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1.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 320: 124614, 2024 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865892

RESUMO

Celecoxib and tramadol have been combined in a novel FDA-approved medication to address acute pain disorders requiring opioid treatment when other analgesics proved either intolerable or ineffective. The absorbance spectra of celecoxib and tramadol exhibit significant overlap, posing challenges for their individual quantification. This study introduces a spectrophotometric quantification approach for celecoxib and tramadol using a principle component regression assistive model to assist resolving the overlapped spectra and quantifying both drugs in their binary mixture. The model was constructed by establishing calibration and validation sets for the celecoxib and tramadol mixture, employing a five-level, two-factor experimental design, resulting in 25 samples. Spectral data from these mixtures were measured and preprocessed to eliminate noise in the 200-210 nm range and zero absorbance values in the 290-400 nm range. Consequently, the dataset was streamlined to 81 variables. The predicted concentrations were compared with the known concentrations of celecoxib and tramadol, and the errors in the predictions were evidenced calculating root mean square error of cross-validation and root mean square error of prediction. Validation results demonstrate the efficacy of the models in predicting outcomes; recovery rates approaching 100 % are demonstrated with relative root mean square error of prediction (RRMSEP) values of 0.052 and 0.164 for tramadol and celecoxib, respectively. The selectivity was further evaluated by quantifying celecoxib and tramadol in the presence of potentially interfering drugs. The model demonstrated success in quantifying celecoxib and tramadol in laboratory-prepared tablets, producing metrics consistent with those reported in previously established spectrophotometric methods.


Assuntos
Celecoxib , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrofotometria , Tramadol , Celecoxib/análise , Celecoxib/química , Tramadol/análise , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Calibragem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Formas de Dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/análise
2.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 144(7): 697-714, 2024.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38945845

RESUMO

It is well known that the oral bioavailability of hydrophilic and macromolecular drugs is generally very poor due to their poor membrane permeability characteristics. Among these poorly absorbed drugs, peptide and protein drugs are typical poorly absorbed drugs which have low stability and poor permeability in the gastrointestinal tract. Consequently, the clinical administration of peptide and protein drugs is presently limited to administration by injection. However, such frequent administration subjects the patients to considerable pain, and there is also the possibility of the manifestation of serious side effects. Therefore, various approaches have been examined to overcome the poor absorption characteristics of these drugs. These approaches include (1) to use additives including absorption enhancers and protease inhibitors, (2) to modify the chemical structure of peptide and protein drugs, and (3) to apply dosage forms to these drugs, (4) to develop a novel administration method for these drugs that can serve as an alternative to oral and injection administration. We demonstrated that intestinal and transmucosal absorption of peptide and protein drugs could be improved by using these approaches. These approaches may give us useful basic information to improve the intestinal and transmucosal absorption of peptide and protein drugs.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Absorção Intestinal , Peptídeos , Proteínas , Humanos , Peptídeos/farmacocinética , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacocinética , Permeabilidade , Administração Oral , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Formas de Dosagem
3.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 32(4): 311-315, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication recycling within hospitals has proven financial and possible environmental benefits according to local evaluations done in British Columbia. Despite this, the extent of medication recycling in Canadian hospitals remains unclear in the literature. OBJECTIVE(S): To determine if Canadian hospitals recycle medications, provide an estimate of how much medication is recycled by dosage form, and identify medication recycling barriers through the distribution of a cross-sectional survey. METHODS: A nine-question survey was distributed to 171 hospital pharmacy departments across Canada that consented to complete the survey. The survey identified whether sites recycled unused medications, an estimate of how much is recycled based on dosage form, and barriers to recycling. KEY FINDINGS: Of 62 respondents, the majority indicated they do have medication recycling procedures; however, the frequency of recycling is suboptimal (30-50% of medications are not recycled), and not all medication types are always recycled. Individually packaged oral tablets were most often recycled, and oral liquid medications were least often recycled. Many multi-dose medications were not tamper-proofed. Most respondents selected "sanitization/infection control" and "resource constraint" as reasons for not recycling all medications. CONCLUSIONS: Among respondents, the proportion and type of unused medicines that are recycled varied. For sites that did not respond, this might suggest that medication recycling is not a priority. This could represent a missed opportunity to standardize practices and increase medication recycling in hospitals, both of which could represent a meaningful step towards responsible use of medications and reduction of negative impacts on human health and the environment.


