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1.
Food Chem ; 387: 132847, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405557

RESUMO

Chilled surimi has become increasingly popular owing to its superior texture and freshness. In this study, changes in the microbiota and gel properties during chilled surimi storage, and the contributions of dominant bacteria to the physicochemical properties of chilled surimi were investigated. The results showed that Pseudomonas gessardii, Aeromonas media, and Acinetobacter johnsonii were the dominant bacteria during chilled surimi storage. P. gessardii was the key bacteria that degraded protein in the process of surimi spoilage, which led to high total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides as well as poor gel properties. Both P. gessardii and A. media were high putrescine producers, whereas only A. media produced cadaverine. In this study, spoilage microorganisms in chilled surimi were investigated for the first time, and it was found that P. gessardii had the greatest influence on surimi quality, which provides a research basis for in-depth study on the mechanism of microbial spoilage and the preservation of chilled surimi.


Assuntos
Carpas , Microbiota , Animais , Cadaverina , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Nitrogênio , Putrescina/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 387: 132921, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413549

RESUMO

To avoid chilling injury (CI) of apricots during storage, 1-2 °C and 4-6 °C storage as controls, the relationship between changes in cell wall characteristics and the occurrences of chilling injury under near-freezing temperature (NFT) storage was studied. NFT-stored improved apricots quality and inhibited CI index, membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content; This also significantly inhibited the activity of cell wall modifying enzymes, delaying the solubilization of water-soluble pectin (WSP) and the degradation of cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed that the density of the middle lamella in stored for 49 d was higher NFT than controlled temperature, delaying cell wall and chloroplast disintegration. Additionally, NFT-stored has no CI during the shelf life, and can be normal after ripening, maintaining higher commodity rate and sensory characteristics. These conclusions show that NFT storage can effectively improve the cold resistance of apricot fruit.


Assuntos
Prunus armeniaca , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Frutas/metabolismo , Temperatura
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(16): 5151-5158, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416040

RESUMO

The fusarium toxin 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol) is characterized as a sphingolipid analogue that can be isolated from Fusarium avenaceum-infected crops and fruits. In the current study, we discovered a group of novel metabolites of 2-AOD-3-ol from the F. avenaceum-fermented rice culture. 2-AOD-3-ol was predominantly present as a C16:1 fatty acid-assembled ceramide-mimic form rather than as a free base. Although 2-AOD-3-ol and its fatty acyl derivatives were barely detected in fresh samples, the contents of these fusarium toxins accumulated with the extension of storage time up to approximately 32-50 mg/kg dry weight in naturally stored rice, grapes, apples, and oranges. Our finding provides insight into the quality and safety of food during storage through a novel aspect: the C14-C24 fatty acyl 2-AOD-3-ol in nature, which calls for further studies to address their potential impact on human health.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Oryza , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fusarium/metabolismo , Humanos , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo
4.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13712, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416376

RESUMO

The study was conducted on 84 rabbits. The animals were weaned at the age of 42 days, after which they were all fed the same diet. Rabbit loins were obtained 24 h post-mortem and divided into groups according to the packaging method and storage time: control group (examined 24 h post-mortem); two groups stored in vacuum packaging (7 days, n = 12; 14 days, n = 12); and four groups stored in two different gas mixtures (7 days, n = 12/gas mixture; 14 days, n = 12/gas mixture). After the storage, the microbiological and physicochemical quality of longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscles was analyzed. Meat packaged in both systems (MAP and VAC) was characterized by good quality after 7 days of storage, while after 14 days, there was a significant deterioration, which was reflected in disturbances in the color parameters (L* and a*) and substantial changes in the water fraction parameters. The purge loss (<0.0001), total water (<0.0001), free water (<0.001), cooking loss (<0.0001), and plasticity (p = 0.0025) were affected by the group. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that vacuum packaging created the lowest microbial growth rates. However, muscles stored in the gas mixture containing 30%CO2 and 70%O2 , characterized with the greatest tenderness.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Animais , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Gases , Carne/análise , Coelhos , Vácuo , Água
5.
Meat Sci ; 188: 108773, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298998

