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2.
J Environ Manage ; 330: 117144, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586374

RESUMO

Economically-oriented forestry aims to sustain timber harvest revenues, while ecologically-oriented management supplies suitable habitat for species using deadwood as primary habitat. As these objectives are conflicting, planning for economic and ecological sustainability involves compromise and trade-offs. We analyze the spatial trade-offs between the economic value from timber harvesting and the volume of deadwood in the boreal forest. We assess these trade-offs from three perspectives: (1) landscape characteristics, affected by conservation strategies; (2) forest management promoting either economic or ecological values; (3) uncertainty in inventory errors undermining the estimate of the two sustainability objectives. To reveal the tradeoffs between the forest economic and ecological values we simulated and optimized a production landscape in Finland 30 years into the future accounting for uncertainty in biomass and deadwood inventories. We found that, with a limited reduction in timber harvesting (7%), (i) the amount of deadwood increased more in non-aggregated (45%) than in aggregated (16%) stands, (ii) constraining stands in adjacent areas further increased deadwood (21%) respect to the matrix and (iii) 7% of connected stand area harbored ≥20 m3/ha deadwood supporting survival of near-threatened species. Our results demonstrate that the structure of the landscape for biodiversity can be improved with limited economic losses. However, improving habitat configuration requires larger economic losses than only increasing habitat amount, but its ecological benefits are larger both for common and red-listed species. We found that management oriented towards stand aggregation not only creates connected areas with high deadwood of high value biodiversity but also improves the value of the whole matrix by decreasing intensive timber harvesting and energy wood collection. Finally, we found that uncertainties alter the estimate of the potential of the forest landscape to supply deadwood, and this can affect the choice of management actions to allocate over the landscape. To conclude, our results demonstrate the trade-offs between economic forest use and conservation are affected differently by landscape characteristics, forest management and uncertainty in inventory errors. As such these drivers should be considered when optimizing the forest for multiple uses.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Taiga , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Florestas , Ecossistema , Madeira , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Biodiversidade , Árvores
3.
Ambio ; 51(4): 836-848, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545552

RESUMO

Private forest owners are the main forest ownership group within Europe, and important conservation values have been found on their land. Yet, small plot sizes, societal heterogeneity, and structural changes impede developing and implementing effective conservation programs in private forests. We present a systematic literature review focusing on small-scale private forest owners and their perspectives on nature conservation by synthesizing research approaches, social-ecological drivers, and policy recommendations. Conservation perspectives were positively related to female gender, higher levels of education, formalized forest management, an active relation to the forest, and ecological values of the property. In contrast, high age, rural orientation, economic forest management factors, large parcel size, and economic and sentimental property values negatively influenced conservation perspectives. Applying a natural resource conflict management framework, we synthesized recommendations covering three dimensions: substance, procedure, relationship. Considering perspectives of small-scale private forest owners in current forestry decision-making has great potential to strengthen sustainable forest management that integrates nature conservation and resource use.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Propriedade
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 198, 2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513803

RESUMO

Through the analysis of an urban tree inventory with the aid of machine learning, this study brought together different aspects of urban forestry. Urban tree monitoring is essential to successful urban forestry. Transport land use accommodates huge tree stock which requires substantial monitoring efforts. In Hong Kong, more research is needed to take into consideration how monitoring works can be improved in response to variations in tree stand characteristics. This case study aimed to illustrate the usefulness of a large-scale tree survey in mainstreaming future tree monitoring and management in transport land use. A total of 7209 trees were found in a large-scale tree survey conducted in 53 slopes and 52 verges along San Tin Highway in Hong Kong. Dominance by Corymbia citriodora (72%) was observed, especially for the highway verges. Using chi-square tests, significant associations were found between monospecific stands, habitat type, and tree risk rating. A logistic regression model was constructed to predict the occurrence of monoculture. Every metre increase in maximum tree height, the odds of a stand being monospecific would be 1.22 times greater. Stands on verges had 5.26 times greater odds of being monospecific against the slope. The associations and relationships were attributed to the dominance of C. citriodora. By boosting the logistic model, model reliability increased as kappa rose from 0.51 to 0.63, while balanced accuracy improved from 0.72 to 0.85. The occurrence of monospecific stands could be reliably predicted using maximum tree height and habitat type of tree stands. These quantitative findings monitoring can guide urban forest monitoring. Through a better understanding of urban forest structure and composition, future monitoring can aid the mainstreaming of urban forestry in transport planning.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Árvores , Hong Kong , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Florestas , Agricultura Florestal
5.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278866, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516142

