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1.
Ecol Food Nutr ; 61(3): 271-272, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499258

Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos , Humanos
2.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 33: 13-20, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491025

RESUMO

Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is a closed artificial ecosystem which can regenerate oxygen, food, water and other substances for crew survival in long-term space missions. Solid organic waste is a vital resource pool for material reuse and recycling in CELSS. In this study, solid wastes including wheat straw and food waste were disposed via aerobic composting under functional microbial agent inoculation. Compared to tests with a commercial microbial agent addition and without exogenous microorganisms, system performance was promoted by the self-developed microbial agent significantly which exhibited the highest composting temperature (67.4 ± 1.5 °C) and longest thermophilic period (7 days). And treatment with self-developed microbial agent showed the highest values in volatile solid reduction, C/N reduction, germination index (124.83 ± 13.25%) and total available nutrient content (47.45 ± 1.69 g/kg), which suggested the feasibility of compost product to be used for crop cultivation. Moreover, shifts of microbial community in phylum and genus levels were observed. Microbial agent augmentation led to high quality and safe compost product after a short composting period (30 days) without leaching, which suggested an efficient way to promote the recycling and recovery of solid waste in CELSS.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Ecossistema , Alimentos , Resíduos Sólidos , Triticum
3.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 03 03.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499551

RESUMO

The new Dutch government has the ambition to implement several health-related food taxes. We provide an evidence-based agenda for improving population health with these policy ambitions. First, we argue that a sugary drinks tax should be at least 10, preferably 20%, comparable to the UK sugar industry levy. The new government omits alcohol, whereas Minimum Unit Pricing provides a proportionate measure for decreasing alcohol abuse. A broader tax on unhealthy foods, such as a tax on foods high in added sugar, and a zero rate on value-added taxes for fruits and vegetables, are effective in improving overall diet. However, these policies will encounter more legal and technical hurdles, although there are proofs of success in other countries. The listed policy ambitions will have a higher chance of success if implementation issues are seriously considered, and if public health goals are coupled to goals of public finance and environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Governo , Impostos , Alimentos , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Açúcares
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2451: 691-699, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505041

RESUMO

Unsafe food causes more than 200 diseases and therefore poses a threat to the health of millions of people worldwide. Children under 5 years of age carry about 40% of the foodborne disease burden. With a rapidly growing world population, the supply of nutritious, safe, and healthy food represents a high challenge for the coming centuries. Photodynamic decontamination of food (PDc) is based on the photosensitizer (PS)-mediated and light-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which kill microorganisms irrespective of their resistance to conventional treatment. Several natural substances approved as food additives such as curcumin or chlorophyllin are photoactive. Thus, PDc based on these compounds is a promising approach to improve food safety.In this chapter, two experimental protocols to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of PDc on flat objects like lettuce or slices of cucumber or round objects like mung beans in situ are described in detail, which allow for quantitative analysis of the decontamination effect. Both methods are also applicable for other radiation-based decontamination, such as UV- or γ-treatment of food.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Descontaminação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Curcumina/farmacologia , Alimentos , Humanos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia
5.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(5): 300-301, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521030

RESUMO

Parameswaran Iyer talks to Gary Humphreys about using community-led behaviour change and frugal technology to transform WASH practices at scale.


Assuntos
Higiene , Saneamento , Alimentos , Humanos , Tecnologia , Abastecimento de Água
6.
Nature ; 605(7909): 196, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523870
7.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 54(5): 397-405, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between eating behavior constructs (social eating, perceived competence, habit automaticity, self-determined motivation) and diet quality among young adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Young adults (n = 1,005; mean age, 21.7 ± 2.0 years; 85% female) enrolled in the Advice, Ideas, and Motivation for My Eating (Aim4Me) study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Four eating behavior measures collected via online surveys: Social Eating Scale, Perceived Competence in Healthy Eating Scale, Self-Report Behavioral Automaticity Index, and Regulation of Eating Behaviors scales. Diet quality was assessed using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) and percentage energy from energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. ANALYSIS: Multivariate linear regression investigating associations between eating behavior measures (independent variables) and ARFS and EDNP foods (dependent variables), adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle confounders. RESULTS: Greater perceived competence in healthy eating and behavioral automaticity for consuming healthy foods, limiting EDNP food intake, and higher intrinsic motivation, integrated regulation, and identified regulation of eating behaviors were associated with higher ARFS and lower percentage energy EDNP foods (P < 0.001). Greater self-reported social influence on eating behaviors was associated with higher ARFS (P = 0.01). Higher amotivation was associated with greater % energy from EDNP foods (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Perceived competence, habit automaticity, and self-determined motivation are determinants of diet quality in young adults. These findings support the development of interventions that promote healthy eating habits by focusing on eating behavior constructs and evaluating their use in improving diet quality.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 54(5): 432-441, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the Growing Together Illinois fresh produce donation program and understand factors that affect produce distribution at participating food pantries. METHODS: In this intervention at 17 Illinois food pantries, Master Gardeners supported food donation gardens, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education provided educational and environmental interventions to increase selection and use of fresh produce. This mixed-methods pre-post study assessed pantry characteristics and program impact via Nutrition Environment Food Pantry Assessment Tool evaluations, interview feedback from pantry staff, and structured pantry observations. RESULTS: Pantries experienced significant increases from preintervention to postintervention in providing various types of produce, marketing and nudging healthful products, providing additional resources, and total Nutrition Environment Food Pantry Assessment Tool scores. Participants had positive feedback about the program and educational interventions and reported the weekly timing of donations mitigated potential storage and spoilage issues. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Future research could focus on approaches to increase fresh produce in food pantries while supporting clients via nutrition and cooking education.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7582, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534602