RESUMO

The current research evaluated the combined effect of oxygen concentration (20%, 50% and 80% O2) and storage temperature (4°C or -1.5°C) on the fresh and internal cooked color of dark-cutting (DC) beef. Steaks were packaged in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) over a 12-day storage period. Although the metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) of DC steaks decreased with increasing O2 levels, lower oxygen consumption (OC) and deeper oxygen penetration depth (OPD) improved the surface color of 50%O2-MAP and 80%O2-MAP DC steaks. 80%O2-MAP resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) percentage myoglobin denaturation and alleviated the phenomenon of persistent pink (PP) observed in DC beef. Compared with normal chilling, superchilling significantly increased the redness values of DC steaks through inhibition of lipid oxidation and enhancement of MRA, while it had no effects on PP due to the limited OPD. The results suggest that 80%O2-MAP combined with superchilling can be used to improve fresh color and minimize PP of DC beef.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha , Animais , Atmosfera , Bovinos , Cor , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Oxigênio , Carne Vermelha/análise
6.
Meat Sci ; 188: 108779, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240547

RESUMO

Tannic acid (TA)-chitosan (CH) conjugate (TA-g-CH) was prepared using a free radical grafting procedure to increase the antimicrobial and antioxidant performance of CH. The effect of TA-g-CH coating on the quality of fresh pork during 15 days of refrigerated storage was investigated. The pork samples were analyzed regularly for microbiological (total viable counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)), physicochemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein oxidation and color) and sensory attributes. The results showed that both TA + CH and TA-g-CH coatings dramatically extended the shelf-life of pork slices by suppressing microbial proliferation and delaying lipid and protein oxidation. Specifically, the TA-g-CH coating exhibited the best performance on pork preservation, which can delay the quality deterioration of fresh meat by 3-6 days during cold storage. The study suggests that the TA-g-CH edible coating has considerable prospects for maintaining the storage quality of fresh meat.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Quitosana/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Suínos , Taninos/farmacologia
7.
Food Microbiol ; 104: 103979, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287808

RESUMO

The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in soft pasteurized milk cheese elaborated with different salt concentrations (1.17 and 0.30% w/w) and in cured raw sheep milk cheese over storage up to 189 days at different isothermal conditions. Commercial 25-g cheese samples were inoculated with a 4-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (serovars 4b, 1/2a, 1/2b and 1/2c) at approximately 104 CFU/g. The inoculated samples were stored at 4 and 22 °C and withdrawn at proper intervals for L. monocytogenes enumeration. The prevalence of the different serovar strains of L. monocytogenes was characterized on soft cheese samples over storage at 4 °C using multiplex PCR. Salt reduction did not affect the survival of L. monocytogenes in soft cheeses and a maximum of 1-log reduction was observed in both regular and low-salt cheeses after 189 days of storage at 4 °C. The pathogen showed greater survival capacity in both soft and cured cheeses during storage at 4 °C compared to the storage at 22 °C, where more than 2.5 log reductions were computed. The fate of L. monocytogenes was described through a Weibull model fitted to survival data. The time required for a first tenfold reduction of the L. monocytogenes population (δ) at 4 °C is around 150 days in soft and 72 days in cured cheeses. At 22 °C, the estimated δ values are at least 60% lower in both cheese types. Among the four L. monocytogenes serovars present in the inoculated cocktail, the serovar 4b strain was the most sensitive to refrigerated storage, while the prevalence of serovar 1/2c strain increased over time in soft cheeses. Overall, the data obtained in this study help to deepen knowledge into factors affecting L. monocytogenes behaviour on cheeses and evidenced the variability between serovars in terms of survival capacity, which may be considered when performing microbial risk assessments.