RESUMO

Seed sourcing strategies are the basis for identifying genetic material meeting the requirements of future climatic conditions and social demands. Specifically, local seed sourcing has been extensively promoted, based on the expected adaptation of the populations to local conditions, but there are some limitations for the application. We analyzed Strict-sense local and Wide-sense local (based on climatic similarity) seed sourcing strategies. We determined species and genetic pools based on these strategies for 40 species and deployment zones in Spain. We also obtained the total number of seed sources and stands for these species in the EU countries. We analyzed the richness of the pools, the relationship with variables related to the use of the species in afforestation, and the availability of seed production areas approved for the production of reproductive material destined to be marketed. This study confirms the existence of extensive species and genetic local pools. Also, that the importance of these pools differs for different species, limitations being derived from the use of forest reproductive material and the existence of approved basic materials. Strategies derived from local seed sourcing approaches are the basis for the use of forest reproductive material because a large number of the species in the area considered in the study are under regulation. However, despite the extensive work done to approve basic materials, limitations based on the availability of seed production areas to provide local material for sustainable forestry are found in those species. Considering a Wide-sense local seed sourcing strategy we provide alternative pools in order to meet social demands under the actual regulations on marketing of reproductive materials.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Sementes/genética , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica
6.
Nature ; 612(7941): 707-713, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36517596

RESUMO

Old-growth tropical forests are widely recognized as being immensely important for their biodiversity and high biomass1. Conversely, logged tropical forests are usually characterized as degraded ecosystems2. However, whether logging results in a degradation in ecosystem functions is less clear: shifts in the strength and resilience of key ecosystem processes in large suites of species have rarely been assessed in an ecologically integrated and quantitative framework. Here we adopt an ecosystem energetics lens to gain new insight into the impacts of tropical forest disturbance on a key integrative aspect of ecological function: food pathways and community structure of birds and mammals. We focus on a gradient spanning old-growth and logged forests and oil palm plantations in Borneo. In logged forest there is a 2.5-fold increase in total resource consumption by both birds and mammals compared to that in old-growth forests, probably driven by greater resource accessibility and vegetation palatability. Most principal energetic pathways maintain high species diversity and redundancy, implying maintained resilience. Conversion of logged forest into oil palm plantation results in the collapse of most energetic pathways. Far from being degraded ecosystems, even heavily logged forests can be vibrant and diverse ecosystems with enhanced levels of ecological function.


Assuntos
Aves , Metabolismo Energético , Cadeia Alimentar , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Mamíferos , Clima Tropical , Animais , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Aves/fisiologia , Bornéu , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Óleo de Palmeira , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498122

RESUMO

China has put forward a series of forestry-based poverty alleviation policies, aiming to alleviate poverty and improve the livelihoods of rural households, especially in backward and ecologically fragile areas with rich forest resources. Based on field survey data, we used an empirical analysis method to investigate the role of forestry-based policies in alleviating the relative poverty of rural households in the rocky desertification area in southwest China. The Logit regression results demonstrate that forestry-based poverty alleviation policies are significant at alleviating the relative poverty of rural households, and there are differences in the degree and significance of the impact of various forestry-based poverty alleviation policies. In particular, the forestry industry support (FIS) policy, the ecological forest rangers (EFRs) policy, and the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) can significantly decrease the incidence of relative poverty of rural households, while the effect of the Public Benefit Forest Compensation Program (PBFC) on decreasing the incidence of relative poverty is not significant. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the role and effectiveness of China's forestry-based poverty alleviation policies, and can provide a reference for optimizing the forestry poverty alleviation policies for the specific area and even the whole nation, as well as provide experience for worldwide poverty alleviation by forestry.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Pobreza , Humanos , China , Características da Família , População Rural
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366026