RESUMO

This study assesses the feedbacks between water, food, and energy nexus at the national level with a dynamic-system model, taking into account the qualitative and quantitative environmental water needs. Surface and groundwater resources are considered jointly in the water resources subsystem of this dynamic system. The developed model considers the effects of reducing the per capita use water and energy on its system's components. Results indicate that due to feedbacks the changes in per capita uses of water and energy have indirect and direct effects. About 40% of the total water savings achieved by the per capita change policy was related to energy savings, in other words, it is an indirect saving. Implementation of per capita use reductions compensates for 9% of the decline of Iran's groundwater reservoirs (non-renewable resources in the short term) that occur during the five-year study period. The Manageable and Exploitable Renewable Water Stress Index (MRWI) corresponding to water and energy savings equals 214.5%, which is better than its value under the current situation (which is equal to 235.1%).


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Recursos Hídricos , Alimentos , Renda , Energia Renovável
10.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267726, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499987

RESUMO

This study empirically examines consumer demand for healthy beverages within the hospitality industry. The research investigates sociodemographic and motivational factors that influence consumers' 'willingness to pay a premium' (WTPP) price for healthy beverages using survey data from 1021 consumers in Australia and New Zealand (NZ). Water and juice are rated as representing 'healthy' beverages sold by hospitality businesses. Under 2% of respondents consider sugar free drinks as being healthy. Consumers rate a 'healthy' beverage as having low/no sugar, natural/no additives, or containing vitamins and minerals. Less than 1% of respondents identify 'probiotics' or 'organic' as a healthy beverage. Censored Poisson finds consumers who frequently eat out or are younger have higher WTPP. Healthy eating goals increase WTPP, whereas food economizing goals decreases WTPP. Food hedonism goals reduces consumers' WTPP, and gender differences moderates this relationship. The findings present new insights on consumer behavior and healthy consumption in hospitality.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Indústrias
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 384, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physiological deterioration (aging, poor dental status, and reduced tongue pressure) makes chewing difficult. This study aimed to investigate the chewing patterns of older people with or without dentures, evaluate the textural and masticatory properties of texture-modified radish Kimchi, and investigate the correlation between dental status and tongue pressure. Additionally, differences in the subjective-objective concordance of texture-modified Kimchi were investigated using the preference test. METHODS: This study included 32 Korean women aged between 65 and 85 years. Masticatory behavior was recorded by electromyography, and tongue pressure was measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. A preference test, with hardness as the relevant textural property, determined the participants' preferences among the test samples (food with a homogeneous structure-radish Kimchi). To assess preference differences, a questionnaire suitable for older people was designed. The preference for cooked radish Kimchi with various blanching times based on overall acceptability and self-reporting of preference was investigated to develop elderly-friendly food. The subjective scores indicated whether the sample (radish Kimchi) was hard or soft based on the chewing ability of the participants. Dental status, muscle activities, and tongue pressure were considered for the food design with optimized texture. The relationship between subject score and mastication properties were examined using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: The number of chews and chewing time increased with hardness, significantly activating the masseter and temporalis muscles. The evaluation of masseter muscle activity, particularly for level-6 radish Kimchi, showed that older people with complete dentures chewed less actively than those with natural teeth (p < 0.05). The older people with natural teeth (18.94 ± 10.27 kPa) exhibited higher tongue pressure than those with complete dentures (10.81 ± 62.93 kPa), and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Older people preferred food with familiar tastes and textures. An association was found between the subjective hardness score and the objective hardness level. The perceived hardness intensity was linked to the chewing ability of the participant. Denture wearers exhibited a lower chewing ability, and at level 6, they perceived greater hardness of food than those with natural teeth. CONCLUSIONS: Developing food with a modified texture can bridge the gap between physiological and psychological aspects of food texture; texture-modified radish Kimchi, with limited blanching time, may be favorable for older people.