Assuntos
Queijo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Queijo/análise , Queijo/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Ovinos , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264355, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239679

RESUMO

The supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 outbreak have led to changes in food prices globally. The impact of COVID-19 on the price of essential and perishable food items in developing and emerging economies has been lacking. Using a recent phone survey by the World Bank, this study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prices of the three essential food items in India. The results indicate that price of basic food items such as atta (wheat flour) and rice increased significantly during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. In contrast, during the same period, the price of onions declined significantly. The findings may suggest panic-buying, hoarding, and storability of food items. The results further reveal that remittance income and cash transfers from the government negatively affected commodity prices. Thus, this study's findings suggest that families may have shifted the demand away from essential foods during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/economia , Comércio/tendências , Farinha/economia , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Renda , Índia/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Triticum
9.
J Food Sci ; 87(4): 1610-1623, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279840

RESUMO

Cathepsin B is a cysteine protease that has important effects on the quality of muscle products. In this study, the changes of cathepsin B activity and its relation to muscle proteins were investigated in intact and beheaded shrimp during chilled and frozen storage. The obtained results indicated that the water holding capacity (WHC), shear force, hardness, and myofibrillar protein (MP) content all significantly decreased in both the intact and beheaded shrimp samples with increasing storage period (p < 0.05). Specifically, beheading shrimp exhibited much more stable characteristics than intact shrimp samples during both chilled and frozen storage. The enzyme activity results suggested that cold temperature and storage induced the release of cathepsin B from the lysosomes to the mitochondria, sarcoplasm, and myofibrils in the muscle tissues. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that beheading the shrimp greatly inhibited the dissociation of shrimp muscle proteins during storage. The current findings suggest that cathepsin B located in the head of shrimp was likely transferred to the muscle through the first abdominal segment during storage, accelerating the dissociation of the muscle proteins. Therefore, beheading the shrimp was conducive to prolonging the shelf-life of stored shrimp products.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Penaeidae , Animais , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Decápodes/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo
10.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9617

RESUMO

A rotina de quem mora sozinho não precisa ser sinônimo de comida congelada. Com planejamento e criatividade, essa experiência pode ser uma oportunidade para se alimentar melhor.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Armazenamento de Alimentos
11.
J Food Prot ; 85(5): 803-814, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202469

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to experimentally assess the effect of chitosan (CS)-grafted phenolic acid (CS-g-PA) derivatives on the quality and microbiota composition of vacuum-packaged sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Samples were treated by deionized water (CK), 1% CS, 1% CS-g-PA copolymer, and 1% CS-grafted gallic acid (CS-g-GA) copolymer for 10 min and combined with vacuum packaging stored at 4°C to analyze the microbiological and physicochemical indicators; they were also combined with 16s RNA high-throughput sequencing to explore the effects of CS derivatives on quality and microbial composition. The results showed that the treatment of CS-g-GA and CS-g-PA could retard the increase of pH, total volatile basic nitrogen, and the K value. The degradation of ATP-related compounds, production of biogenic amines, and growth of spoilage bacteria were inhibited by CS-g-GA and CS-g-PA. Moreover, CS-g-GA and CS-g-PA performed better in the inhibition of lipid oxidation by the analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and relative fluorescence intensity. According to the results of high-throughput sequencing, the diversity of microbial composition in all groups was decreased significantly during chilled storage, especially in the CK group. The predominant microorganism was Acinetobacter in the middle period of storage, while Pseudomonas and Shewanella became predominant at the end of storage. The treatment of CS-g-GA and CS-g-PA had significant effects inhibiting the growth of Shewanella during storage. On the basis of the analysis of the microorganism and physicochemical quality, compared with the CK group, CS-g-GA and CS-g-PA can maintain the good quality of sea bass fillets and prolong the shelf life for another 12 days.


