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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(5): 680-688, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500174

RESUMO

Temporary expansion of the Child Tax Credit (CTC) during the COVID-19 pandemic provided additional monthly income for US families, with no restrictions on use, from July through December 2021. This study examined food security and children's dietary intake after three months of expanded CTC payments. Parents completed online surveys before and after three months of CTC payments. Among parents participating in the expansion, food and beverage purchases were the most common use of expanded CTC funds (45.9 percent), particularly in households with very low food security (63.0 percent). From before to midway through the CTC expansion, very low food security decreased from 12.7 percent to 5.6 percent, and simultaneously, food security increased from 57.4 percent to 66.4 percent. The CTC expansion was also associated with decreases in children's consumption of added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sweetened fruit beverages. No changes were observed in children's intake of other dietary components. Our findings suggest that the expanded CTC payments may have helped lessen food insecurity and supported reductions in children's intake of added sugar in participating households.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Açúcares
2.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 9561063, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463823

RESUMO

Food insecurity is one of the most serious problems in developing countries, especially in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is important to understand the barriers to improving the state of food security in the country. Thus, this study aims to investigate the determinants of food security of rural households in the North Shewa zone in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. A sample of 796 farm households was considered. This paper used the calorie intake method per day to measure household food security status and a logit model to investigate the determinants of food security. The results show that family size, age of the household head, educational level of the head, off-farm activities, monthly income of the household, and distance from the market are the major determinants of rural household food security in the North Shewa Zone. The findings suggest that expanding the access to education in farm households, expanding the access to off-farm activities to increase household income, and expanding market access to farm households are important to improve rural food security status in the study area.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , População Rural , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458135

RESUMO

The history of health research in Inuit communities in Canada recounts unethical and colonizing research practices. Recent decades have witnessed profound changes that have advanced ethical and community-driven research, yet much work remains. Inuit have called for research reform in Inuit Nunangat, most recently creating the National Inuit Strategy on Research (NISR) as a framework to support this work. The present study details the process undertaken to create a research program guided by the NISR to address food security, nutrition, and climate change in Inuit Nunangat. Four main elements were identified as critical to supporting the development of a meaningful and authentic community-led program of research: developing Inuit-identified research questions that are relevant and important to Inuit communities; identifying Inuit expertise to answer these questions; re-envisioning and innovating research methodologies that are meaningful to Inuit and reflect Inuit knowledge and societal values; and identifying approaches to mobilizing knowledge that can be applied to support food security and climate change adaptation. We also identify considerations for funding agencies to support the meaningful development of Inuit-led research proposals, including aligning funding with community priorities, reconsidering who the researchers are, and investing in community infrastructure. Our critical reflection on the research program development process provides insight into community-led research that can support Inuit self-determination in research, enhance local ethical conduct of research, privilege Inuit knowledge systems, and align Inuit-identified research priorities with research funding opportunities in health research. While we focus on Inuit-led research in Nunavut, Canada, these insights may be of interest more broadly to Indigenous health research.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Inuítes , Canadá , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Nunavut
4.
Brasilia, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-04-25. (OPAS/BRA/NMH/21-0077).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55920

RESUMO

Em 2016, por meio da Resolução 70/259, a Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) endossou os resultados da II Conferência Internacional de Nutrição, proclamou a Década de Ação das Nações Unidas para Nutrição (2016-2025) e solicitou que a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e a Organização das Nações Unidas para a Alimentação e Agricultura (FAO) liderassem a implementação da Década1. O objetivo da Década é coordenar esforços de diversos setores para o efetivo enfrentamento a todas as formas de má nutrição, partindo de uma perspectiva ampliada que reconhece as principais causas e fatores que contribuem para os diferentes desfechos. O Brasil foi o primeiro país a formalizar compromissos no âmbito da Década de Ação das Nações Unidas para Nutrição. Em 2017, o Ministério da Saúde se comprometeu a deter o crescimento da obesidade e a melhorar o perfl alimentar por meio do aumento do consumo de frutas e hortaliças e da redução do consumo de bebidas adoçadas na população adulta. Nesse mesmo ano, durante a 44ª Sessão do Comitê de Segurança Alimentar da FAO, o Brasil divulgou o documento intitulado “Compromissos do Brasil para a Década de Ação das Nações Unidas para a Nutrição (2016-2025)”, que consolidou todos os compromissos do país para a Década de Ação.