Assuntos
Mastigação , Língua , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Músculo Masseter , Mastigação/fisiologia , Pressão
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20191270, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544845

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) or vegetable oils have become the focus of several studies because of their interesting bioactive properties. Their application has been successfully explored in active packaging, edible coatings, and as natural flavoring to extend the shelf life of various types of food products. In addition, alternative methods of extraction of EOs (ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and supercritical fluid extraction) have been shown to be more attractive than traditional methods since they present better efficiency, shorter extraction times and do not use toxic solvents. This review paper provides a concise and critical view of extraction methods of EOs and their application in food products. The researchers involved in the studies approached in this review were motivated mainly by concern about food quality. Here, we recognize and discuss the major advances and technologies recently used to enable shelf life extension of food products.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Antioxidantes/análise , Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Vegetais
13.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(5): 894-895, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531996

Assuntos
Alimentos , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 603-612, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524510

RESUMO

With the deepening of global change research, the applied problems such as global change risk and response for social sustainable development, temporal and spatial allocation of resources and environmental elements and impact assessment of ecosystem are becoming a new trend in the research field of global change. Based on the ecological framework, we focused on clarifying the connotations of resources and the environment and their components. Resources refer to all substances consumed by organisms in the process of producing organic matter from inorganic matter and transferring energy and matter among organisms. These include inorganic resources (e.g., solar radiation, CO2, O2, water, and mineral elements) and organic resources (as a source of food for other organisms). In contrast, the environment can not be consumed or depleted by organisms. In addition, we described the components of global change and the associated variations of resources and environmental factors, as well as current research progress on the responses of ecosystem to global change. We scientifically described the processes and mechanisms of global change in terms of their influence on resources, the environment, and ecosystems within a theoretical framework based on ecological principles. Our goal was to provide a strong theoretical foundation for future research on coping with the risks of global change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Energia Solar , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , Alimentos , Água
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(4): 47003, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to combinations of chemicals. In cumulative risk assessment (CRA), regulatory bodies such as the European Food Safety Authority consider dose addition as a default and sufficiently conservative approach. The principle of dose addition was confirmed previously for inducing craniofacial malformations in zebrafish embryos in binary mixtures of chemicals with either similar or dissimilar modes of action (MOAs). OBJECTIVES: In this study, we explored a workflow to select and experimentally test multiple compounds as a complex mixture with each of the compounds at or below its no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), in the same zebrafish embryo model. METHODS: Selection of candidate compounds that potentially induce craniofacial malformations was done using in silico methods-structural similarity, molecular docking, and quantitative structure-activity relationships-applied to a database of chemicals relevant for oral exposure in humans via food (EuroMix inventory, n=1,598). A final subselection was made manually to represent different regulatory fields (e.g., food additives, industrial chemicals, plant protection products), different chemical families, and different MOAs. RESULTS: A final selection of eight compounds was examined in the zebrafish embryo model, and craniofacial malformations were observed in embryos exposed to each of the compounds, thus confirming the developmental toxicity as predicted by the in silico methods. When exposed to a mixture of the eight compounds, each at its NOAEL, substantial craniofacial malformations were observed; according to a dose-response analysis, even embryos exposed to a 7-fold dilution of this mixture still exhibited a slight abnormal phenotype. The cumulative effect of the compounds in the mixture was in accordance with dose addition (added doses of the individual compounds after adjustment for relative potencies), despite different MOAs of the compounds involved. DISCUSSION: This case study of a complex mixture inducing craniofacial malformations in zebrafish embryos shows that dose addition can adequately predicted the cumulative effect of a mixture of multiple substances at low doses, irrespective of the (expected) MOA. The applied workflow may be useful as an approach for CRA in general. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9888.


Assuntos
Misturas Complexas , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Alimentos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Medição de Risco
16.
BMJ ; 377: o913, 2022 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387775
17.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405975

RESUMO

Theories have suggested that food-specific inhibition training could lead to food devaluation which, in turn, may help people to regulate their eating behavior. In this review, we have synthesized the current literature on this topic by conducting a meta-analysis of studies investigating the effects of food-specific inhibition training on food evaluation. We identified 24 studies-with 36 independent samples, 77 effect sizes, and 3032 participants-that met our inclusion criteria. Effect sizes were analyzed using the robust variance estimation in random effects meta-regression technique. The results indicate that food-specific inhibition training can lead to statistically significant reductions in food evaluation. More specifically, it was observed that the effects of training on participants' food evaluation differed according to the type of evaluation; food-specific inhibition training significantly decreased participants' explicit food evaluation, but not their implicit food evaluation. However, because most of the included studies focused on trained food items and short-term outcomes in normal-weight samples, more research is needed on the continuance of the training effects, as well as on the extent to which effects can be generalized to untrained food items or different populations (e.g., overweight or obese individuals).