Assuntos
Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Reciclagem , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Canadá , Reciclagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Formas de Dosagem
4.
Luminescence ; 39(6): e4793, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859746

RESUMO

The goal of the current research was to establish a quick and practical fluorometric technique for trifluridine analysis. The approach relied on the drug's complex formation with the zinc ion to produce a high-fluorescence product. The fluorescence was further enhanced by adding sodium dodecyl sulfate, and it was observed at 450 nm following excitation at 400 nm. With a determination coefficient of 0.9994, the association between emission intensity and trifluridine concentration was linear between 1 and 125 ng mL-1. The quantitation limit was 0.987 ng mL-1 while 0.333 ng mL-1 was the detection limit. The buffer type, pH and concentration, type of surfactant and concentration, and finally the diluting solvent were among the reaction conditions that were closely examined. With great precision and reliability, the drug in question was quantified using this method in dosage formulations. The proposed method's level of greenness was assessed using two methodologies: the analytical greenness metric (AGREE) and the Green Analytical Procedure Index (GAPI).


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Trifluridina , Trifluridina/análise , Trifluridina/química , Química Verde , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Zinco/química , Zinco/análise , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Formas de Dosagem , Limite de Detecção
5.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 22(2): 1-9, 20240531.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555042

RESUMO

Introducción: los medicamentos antitiroideos son una de las alternativas terapéuticas en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Graves. Sin embargo, pueden generar efectos adversos severos poco frecuentes en el plano hematológico, como la anemia aplásica, la cual se ha asociado con altas dosis de estos medicamentos, aunque con reversión de esta afección ante el retiro del medicamento. Descripción del caso: mujer de 38 años con antecedente de enfermedad de Graves en tratamiento con metimazol, quien consultó por síntomas como epistaxis anterior de difícil control, petequias, astenia e hiporexia. Se documentó pancitopenia en el hemo-grama, con posterior hallazgo en biopsia de médula ósea de aplasia medular, sin respuesta ante el retiro del metimazol y soporte transfusional. Posteriormente, la paciente falleció. Conclusión: la presentación de aplasia medular asociada con metimazol es poco común y se relaciona con altas dosis de este medicamento. En la mayoría de casos, el retiro de este agente genera recuperación clínica y celular. No obstante, en algu-nos pacientes persiste el compromiso hematológico que va desde importantes repercusiones clínicas hasta desenlaces fatales. Por lo tanto, el presente caso busca hace hincapié en la importancia de vigilar este efecto adverso ante el inicio de esta medicación


Introduction: Antithyroid drugs are one of the therapeutic alternatives in the treatment of Graves' dis-ease. However, it can generate severe but infrequent adverse effects at the hematological level, such as aplastic anemia, which has been associated with high doses of these drugs, although with reversal of this hematological condition when the drug is withdrawn. Case description: A 38-year-old woman with a his-tory of Graves' disease treated with methimazole, who consult for symptoms such as anterior epistaxis, petechiae, asthenia, and hyporexia. Pancytopenia is documented in the blood count, with a subsequent finding of bone marrow aplasia in bone marrow biopsy, without response to withdrawal of Methimazole and transfusion support. The patient subsequently died. Conclusion: The methimazole-associated bone marrow aplasia is uncommon and it ́s associated with high doses of methimazole, in most cases with-drawal of methimazole leads to clinical and cellular recovery. However, in some patients hematological involvement persists with significant clinical repercussions up to fatal outcomes. Therefore, this case seeks to highlight the importance of monitoring for this adverse effect before starting this medication


Introdução: as drogas antitireoidianas são uma das alternativas terapêuticas no tratamento da doença de Graves. No entanto, pode causar efeitos adversos graves, mas infrequentes, no nível hematológico, como a anemia aplástica, que tem sido associada a altas doses desses medicamentos, embora com rever-são desse quadro hematológico quando a droga é retirada. Descrição do caso: mulher de 38 anos com história de doença de Graves tratada com metimazol, que consultou por sintomas como epistaxe ante-rior de difícil controle, petéquias, astenia e hiporexia. A pancitopenia é documentada no hemograma, com achado posterior de aplasia da medula óssea na biópsia da medula óssea, sem resposta à retirada do metimazol e suporte transfusional. O doente faleceu posteriormente. Conclusão: a apresentação de aplasia da medula óssea associada ao metimazol é pouco frequente em associação com doses elevadas de metimazol. Na maioria dos casos, a retirada do metimazol conduz à recuperação clínica e celular. No entanto, nalguns doentes, o envolvimento hematológico persiste com repercussões clínicas significati-vas, podendo mesmo ocorrer desfechos fatais. Assim, o presente caso pretende realçar a importância da monitorização deste efeito adverso antes de iniciar esta medicação


Assuntos
Humanos , Formas de Dosagem
6.
Int J Pharm ; 658: 124188, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705248