Assuntos
Bass , Carpas , Quitosana , Microbiota , Shewanella , Animais , Quitosana/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Hidroxibenzoatos , Vácuo
12.
Food Res Int ; 152: 110926, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181097

RESUMO

Protein degradation1 caused by spoilage bacteria is highly related to fish quality deterioration during chilled storage. However, the exact roles of bacteria in degrading grass carp proteins are not fully known. In this work, we used metagenomics to analyze the microbiota composition in grass carp fillets, construct protein degrading pathways, and calculate taxonomic contributions to protein degrading functions. Besides, three dominant bacteria species were isolated and inoculated into sterile grass carp flesh, respectively. LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics was then used to detect protein degradation metabolites produced by the inoculated bacteria. Combining the results of metagenomics and metabolomics, we found 1) Shewanella putrefaciens was active in hydrolyzing fish proteins (especially collagens) and produced quantities of putrescine through the arginine decarboxylase pathway; 2) Pseudomonas putida had potent potentials in utilizing oligopeptides and free amino acids; 3) Serine was a potential energy source for microbial growth and it was largely consumed by spoilage bacteria; 4) S. putrefaciens could form a metabiosis relationship with P. putida, due to their complementary roles in degrading fish proteins. Finally, we concluded that S. putrefaciens had the strongest spoilage potential among tested bacteria, suggesting the importance of S. putrefaciens inhibition in fish quality preservation. Meanwhile, this study contributed to a better understanding of microbial roles in fish spoilage and provided useful information for the development of new preservation methods.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Bactérias , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Metabolômica , Metagenômica
13.
Food Funct ; 13(4): 2098-2108, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107471

RESUMO

Antimicrobial materials prepared from natural products could provide new ways to preserve seafood and extend the shelf life. Herein, four kinds of fluorescent carbon dots were prepared using onion, ginger, garlic, and fish through one-step hydrothermal synthesis. The four prepared carbon dots were nearly spherical and nanosized, with amorphous structure, neutral charge and good water dispersibility. The onion and garlic carbon dots contained more sulfur elements than the ginger and fish carbon dots. Interestingly, the onion carbon dots exhibited the best antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas fragi with good stability over a wide pH range. In addition, the onion carbon dots also exhibited antimicrobial activity against representative Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of onion carbon dots against Pseudomonas fragi were 2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1, respectively. The integrity of the cell wall and the cell membrane were damaged for Pseudomonas fragi, and the extracellular alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and ATP activity also increased after exposure to the onion carbon dots, thus leading to a decrease in the cell viability and alteration of the cellular morphology for Pseudomonas fragi. Furthermore, the preservation effect of onion carbon dots on Atlantic mackerel evaluated by storage at 4 °C revealed that the onion carbon dots significantly reduced drip loss, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value and total viable counts (TVC) value, and extended the shelf life of Atlantic mackerel by 2 days. This finding suggests that onion carbon dots have potential to be applied as a bacteriostatic agent for aquatic products.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Carbono/química , Perciformes , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas fragi/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Food Chem ; 382: 132273, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152013

RESUMO

Chilling injury occurs in banana fruit under cold storage, which decreases commercial value and limits the shelf-life. Here, exogenous epibrassinolide was applied to investigate its regulation on chilling tolerance. The results found 2.5 µmol/L epibrassinolide was the optimal concentration to reduce chilling injury, which showed 23% lower chilling injury index compared with the control. Epibrassinolide alleviated the symptoms of chilling injury, including maintaining total chlorophyll, as well as reducing browning index, electrolyte leakage, and MDA. Energy status assay showed 7% higher energy charge was observed in epibrassinolide-treated fruit, which was due to the increase of SDH, CCO, and NADH/NAD+ ratio. In addition, the activation of NADK and PPP pathway induced the increase of NADPH and NADPH/NADP+ ratio, which inhibited H2O2 accumulation and O2·- production rate, and thus alleviated chilling injury. This study clarified the potential regulation of epibrassinolide on the balance of energy metabolism and pyridine nucleotide homeostasis.