Assuntos
Alimentos , Inibição Psicológica , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Obesidade , Sobrepeso
18.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406103

RESUMO

Consumption of trans fatty acids (TFA) is associated with adverse health outcomes and is a considerable burden on morbidity and mortality globally. TFA may be generated by common cooking practices and hence contribute to daily dietary intake. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between heating edible oils and change in their TFA content. A systematic search of experimental studies investigating the effect of various methods of heating on TFA content of edible oils was conducted in Medline and Embase since their inception up to 1 October 2020 without language restrictions. Comparable data were analysed using mixed multilevel linear models taking into account individual study variation. Thirty-three studies encompassing twenty-one different oils were included in this review. Overall, heating to temperatures <200 °C had no appreciable impact on different TFA levels. Between 200 and 240 °C, levels of C18:2 t (0.05% increase per 10 °C rise in temperature, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.05%), C18:3t (0.18%, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.21%), and total TFA (0.38%, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.55%) increased with temperature. A further increase in total TFA was observed with prolonged heating between 200 and 240 °C. Our findings suggest that heating edible oils to common cooking temperatures (≤200 °C) has minimal effect on TFA generation whereas heating to higher temperatures can increase TFA level. This provides further evidence in favour of public health advice that heating oils to very high temperatures and prolonged heating of oils should be avoided.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos trans , Culinária , Alimentos , Calefação , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Ácidos Graxos trans/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos trans/análise
19.
J Med Invest ; 69(1.2): 31-37, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466143

RESUMO

The validity of dietary variety score (DVS) using a short-form questionnaire has not been investigated using dietary diversity based on a quantitative distribution of consumed foods in older Japanese. We examined the association between DVS and objective dietary diversity using a Quantitative Index for Dietary Diversity (QUANTIDD) based on the quantitative distribution of foods consumed by older Japanese community dwellers. The subjects were 65 older Japanese community dwellers aged 60?79 years. We used two kinds of scores for assessment of dietary diversity. At first, dietary diversity was determined using DVS calculated from answers to a questionnaire about frequencies of intake of 10 food groups. Second, dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day dietary record with photographs, and dietary diversity was determined using QUANTIDD. The relationships between DVS and QUANTIDD were assessed using partial correlation coefficients controlling for confounders. The correlation coefficient between DVS and QUANTIDD was moderate (r=0.212-0.458). After controlling for confounders, those correlation coefficient between DVS and QUANTIDD remained moderate. The findings suggest that there was a moderate relationship between DVS and QUANTIDD, and DVS using a short-form questionnaire may be useful for assessing dietary diversity in older Japanese community dwellers. J. Med. Invest. 69 : 31-37, February, 2022.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos , Idoso , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Japão , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Environ Manage ; 313: 114997, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395528

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestate based on food waste is increasingly used as fertilizer in food production. This study examined the characteristics of anaerobic digestate based on food waste from three biogas plants in Sweden. The characterization included measurements of heavy metals (n = 7), chemicals of emerging concern (CECs), such as currently used drugs and pesticides (n = 133), and an extended range of food-borne pathogens, including two notable sporeformers and some widespread antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The amounts of Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Salmonella and the concentrations of the target heavy metals were all below the maximum accepted levels at all three locations studied. However, the spore-forming Bacillus cereus was found to be present at high levels in samples from all three biogas plants. Among the 133 CECs investigated, 48 were detected at least once, and the highest concentrations were found for pyroxidine, nicotine, caffeine, theobromine, and nicotine. The biofertilizers from the different biogas plants had similar CEC profiles, which indicate similarities in household waste composition and thorough mixing in the biogas plants. If this profile is found to be spatially and temporally consistent, it can help regulators to establish priority lists of CECs of top concern. Assuming increasing use of biofertilizers for food production in the future, it would be beneficial to have concentration limits for CECs Risk estimation based on risk quotients (RQs) indicated generally low environmental risks associated with application of biofertilizer to soils for food crop production. However, the toxicity of CEC mixtures needs to be considered when estimating the risks from application of biofertilizers on agricultural land or in other production systems.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Alimentos , Nicotina , Esgotos/química
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