collected from two locations (fresh water irrigated-FW I and sewage water irrigated-SW II) within the city of Sargodha. The samples utilized in the study for metal analysis were prepared utilizing the wet acid digestion method. Metal determination was performed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The potentially toxic metal values in the citrus samples ranged from 0.010 to 0.063, 0.015 to 0.293, 6.691 to 11.342 and 0.366 to 0.667 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. Analysis of Citrus limetta and Citrus sinensis indicated that the highest concentration of Cr, Fe and Mn is observed at the sewage water irrigation site (SW-II), whilst the minimum levels of Cr, Fe and Mn were observed at the fresh water irrigation site (FW-I). The results show that the levels of these metals in soil and fruit samples meet the acceptable guidelines outlined by USEPA and WHO. It was found that the metal pollution constitutes a potential threat to human health due to the HRI values for Cd, Cr, and Fe being above 1, despite the DIM values being below 1. Regular monitoring of vegetables irrigated with wastewater is highly recommended in order to minimise health risks to individuals.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Citrus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Águas Residuárias/química , Medição de Risco , Citrus/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Humanos , Bioacumulação , Citrus sinensis/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química
14.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(9): 318, 2024 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39001898

RESUMO

Bell peppers, a globally significant crop, face infestations from various pests. In a study, bell peppers were treated with deltamethrin, ethion, fenazaquin, and fenpropathrin at recommended and double the doses, repeated twice with a 10-day interval. The QuEChERS method underwent validation for linearity, matrix match, accuracy, and precision in bell pepper matrices for residue analysis. The limit of detection for the tested pesticides on bell peppers was 0.01 mg/L, with a quantification limit of 0.05 mg/L. Recovery studies showed a range of 94.80% to 102.80%. Initial deposits of deltamethrin, ethion, fenazaquin, and fenpropathrin on bell peppers at recommended doses were 0.371, 1.237, 0.617, and 0.640 mg/L, respectively, and at double doses were 0.712, 1.945, 1.221, and 1.189 mg/L, respectively. Safe waiting periods of 10, 11, 10, and 8 days were suggested for deltamethrin, ethion, fenazaquin, and fenpropathrin, respectively. The corresponding half-lives for the pesticides were 1.96, 1.79, 2.06, and 1.69 days, all following first-order dissipation kinetics. Dietary risk assessment indicated Hazard Quotients (HQ) below 1 and Theoretical Maximum Daily Intake (TMDI) below Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) and Maximum Permissible Intake (MPI) levels. Therefore, at their recommended doses, the pesticides were deemed safe for bell pepper cultivation.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Contaminação de Alimentos , Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Capsicum/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cinética , Medição de Risco , Humanos , Nitrilas/toxicidade , Nitrilas/análise , Exposição Dietética
15.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(9): 325, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39012586

RESUMO

This study addressed the bioaccumulation and human health risk among the consumption of Spinacia oleracea grown in agricultural soil treated with humic acid (189-2310 ppm) and biochars (0.00-5.10%.wt). The biochars came from two local feedstocks of rice-husk (RH) and sugar-beet-pulp (SBP) pyrolyzed at temperatures 300 and 600 °C. Total concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Ni found in both the soil and biomass/biochar exceeded global safety thresholds. The bioaccumulation levels of HMs in spinach leaves varied, with Fe reaching the highest concentration at 765.27 mg kg-1 and Cd having the lowest concentration at 3.31 mg kg-1. Overall, the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni in spinach leaves exceeded the safety threshold limits, so that its consumption is not recommended. The assessment of hazard quotient (HI) for the HMs indicated potential health hazards for humans (HI > 1) from consuming the edible parts of spinach. The biochar application rates of 4.35%wt and 0.00%.wt resulted in the highest (3.69) and lowest (3.15) HI values, respectively. The cumulative carcinogenic risk (TCR) ranged from 0.0085 to 0.0119, exceeding the cancer risk threshold. Introducing 5.10%wt biomass/biochar resulted in a 36% rise in TCR compared to the control. The utilization of humic acid alongside HMs-polluted biochars results in elevated levels of HMs bioaccumulation exceeding the allowable thresholds in crops (with a maximum increase of 49% at 2000 ppm humic acid in comparison to 189 ppm). Consequently, this raised the HI by 46% and the TCR by 22%. This study demonstrated that the utilization of HMs-polluted biochars could potentially pose supplementary health hazards. Moreover, it is evident that the utilization of HMs-polluted biochars in treating metal-contaminated soil does not effectively stabilize or reduce pollution.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Substâncias Húmicas , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Spinacia oleracea , Spinacia oleracea/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Carcinógenos/análise , Solo/química , Agricultura , Bioacumulação , Folhas de Planta/química , Contaminação de Alimentos
16.
Anal Biochem ; 693: 115600, 2024 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38964698

RESUMO

Foodborne pathogens are a grave concern for the for food, medical, environmental, and economic sectors. Their ease of transmission and resistance to treatments, such as antimicrobial agents, make them an important challenge. Food tainted with these pathogens is swiftly rejected, and if ingested, can result in severe illnesses and even fatalities. This review provides and overview of the current status of various pathogens and their metabolites transmitted through food. Despite a plethora of studies on treatments to eradicate and inhibit these pathogens, their indiscriminate use can compromise the sensory properties of food and lead to contamination. Therefore, the study of detection methods such as electrochemical biosensors has been proposed, which are devices with advantages such as simplicity, fast response, and sensitivity. However, these biosensors may also present some limitations. In this regard, it has been reported that nanomaterials with high conductivity, surface-to-volume ratio, and robustness have been observed to improve the detection of foodborne pathogens or their metabolites. Therefore, in this work, we analyze the detection of pathogens transmitted through food and their metabolites using electrochemical biosensors based on nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Nanoestruturas , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
17.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(8): 276, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958774