RESUMO

Unlike farmland or urban areas, forests have long been regarded as environments that favour the preservation of valuable geological and historical sites. However, due to invasive forestry methods, the implementation of large investment projects and the development of mining, they are increasingly no longer safe spaces for the relics of human activities recorded in landforms. Data collection, including using LiDAR technology, presents an opportunity to preserve knowledge about these landforms. Through the analysis of shaded images of a 37-hectare woodland area near Kotlarnia, landforms of various ages documenting 21 different human activities were identified, including remnants of reforestation activities, the expansion and modification of hydraulic structures and road infrastructure, charcoal burning and tar distilling, exploitation of mineral resources and military activities. The results of the remote sensing work were verified in the field.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Humanos , Polônia
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 66, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329327

RESUMO

Selective logging disrupts forests, changing their structure and species composition. Long-term monitoring helps in identifying the factors influencing it and aids in designing management plans. We conducted a quantitative re-assessment of trees ≥ 30 cm girth at breast height in four 1 ha plots in logged and two 1 ha plots in adjacent unlogged compartments of Uppangala forest continuum in the Western Ghats, India to compare the structural and compositional changes after a decade (2010-2021). Altogether, four species disappeared and three species were newly recruited. Mean species richness and stem density of both the forest sites decreased. Logged plots showed a slight increase in basal area (2.5%) and biomass (5.1%), whereas unlogged plots showed a decline in basal area (3.92%) and biomass (2.9%). As compared to unlogged plots, all the demographic rates were higher for logged forest sites. Across the six individual plots, the growth rates varied significantly owing to wood density and forest strata categories. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) identified three groups with significant difference in species composition, where logged and unlogged plots have a distinct composition except for one plot. Although species richness and stem diversity remained stable, the species composition is different 37 years after logging, and the impacts of logging are still evident in the forest.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Clima Tropical , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Árvores , Índia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430092

RESUMO

The paper industry is closely related to forestry resources, which constitute an essential part of achieving sustainable development. Green credit can provide financial support to assist the paper industry in achieving carbon neutrality. To develop a method for performing green credit risk assessments in the paper industry, first, an initial index system was established on the basis of two dimensions: financial risk and socio-environmental risk. Then, the KMV model was applied to measure credit risk. The combined results of this model, along with the environmental penalties of an enterprise, formed the basis for the classification of green credit risk. Third, the Gini index was used to filter out, one by one, the indexes with the least influence among the factors, and then random forest iterations were performed until the prediction accuracy reached the optimum, thus establishing a green credit risk prediction model for the paper industry. The results show that the accuracy of the sample classification reached 93.75%, and the accuracy of the sample classification for high-risk enterprises reached 100%. The established index system offers good guidance for the assessment of green credit risk in the paper industry, in which the interest coverage ratio, current ratio, asset-liability ratio, and green emissions are the main factors affecting green credit risk.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Indústrias , Carbono
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361211

RESUMO

This paper examines the impact of cross-sectoral climate policy on forest carbon sinks. Due to the complexity of the climate change issue and the professional division of labor among government departments, cross-sectoral cooperation in formulating climate policy is a desirable strategy. Forest carbon sinks play an important role in addressing climate change, but there are few studies focusing on forest carbon sinks and cross-sectoral climate policies. Thus, based on the panel data of 30 provinces and cities in China from 2007 to 2020, this paper establishes a benchmark regression model and a spatial panel model to analyze the impact of cross-sectoral climate policies on forest carbon sinks. We find that cross-sectoral climate policies positively impact forest carbon sinks. Under the influence of the "demonstration effect", we find that cross-sectoral climate policies have a positive impact not only on the forest carbon sinks in the region but also on those in the neighboring region. Further analysis shows that for provinces with less developed forestry industry and small forest areas, the positive effect of cross-sectoral climate policies on forest carbon sinks is more obvious. Overall, this paper can serve as an important reference for local governments to formulate climate policies and increase the capacity of forest carbon sinks.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Florestas , Agricultura Florestal , Mudança Climática , Políticas , China , Carbono/análise
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(12): 849, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36198890