Assuntos
Guias Alimentares , Ciências da Nutrição , Dieta Saudável , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Segurança Alimentar , América Latina , Região do Caribe
6.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406104

RESUMO

Food insecurity, which disproportionately impacts mothers, can have chronic consequences on physical and mental health. There is a relationship between food insecurity and mental health, but the relationship's mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to understand how mental health outcomes differ by food insecurity severity and race among Virginia mothers. A cross-sectional survey employed previously validated food security status measures, physical and mental health, social support, and food coping strategies. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Spearman's rank-order correlations, linear regression, and chi-squared with effect sizes. Overall, respondents (n = 1029) reported worse mental health than the U.S. average (44.3 ± 10.1 and 50, respectively). There was a large effect of food security on mental health (d = 0.6), with worse mental health outcomes for mothers experiencing very low food security (VLFS) than low food security (LFS; p < 0.001). There was a small effect of race on mental health (φc = 0.02), with Black mothers having better mental health than White mothers (p < 0.001). Compared to mothers experiencing LFS, mothers experiencing VLFS had less social support (d = 0.5) and used more food coping strategies, especially financial strategies (d = -1.5; p < 0.001). This study suggests that food-insecure mothers experience stressors and lack adequate social support, which is even more distinct for mothers experiencing VLFS.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Mães , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Virginia
7.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405972

RESUMO

This study assessed changes in household food insecurity throughout the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in a cohort of adults in the state of Vermont, USA, and examined the socio-demographic characteristics associated with increased odds of experiencing food insecurity during the pandemic. We conducted three online surveys between March 2020 and March 2021 to collect longitudinal data on food security, use of food assistance programs, and job disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Food security was measured using the USDA six-item module. Among the 441 respondents, food insecurity rates increased significantly during the pandemic and remained above pre-pandemic levels a year after the start of the pandemic. Nearly a third (31.6%) of respondents experienced food insecurity at some point during the first year of the pandemic, with 53.1% of food-insecure households being classified as newly food-insecure. The odds of experiencing food insecurity during the pandemic varied based on socio-demographic factors. Households with children (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.782-16.936, p < 0.01), women (OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.777-36.647, p < 0.05), BIPOC/Hispanic respondents (OR 11.8, 95% CI 1.615-85.805, p < 0.05), and households experiencing a job disruption (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.583-16.005, p <0.01) had significantly higher odds of experiencing food insecurity during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, while respondents with a college degree (OR 0.08; 95% CI 0.025-0.246; p < 0.001) and household income of ≥USD 50,000 (OR 0.01; 95% CI 0.003-0.038; p < 0.001) had lower odds of experiencing food insecurity. These findings indicate that food insecurity continued to be a significant challenge one year after the start of the pandemic, which is important, given the adverse health impacts associated with food insecurity and health disparities among certain socio-demographic groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Segurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vermont/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265523, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though adherence to dietary counselling for patients with diabetes is essential for improving health and preventing complications, access to an adequate and quality diet is challenging for patients living in a food-insecure household. The availability of data in this regard is limited in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed the food security status of patients with type 2 diabetes, their adherence to dietary counselling, and contributing factors at public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: This was a facility-based cross-sectional study among 602 patients with Type 2 diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from July to August 2019. Patients were selected randomly after the total number of samples was proportionally allocated to four public hospitals. Relevant information was collected by trained data collectors using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi-info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 24 for data analysis. Logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with adherence to dietary counselling. RESULT: The proportion of nonadherence to dietary counselling among patients with type 2 diabetes was 67.3% (95%CI: 63.5%-71.1%). Nearly half (50.7%) of the respondents were food insecure. Of these, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure, and severely food insecure were 8.5%, 29.2%, and 13%, respectively. Physical activity (AOR = 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1-2.9); diabetes knowledge (AOR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.2-2.6); lack of access to information (AOR = 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.6); moderately food insecure (AOR = 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3-3.7); and severely food insecure (AOR = 5.6; 95%CI: 2.1-15.0) were the major significant factors associated with nonadherence to dietary counselling. CONCLUSION: Over two-thirds of patients with diabetes did not adhere to dietary counselling, which appears high. As a result, improving diabetes education, information access, and food security status should be considered to ensure dietary counselling adherence among type 2 diabetes patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Segurança Alimentar , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457534