RESUMO

The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) and organic pollutants (OPs) residues is commonly observed in diverse environmental settings, where their interactions can potentially alter the behavior, availability, and toxicity of OPs, thereby posing risks to ecosystems. Herein, we particularly emphasize the potential for bioaccumulation and the biomagnification effect of MPs in the presence of OPs within the food chain. Despite the ongoing influx of novel information, there exists a dearth of data concerning the destiny and consequences of MPs in the context of food pollution. Further endeavors are imperative to unravel the destiny and repercussions of MPs/OPs within food ecosystems and processing procedures, aiming to gain a deeper understanding of the joint effect on human health and food quality. Nevertheless, the adsorption and desorption behavior of coexisting pollutants can be significantly influenced by MPs forming biofilms within real-world environments, including temperature, pH, and food constituents. A considerable portion of MPs tend to accumulate in the epidermis of vegetables and fruits, thus necessitating further research to comprehend the potential ramifications of MPs on the infiltration behavior of OPs on agricultural product surfaces.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microplásticos , Humanos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental
18.
Epidemiol Prev ; 48(3): 239-244, 2024.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995137

RESUMO

The Veneto Region (Northern Italy) conducted a monitoring campaign in the years 2016-2017 in order to evaluate the concentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in foods in the area affected by the water contamination discovered in 2013. The risk assessment for the resident population was conducted by the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS) in 2018 and updated in 2021. The European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) updated the limits used by ISS, in particular adding a limit for the sum of four PFAS molecules in 2020. In this work, the risk assessment conducted by ISS is reviewed in light of the new limit of 4.4 ng/kg body weight for the sum of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS). In the adult population (18-65 years), total weekly intakes, calculated for the years preceding 2013, resulted more than ten times the EFSA 2020 limit, more than five times in the intermediate period 2013-2017 - preceding the implementation of mitigation actions through double filtration of the water of the aqueduct -, by more than three times in the period after 2018, and yet by almost seven times for those who supply contaminated groundwater through private wells. The food contribution for those who use filtered water from the aqueduct is equal to 20% of the total weekly income.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Caprilatos , Fluorocarbonos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Itália , Fluorocarbonos/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Adolescente , Caprilatos/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Idoso , Exposição Dietética/análise , Adulto Jovem , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Ácidos Sulfônicos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000186

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) pervade the environment, infiltrating food sources and human bodies, raising concerns about their impact on human health. This review is focused on three key questions: (i) What type of polymers are humans most exposed to? (ii) What are the prevalent shapes of MPs found in food and human samples? (iii) Are the data influenced by the detection limit on the size of particles? Through a systematic literature analysis, we have explored data on polymer types and shapes found in food and human samples. The data provide evidence that polyester is the most commonly detected polymer in humans, followed by polyamide, polyurethane, polypropylene, and polyacrylate. Fibres emerge as the predominant shape across all categories, suggesting potential environmental contamination from the textile industry. Studies in humans and drinking water reported data on small particles, in contrast to larger size MPs detected in environmental research, in particular seafood. Discrepancies in size detection methodologies across different reports were identified, which could impact some of the discussed trends. This study highlights the need for more comprehensive research on the interactions between MPs and biological systems and the effects of MPs on toxicity, together with standardised analytical methodologies to accurately assess contamination levels and human exposure. Understanding these dynamics is essential for formulating effective strategies to mitigate the environmental and health implications of MP pollution.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Microplásticos , Microplásticos/análise , Humanos , Água Potável/análise , Água Potável/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
20.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(9): 331, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39017947

RESUMO

The research aims to evaluate the source, dispersion, and human health risk assessment of PAH-contaminated Talinum Triangulare grown along the polluted Ikpoba River. The freeze-dried vegetables were sonicated with dichloromethane for an hour and then concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The extract was purified using a glass column with anhydrous Na2SO4 and silica gel and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The distribution of the contaminants showed that Pyrene < Benzo(a)anthracene ≤ Fluorene < Phenathrene ≤ Naphthalene ≤ Acenaphthene < Anthracene ≤ Acenaphthylene, while Pyrene < Benzo(a)anthracene < Fluorene < Phenathrene < Acenaphthalene ≤ Naphthalene < Anthracene < Acenaphthylene in wet and dry periods, respectively. The average ∑8 PAHs was 0.85 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg in wet and dry periods, respectively, and showed a decrease of 17.64% from wet to dry periods. The daily average dose revealed that the infant male and the adult female consumed the least and highest doses of T. Triangulare (TT), respectively. Furthermore, the hazard quotient and hazard index were < 1 for all the target groups, with adult females having higher values in both seasons. However, the incremental life cancer risk of the target group was between potential and high-potential cancer risk, with adolescent males and adult females more prone to low and high cancer risk, respectively. The isomer ratio and multivariate statistics revealed the sources of the PAH-contaminated TT to be more from pyrolysis.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Humanos , Rios/química , Feminino , Masculino , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , Lactente , Medição de Risco , Criança , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Pré-Escolar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Verduras/química
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