Assuntos
Musa , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Homeostase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Musa/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Piridinas/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35209144

RESUMO

Riboflavin (RF) was considered to be possessed of photoactivity to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under ultraviolet (UV) light, which is thought to be a favorable antibacterial candidate. Herein, RF was incorporated into chitosan (CS) coatings and treated under UV with different exposure times (2, 4, and 6 h) to improve the physicochemical and antibacterial properties. The results showed that the light transmittance and antibacterial performance of chitosan coatings gradually increased with the extension of the UV irradiation time. The antibacterial ability of chitosan coatings correlated with the generation of ROS: ∙OH and H2O2, which achieved 1549.08 and 95.48 µg/g, respectively, after 6 h irradiation. Furthermore, the chitosan coatings with UV irradiation also reduced the pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), ΔE, and total viable counts (TVC) and improved sensory attributes of pork. In conclusion, the UV irradiated chitosan coatings could be used as an environmentally friendly antimicrobial packaging material to effectively delay the spoilage of pork, maintain its sensory quality and prolong its shelf life.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Carne de Porco , Riboflavina/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Riboflavina/farmacologia , Análise Espectral , Raios Ultravioleta
16.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163867

RESUMO

Beer flavor stability is greatly influenced by external temperature, vibrations, and longer delivery times. The present study assessed the impact of transport and storage conditions on staling aldehyde evolution in lager beers across five sample groups (fresh, transport, and storage simulation, and their controls), which differed in their bottle opening system (either crown cap or ring pull cap). Maritime transport conditions (45 days of travel, vibrations of 1.7 Hz, and warm temperatures (21-30 °C)) were simulated, together with storage time in a distributor's warehouse (up to 75 days). The results revealed that the concentration of Strecker aldehydes increased more quickly after transport and storage simulation in beer bottles with the ring pull cap opening system, and the contents of 2-methylpropanal and 3-methylbutanal, in particular, were up to three times higher. Benzaldehyde content also increased significantly, by 33% on average, in these samples. Hexanal was only found in beers with a ring pull cap that underwent transport simulation. Further storage after transport simulation significantly reduced the content of 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, and hexanal, by 73%, 57%, and 43%, respectively, suggesting the formation of a bound state. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was continuously increased by 78.5% and 40.5% after the Transport and Transport & Storage simulations, respectively. Transport conditions lead to a slight increase, of 0.6 EBC units, in beer color.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/análise , Cerveja/análise , Cerveja/normas , Aromatizantes/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Transportes/métodos , Paladar , Temperatura
17.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 38(1): 264-274, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142136

RESUMO

The laccase (PpLAC) gene family members in peach fruit were identified and the relationship between their expression pattern and chilling induced browning were investigated. The study was performed using two varieties of peaches with different chilling tolerance, treated with or without exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during cold storage. Twenty-six genes were screened from the peach fruit genome. These genes were distributed on 6 chromosomes and each contained 5-7 exons. The PpLAC gene family members shared relatively similar gene structure and conserved motifs, and they were classified into 7 subgroups based on the cluster analysis. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that the expression levels of PpLAC7 and PpLAC9 exhibited an increasing pattern under low temperature storage, and displayed a similar trend with the browning index of peach fruit. Notably, GABA treatment reduced the degree of browning and inhibited the expression of PpLAC7 and PpLAC9. These results suggested that PpLAC7 and PpLAC9 might be involved in the browning of peach fruit during cold storage.