RESUMO

Vegetables constitute a major component of human food security. They are the main sources of essential nutrients including antioxidants, natural dyes, minerals, and vitamins. Eating habit issues related to the consumption of vegetables are gaining importance within the context of a healthy lifestyle, longevity, and physical fitness. Additionally, food quality is of primary importance, and so-called eco-food (defined as food as natural as possible, without fertilizers, pesticides, or preservatives) seems to be the most popular world-trend in healthy nutrition. Keeping these ideas in focus, research on vegetable consumption in Poland in the context of conventional or organic production was performed using online questionnaire surveys. The results revealed that the rate of vegetable consumption depended primarily on economic status, except for the potato, which was a staple cutting across all economic strata. Among the 108 analyzed respondents, 74% bought vegetables from certified organic farms. However, 59% bought organic vegetables "rarely" or "sometimes", and only 15% "often". Next, respondents chose to buy vegetables from fresh food markets (45%) and in local shops (41%). About 20% of the respondents acquired vegetables from their own farms. Among the reasons for choosing vegetables from certified organic farms, respondents mentioned in decreasing order: "desire for proper nutrition" (30%), "thinking that organic vegetables are healthier" (28%), and "organic vegetables are generally better" (7%).


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Verduras , Dieta , Segurança Alimentar , Frutas , Humanos , Agricultura Orgânica , Polônia
10.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-04-27. (OPS/FPL/HL/21-0039).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55939

RESUMO

Hemos hecho grandes progresos en la mejora de la supervivencia infantil, pero también tenemos que crear las condiciones adecuadas para ayudar a los niños y niñas a prosperar a medida que crecen y se desarrollan. Los entornos limpios, seguros y protegidos contribuyen a crear lugares propicios para el cuidado cariñoso y sensible. Estas son condiciones esenciales para que los niños sobrevivan y prosperen. En el presente resumen se presentan algunos de los riesgos ambientales más importantes que enfrentan los niños y niñas hoy en día, y se explica por qué los lactantes y los niños pequeños son particularmente vulnerables. Se mencionan además los componentes del cuidado cariñoso y sensible, especialmente la buena salud y la seguridad y protección. El objetivo es alertar a los encargados de formular las políticas públicas, a los profesionales de salud y a aquellos que trabajan en cuestiones ambientales sobre la importancia de tener en cuenta las necesidades de la primera infancia a fin de crear entornos en los que los niños pequeños y sus cuidadores puedan prosperar. Proporciona ejemplos de acciones prácticas para entornos clave que afectan el desarrollo temprano de los niños como la consulta médica habitual, el hogar y la guardería, así como los entornos urbanos y comunitarios más amplios que pueden crear tanto riesgos como oportunidades para el desarrollo de los niños.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Saúde Ambiental , Segurança Alimentar , Proteção da Criança
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 862043, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433601

RESUMO

With the onset of the coronavirus crisis, disruption of the domestic food supply chain, loss of revenue, and payments that affect food production have led to severe tensions and food security risks in many developing countries. The rural communities are more at risk of food insecurity due to less access to healthcare and social inequality. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food security and food diversity of rural households. The sample included 375 household heads living in the rural areas of Khorramabad county, which was determined using a three-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected using standard Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) questionnaires. The results showed that the food security situation of rural households has deteriorated, and consumption of some food groups changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the multinomial regression model showed that gender, level of education, monthly income, number of employed members, nutrition knowledge, employment status, livestock ownership, and access to credit were significantly associated with the food security of households during the COVID-19 pandemic. The household head's gender, level of education, monthly income, nutrition knowledge, employment status, livestock ownership, and access to credit were significantly associated with dietary diversity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the findings, providing emergency food assistance and cash payments to food-insecure households can reduce the risk of food insecurity in rural households. It is suggested that government policies focus on identifying vulnerable households in rural areas, especially female-headed households, low-income households, and households without a wage income.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , População Rural , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pandemias
12.
Science ; 376(6589): 146-147, 2022 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389805