RESUMO

Forest degradation is a major issue worldwide. The study area, situated in the lower Himalayan foothills of northern India, is also witnessing the same. A ground survey of the area revealed that socio-economic factors are a major cause of forest degradation. Therefore, sustainable forest management is required to maintain forest resources and health. This study aims to develop the most suitable and agreeable alternatives for ensuring the sustainability of forest use, increase economic benefits, and improve the living conditions of the people surrounding the forest area. This study uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a decision-making method. A pre-test was conducted prior to the main survey, which helped validate the questionnaires and deliver more reliable survey responses. The authors identified three criteria (C) and nine indicators (I).The pre-tested criteria and indicators arranged in hierarchical order were prioritized by applying the AHP. A list of 36 alternatives (A) was prepared in ascending order to select the best alternatives and was used to make suitable judgments for enhancing forest management efficiency. C, I, and A were developed based on a literature review, pre-test, and questionnaire-based field survey that recorded the preferences of different stakeholders. The survey was conducted in 77 fringe villages surrounding the forest and responses were collected from 302 respondents. The overall AHP implementation was simplified using "Super Decisions." The results advocate adopting valid options such as afforestation, agro-forestry, plantation, forest boundary demarcation, capital investment, and others to strengthen the sustainable development of the region. Furthermore, some of the major findings were shared with decision-making authorities (forest officials and village representatives). The stakeholders realized the need to accelerate participatory forest management practices, capacity building, and training of the local populations, together with other options to improve their livelihoods.


Assuntos
Processo de Hierarquia Analítica , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Humanos
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6373, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36289201

RESUMO

Mangrove forests store high amounts of carbon, protect communities from storms, and support fisheries. Mangroves exist in complex social-ecological systems, hence identifying socioeconomic conditions associated with decreasing losses and increasing gains remains challenging albeit important. The impact of national governance and conservation policies on mangrove conservation at the landscape-scale has not been assessed to date, nor have the interactions with local economic pressures and biophysical drivers. Here, we assess the relationship between socioeconomic and biophysical variables and mangrove change across coastal geomorphic units worldwide from 1996 to 2016. Globally, we find that drivers of loss can also be drivers of gain, and that drivers have changed over 20 years. The association with economic growth appears to have reversed, shifting from negatively impacting mangroves in the first decade to enabling mangrove expansion in the second decade. Importantly, we find that community forestry is promoting mangrove expansion, whereas conversion to agriculture and aquaculture, often occurring in protected areas, results in high loss. Sustainable development, community forestry, and co-management of protected areas are promising strategies to reverse mangrove losses, increasing the capacity of mangroves to support human-livelihoods and combat climate change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Áreas Alagadas , Humanos , Agricultura Florestal , Mudança Climática , Carbono , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
17.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275994, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227901

RESUMO

Cocoa cultivation is of considerable economic and social importance to the Amazonas region and is commonly associated with forest species in the region. However, the diversification level and composition of cacao agroforestry systems in Peru are poorly understood. The objective of this study is, therefore, to describe the diversity of tree species in cocoa AFS by plantation age. Accordingly, the number of species of 15 plots covering a total of 1.5 hectares was recorded. Moderately low levels of tree species diversity were reported (H´ ranged 0.89-1.45). In total 17 species were reported throughout the study area. The most abundant botanical family was represented by a single Musa sp. species. The dissimilarity indices show a moderate similarity between the age ranges evaluated (over 62%). Additionally, the IVI indicates that the most important species are used for food and timber apart from providing shade, additionally major of this species are introduced intentionally for the farmers. Based on the observations, it may be concluded that the farmer's interest in obtaining further benefits from the plot, mostly economic benefits affect the diversification of cocoa agroforestry systems.