Assuntos
Prunus persica , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/genética , Lacase/genética , Prunus persica/genética
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 71, 2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcium (Ca) deficiency can cause apple bitter pit, reduce the quality and shelf life. WRKY transcription factors play essential role in plant response to multiple disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms causing bitter pit in apple fruit due to Ca deficiency during storage is extremely limited. RESULTS: In the present study, the nutritional metabolites and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were compared in Ca-deficient and healthy apple fruit (CK) during storage. Results showed that Ca-deficient apples sustained significantly higher production of ROS, PPO activity, flavonoids, total phenol, total soluble solids (TSS), and sucrose contents, but the contents of Ca, H2O2, titratable acids (TA), glucose and fructose were significantly lower than those of CK during storage. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that TSS, •O2-, PPO, malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ca were the main factors, and TSS had a positive correlation with sucrose. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that WRKYs were co-expressed with sucrose metabolism-related enzymes (SWEETs, SS, SPS). qRT-PCR and correlation analysis indicated that MdWRKY75 was correlated positively with MdSWEET1. Moreover, transient overexpression of MdWRKY75 could significantly increase the sucrose content and promote the expression of MdSWEET1 in apple fruit. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium deficiency could decrease antioxidant capacity, accelerate nutritional metabolism and up-regulate the expression of WRKYs in apple with bitter pit. Overexpression of MdWRKY75 significantly increased sucrose accumulation and the expression of MdSWEET1. These findings further strengthened knowledge of the basic molecular mechanisms in calcium deficiency apple flesh and contributed to improving the nutritional quality of apple fruit.


Assuntos
Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sacarose/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sementes , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1242, 2022 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075149

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to ascertain the beneficial effects of bioactive peptides on the oxidative stability and functional properties of beef nuggets. In this study, milk casein protein hydrolysates were extracted and incorporated into beef nuggets which were then subjected to different assessment parameters including oxidative stability, functional capability as well as microbial and physico-chemical quality tests were performed for determining the meat quality at different storage periods. The casein protein hydrolysate powder (CPH) was added at different concentrations in nuggets CPH 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%, with reference to storage period of 0, 5, 10 and 15 days at 4 °C. The results regarding total phenolic contents (TPC) and DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed a significant increased with respect to CPH powder and significantly decreased with respect to storage interval. The TVBN, TBARS and POV of the CPH powder incorporated raw beef nuggets also differed significantly within groups with storage time. Higher POV and TBARS were noticed in the CPH 8% incorporated beef nuggets. However, the raw beef nuggets that were made by the incorporation 8% CPH powder, maintained significantly lower level of TBARS at the end of the storage period in contrast with the levels of the control (CPH 0%). The results of the pH and Hunter color test also showed a significant difference with respect to different groups. The microbiological analysis of beef nuggets showed a significant decrease in the level of both the total aerobic and coliform counts and also indicated a decreasing trend in the level of contamination by these bacteria within the groups. This depicted that the casein protein hydrolysate powder (CPH) or simply, the peptide powder has the strong ability to decrease lipid oxidation and related shelf-life retarding natural processes occurring in the meat. It can also greatly enhance the functional properties of the raw meat (beef) and meat products. Thus, it is seen that the bioactive peptides (BAP's) are a key factor in improving the oxidative stability and functional properties of beef nuggets.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia
20.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(1): 31-41, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013037

RESUMO

Pomegranate seed oil is a highly unsaturated fatty acid and liable to be oxidized; hence, oil was encapsulated to protect its bioactive materials and increase shelf life with the most common spray drying technique. Whey protein (WP) alone and in combination with Maltodextrin (MD) in the ratio 1:4 weight was utilized. Feed emulsion, droplet size, encapsulation efficiency (EE), moisture, bulk density, powder morphology, particle size, hygroscopicity, and solubility were also analyzed. The spray drying conditions were applied: inlet temperature 125 to 150°C and outlet 60 to 67°C, airflow rate 40-42 m3/mint, feed rate 5.2 g/m, and pump rate 40%. The shape of particles was spherical and round with dents on their surface. After encapsulation, the oxidative stability was monitored at 60°C for 15 days (8 h daily). The smaller droplet size of the emulsion was obtained at 35% total solid contents. WP alone showed better EE (90%) and oxidative stability than the combination of WP and MD as wall materials.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Romã (Fruta)/química , Sementes/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Emulsões , Oxirredução , Polissacarídeos , Temperatura , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
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