RESUMO

Renewable silk-protein technologies promote plant growth and reduce food waste.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Segurança Alimentar , Eliminação de Resíduos , Alimentos , Seda
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 751, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An overlooked problem in food and nutrition system analysis is assuring adequate diversity for a healthy diet. Little is known about nutrient diversity in food and nutrition systems and how it transmits to dietary diversity. Nutritional functional diversity (NFD) is a metric that describes diversity in providing nutrients from farm to market and the consumption level. The objective of this study is to determine the NFD score at different stages of the rural food and nutrition system, including household's agricultural and home production, domestic food processing, purchased food, and diet. It also aims to explore the association between NFD and nutrient adequacy, food security, and anthropometric indicators. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 321 households in 6 villages of Zahedan district. The NFD score was measured at three subsystems (production, processing, and consumption) of the food and nutrition system. Household food security, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and anthropometrics of the household's head were measured to assess the association between NFD and food and nutrition indicators. Linear and bivariate statistical techniques were applied to study the associations between variables. RESULTS: In the rural food and nutrition system, the food purchased from the city plays the main role in the households NFD score. Their contribution to total NFD was twice that of the food items purchased from the village. The NFD score of homestead production and households food processing was found to be five times less than those of food purchased from cities. The food insecure households had significantly lower NFD scores for food purchased from the city and higher NFD scores for purchased food items from the rural market and native wild vegetable consumption. A strong and positive relationship was observed between NFD of food items purchased from the city and households'MAR. No significant association was found between the NFD score of homestead production, processing, and dependent variables, i.e. food insecurity, MAR, and household head anthropometrics. CONCLUSION: NFD score, as a relatively new metric, could help in determining diversity from farm to diet and identifying the gaps to plan appropriate interventions for improving diversity in the local food system.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Nutrientes , População Rural
15.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 17, 2022 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the Australian food supply through changed consumer purchasing patterns, and potentially, household food security. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 on the prevalence of food insecurity and food supply issues, and perspectives of food supply stakeholders in regional Australia. METHODS: A mixed-methods consumer survey and in-depth interviews with food supply stakeholders were conducted in regional Australia, more specifically South West Western Australia between May and July 2020, immediately after the 1st wave of the pandemic. RESULTS: The prevalence of food insecurity was 21% among consumers, and significantly more prevalent for those aged less than 30 years and living with a disability. Most consumers (73%) agreed that the COVID-19 pandemic had impacted the food supply. Food insecure respondents were more likely to report that food was more expensive, resulting in changes to the types and quantities of food bought. Food supply stakeholders perceived that consumers increased their intention to buy locally grown produce. Panic buying temporarily reduced the availability of food for both food suppliers and consumers, regardless of their food security status. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided novel insights from South West Australian consumer and food supply stakeholder perceptions. Food insecure consumers provided insights about the high cost of food and the subsequent adaptation of their shopping habits, namely type and amount of food purchased. Stakeholder perceptions largely focused on supply chain issues and corroborated consumer reports.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Segurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Pandemias
16.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276878

RESUMO

There are 26 million refugees globally, with as many as 80% facing food insecurity irrespective of location. Food insecurity results in malnutrition beginning at an early age and disproportionately affects certain groups such as women. Food security is a complex issue and must consider gender, policies, social and cultural contexts that refugees face. Our aim is to assess what is known about food security interventions in refugees and identify existing gaps in knowledge. This scoping review followed the guidelines set out in the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews. We included all articles that discussed food security interventions in refugees published between 2010 and 2020. A total of 57 articles were eligible for this study with most interventions providing cash, vouchers, or food transfers; urban agriculture, gardening, animal husbandry, or foraging; nutrition education; and infant and young child feeding. Urban agriculture and nutrition education were more prevalent in destination countries. While urban agriculture was a focus of the FAO and cash/voucher interventions were implemented by the WFP, the level of collaboration between UN agencies was unclear. Food security was directly measured in 39% of studies, half of which used the UN's Food Consumption Score, and the remainder using a variety of methods. As substantiated in the literature, gender considerations are vital to the success of food security interventions, and although studies include this in the planning process, few see gender considerations through to implementation. Including host communities in food security interventions improves the refugee-host relationship. Collaboration should be encouraged among aid organizations. To assess intervention efficacy, food security should be measured with a consistent tool. With the number of refugees in the world continuing to rise, further efforts are required to transition from acute aid to sustainability through livelihood strategies.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Agricultura , Feminino , Alimentos , Segurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
17.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267951

RESUMO

Behavioral weight loss (BWL) for pediatric obesity includes guidance on improving the home food environment and dietary quality; yet food insecurity presents barriers to making these changes. This study examined if home food environment, dietary quality, energy intake, and body weight changes during adolescent obesity treatment differed by food security status, and if changes in the home food environment were associated with changes in dietary quality and energy intake by food security status. Adolescents (n = 82; 13.7 ± 1.2 years) with obesity participated in a 4-month BWL treatment. Food insecurity, home food environment (Home Food Inventory [HFI]), dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index [HEI]), energy intake, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed at baseline and post-treatment. A reduced obesogenic home food environment and improved dietary quality were observed for food secure (ps < 0.01), but not insecure households (ps > 0.05) (mean difference, HFI: -6.6 ± 6.4 vs. -2.4 ± 7.4; HEI: 5.1 ± 14.4 vs. 2.7 ± 17.7). Energy intake and BMI decreased for adolescents in food secure and insecure households (ps < 0.03) (mean difference; energy intake: -287 ± 417 vs. -309 ± 434 kcal/day; BMI: -1.0 ± 1.4 vs. -0.7 ± 1.4). BWL yielded similar reductions in energy intake and body weight yet did not offer the same benefits for improved dietary quality and the home food environment for adolescents with food insecurity.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Segurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Perda de Peso
18.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264534, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239709