Assuntos
Cacau , Árvores , Agricultura , Agricultura Florestal , Odorantes , Peru
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293638

RESUMO

Based on the theories of welfare economics, this paper analyzed the mechanism of agricultural insurance (AI) affecting agricultural economic growth (AEG), theoretically, and carried out an empirical analysis by using the random effects model and thirteen years of panel data, which included the annual data of 11 cities in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2007 to 2019. The gross output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery (GOVA) of 11 cities in Zhejiang Province is selected as the explained variable, agricultural insurance premium income (AIPI) as an explanatory variable. We selected area of waterlogging removal (AWR), rural electricity consumption (REC), total power of agricultural machinery (TPAM), and crop-sown area (CSA) as control variables. The study shows that: (1) the AIPI has a significant positive impact on the growth of GOVA. When other conditions remain unchanged, a 1% increase in AIPI increases the GOVA by 0.166%, accordingly; (2) The control variables of REC, TPAM, and CSA are statistically significant for the growth of the GOVA. The elasticity coefficient of REC is 0.325, the elastic coefficient of the TPAM is 0.287, and the elasticity coefficient of CSA is -0.281.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Seguro , Agricultura , China , Agricultura Florestal , Criação de Animais Domésticos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294087

RESUMO

Mitigating carbon emissions through forest carbon sinks is one of the nature-based solutions to global warming. Forest ecosystems play a role as a carbon sink and an important source of bioenergy. China's forest ecosystems have significantly contributed to mitigating carbon emissions. However, there are relatively limited quantitative studies on the carbon mitigation effects of forestry bioenergy in China, so this paper simulated the carbon sequestration of Chinese arbor forest vegetation from 2018 to 2060 based on the CO2FIX model and accounted for the carbon emission reduction brought about by substituting forestry bioenergy for fossil energy, which is important for the formulation of policies to tackle climate change in the Chinese forestry sector. The simulation results showed that the carbon storage of all arbor forest vegetation in China increased year by year from 2018 to 2060, and, overall, it behaved as a carbon sink, with the annual carbon sink fluctuating in the region of 250 MtC/a. For commercial forests that already existed in 2018, the emission reduction effected by substituting forestry bioenergy for fossil energy was significant. The average annual carbon reduction in terms of bioenergy by using traditional and improved stoves reached 36.1 and 69.3 MtC/a, respectively. Overall, for China's existing arbor forests, especially commercial forests, forestry bioenergy should be utilized more efficiently to further exploit its emission reduction potential. For future newly planted forests in China, new afforestation should focus on ecological public welfare forests, which are more beneficial as carbon sinks.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Agricultura Florestal , Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Árvores , Florestas , China
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2208360119, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191184

RESUMO

Industrial economic models of natural resource management often incentivize the sequential harvesting of resources based on profitability, disproportionately targeting the higher-value elements of the environment. In fisheries, this issue is framed as a problem of "fishing down the food chain" when these elements represent different trophic levels or sequential depletion more generally. Harvesting that focuses on high grading the most profitable, productive, and accessible components of environmental gradients is also thought to occur in the forestry sector. Such a paradigm is inconsistent with a stewardship ethic, entrenched in the forestry literature, that seeks to maintain or enhance forest condition over time. We ask 1) how these conflicting paradigms have influenced patterns of forest harvesting over time and 2) whether more recent conservation-oriented policies influenced these historical harvesting patterns. We use detailed harvest data over a 47-y period and aggregated time series data that span over a century on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada to assess temporal changes in how logging is distributed among various classes of site productivity and terrain accessibility, corresponding to timber value. Most of this record shows a distinct trend of harvesting shifting over time to less productive stands, with some evidence of harvesting occurring in increasingly less accessible forests. However, stewardship-oriented policy changes enacted in the mid-1990s appear to have strongly affected these trends. This illustrates both a profit-maximizing tendency to log down the value chain when choices are unconstrained and the potential of policy choices to impose a greater stewardship ethic on harvesting behavior.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Colúmbia Britânica , Agricultura Florestal , Políticas , Árvores
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