RESUMO

The lessening of food wastage, specifically among nations where about half of its worldwide quantity is produced, has turned to be a mammoth challenge for environmental, social and economic sustainability, and represents one of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) within the Agenda 2030. The quantity of food being thrown away in spite of being in an edible condition has become alarming in middle and high income countries. The COVID-19 lockdown strategy, both at local and international levels, has expressively altered work, life and food consumption behaviors globally, directing to food wastage as a multi sectoral issue. Pakistan has no exception to such manifestations. The main objective of this study is to analyze the perceptions of rural people of Pakistan regarding food wastage during the COVID-19 pandemic. To evaluate whether behavior about food wastage among rural households varied or not during the pandemic, a descriptive survey was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire and 963 responses were selected for further empirical investigations. The findings of the study reveal that food waste actually decreased in spite of an increased amount of purchased food during the lockdown. Our results highlight that the effect of the pandemic has led to reduction in food wastage among rural respondents, an increased consciousness for the morals of food waste, and awareness of environmental impacts of food wastage. The conclusions of this study highlight that rural consumers of Pakistan are emerging with a new level of responsiveness about food wastage with possible positive impact on the environment in terms of decreased greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and other pollutants. The study findings imply that this pandemic time provides a suitable window to raise awareness about food wastage among rural as well as urban households while contemplating effective strategies to overcome the issue of food wastage in the country.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comportamento do Consumidor , Segurança Alimentar , Eliminação de Resíduos , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Percepção/fisiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Nutr Diet ; 79(1): 28-47, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35233911

RESUMO

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the Australian food supply with potential ramifications on food security. This scoping review aimed to synthesise current evidence on the prevalence of food insecurity and changes to factors related to food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy was used to search seven databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Global Health, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsycINFO, Informit Online) and Google Scholar. Included studies were written in English, published in 2020-2021 and examined food security status in Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic and/or factors associated with food insecurity in free-living Australian residents. Articles with participants residing in institutional settings, where meals were supplied, were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 700 records were identified from database, grey literature and hand searching, and nine articles were included. All studies indicated that the prevalence of food insecurity had increased due to negative changes to food availability, accessibility, usability and stability. The downturn in employment and economic circumstances following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic appeared to create a new group of food-insecure Australians consisting of newly unemployed, and international students. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has exacerbated vulnerabilities in the Australian food supply and food security. Suggested actions include ongoing data collection on the long-term impact of COVID-19 on food supply and security in addition to coordinated national and community responses that improve the stability of the local food supply and address underlying determinants of food insecurity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(4): 347-360, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332293

RESUMO

Achieving sustainable agricultural productivity and global food security are two of the biggest challenges of the new millennium. Addressing these challenges requires innovative technologies that can uplift global food production, while minimizing collateral environmental damage and preserving the resilience of agroecosystems against a rapidly changing climate. Nanomaterials with the ability to encapsulate and deliver pesticidal active ingredients (AIs) in a responsive (for example, controlled, targeted and synchronized) manner offer new opportunities to increase pesticidal efficacy and efficiency when compared with conventional pesticides. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the key properties of nanopesticides in controlling agricultural pests for crop enhancement compared with their non-nanoscale analogues. Our analysis shows that when compared with non-nanoscale pesticides, the overall efficacy of nanopesticides against target organisms is 31.5% higher, including an 18.9% increased efficacy in field trials. Notably, the toxicity of nanopesticides toward non-target organisms is 43.1% lower, highlighting a decrease in collateral damage to the environment. The premature loss of AIs prior to reaching target organisms is reduced by 41.4%, paired with a 22.1% lower leaching potential of AIs in soils. Nanopesticides also render other benefits, including enhanced foliar adhesion, improved crop yield and quality, and a responsive nanoscale delivery platform of AIs to mitigate various pressing biotic and abiotic stresses (for example, heat, drought and salinity). Nonetheless, the uncertainties associated with the adverse effects of some nanopesticides are not well-understood, requiring further investigations. Overall, our findings show that nanopesticides are potentially more efficient, sustainable and resilient with lower adverse environmental impacts than their conventional analogues. These benefits, if harnessed appropriately, can promote higher crop yields and thus contribute towards sustainable agriculture and global food security.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Segurança Alimentar , Solo
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