RESUMO

Orodispersible films (ODFs) have emerged as innovative pharmaceutical dosage forms, offering patient-specific treatment through adjustable dosing and the combination of diverse active ingredients. This expanding field generates vast datasets, requiring advanced analytical techniques for deeper understanding of data itself. Machine learning is becoming an important tool in the rapidly changing field of pharmaceutical research, particularly in drug preformulation studies. This work aims to explore into the application of machine learning methods for the analysis of experimental data obtained by ODF characterization in order to obtain an insight into the factors governing ODF performance and use it as guidance in pharmaceutical development. Using a dataset derived from extensive experimental studies, various machine learning algorithms were employed to cluster and predict critical properties of ODFs. Our results demonstrate that machine learning models, including Support vector machine, Random forest and Deep learning, exhibit high accuracy in predicting the mechanical properties of ODFs, such as flexibility and rigidity. The predictive models offered insights into the complex interaction of formulation variables. This research is a pilot study that highlights the potential of machine learning as a transformative approach in the pharmaceutical field, paving the way for more efficient and informed drug development processes.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Administração Oral , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Algoritmos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Formas de Dosagem
7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 317: 124371, 2024 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728846

RESUMO

A green, sensitive and rapid spectrofluorimetric method for quantitative assay of an anti-allergic medication composed of montelukast and fexofenadine mixture in raw materials and dosage form was developed. The method was based on measuring the synchronous fluorimetric peak without interference, pre-separation or pre-extraction procedures. Montelukast was analyzed at 360 nm while fexofenadine was measured at 263 nm using Δλ = 20 nm for both drugs using ethanol as diluting solvent and acetate buffer of pH 4. The assay was rectilinear over the concentration range of 1.0-10.0 µg/mL for fexofenadine and 0.1-0.6 µg/mL for montelukast. The method was full validated according to ICH guidelines. The applicability of the method enables the assay of both drugs in raw materials, synthetic mixture as well as combined tablets. Moreover, the greenness of the method was assessed using different methods including; analytical eco-scale, GAPI and AGREE. All of these methods confirm that the proposed method is an eco-friendly method.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Antialérgicos , Ciclopropanos , Quinolinas , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Sulfetos , Terfenadina , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Terfenadina/análise , Terfenadina/análogos & derivados , Quinolinas/análise , Quinolinas/química , Acetatos/análise , Sulfetos/análise , Sulfetos/química , Antialérgicos/análise , Química Verde/métodos , Comprimidos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Limite de Detecção , Formas de Dosagem , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
8.
Luminescence ; 39(5): e4777, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785072

RESUMO

This study introduces a practical and cost-effective method for tracking diltiazem (DLZ) analytically. It utilizes a fluorimetric approach that relies on the modulation of fluorescence intensity of a dye called erythrosine B. Through a one-pot experiment performed in an acidic environment, a complex is rapidly formed between DLZ and erythrosine B. By observing the decrease in erythrosine B emission, a linear calibration plot is established, enabling the detection and quantification of DLZ concentrations ranging from 40 to 850 ng/ml. The estimated limits of detection and quantitation were 10.5 and 32.1 ng/ml, respectively. The variables affecting the DLZ-dye complex system were carefully adjusted. The validity of the approach was confirmed through a thorough evaluation based on the criteria set by ICH guidelines. The accuracy and precision of the methodology were evaluated, and the standard deviation and relative standard deviation were below 2. The strategy was successfully employed to analyze DLZ in tablets and capsules, and no significant variation between the proposed and reported methods as the values of the estimated t-test and F-test at five determinations were below 2.306 and 6.338, respectively. Notably, the method adheres to the principle of green chemistry by utilizing distilled water as the dispersing medium.


Assuntos
Diltiazem , Eritrosina , Diltiazem/análise , Diltiazem/química , Eritrosina/química , Eritrosina/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Comprimidos/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Cápsulas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Formas de Dosagem
9.
Acta Pharm ; 74(2): 177-199, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815202

RESUMO

In the past, the administration of medicines for children mainly involved changes to adult dosage forms, such as crushing tablets or opening capsules. However, these methods often led to inconsistent dosing, resulting in under- or overdosing. To address this problem and promote adherence, numerous initiatives, and regulatory frameworks have been developed to develop more child-friendly dosage forms. In recent years, multiparticulate dosage forms such as mini-tablets, pellets, and granules have gained popularity. However, a major challenge that persists is effectively masking the bitter taste of drugs in such formulations. This review therefore provides a brief overview of the current state of the art in taste masking techniques, with a particular focus on taste masking by film coating. Methods for evaluating the effectiveness of taste masking are also discussed and commented on. Another important issue that arises frequently in this area is achieving sufficient dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs. Since the simultaneous combination of sufficient dissolution and taste masking is particularly challenging, the second objective of this review is to provide a critical summary of studies dealing with multiparticulate formulations that are tackling both of these issues.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos , Solubilidade , Paladar , Humanos , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Formas de Dosagem , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Comprimidos , Administração Oral , Criança , Excipientes/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos
10.
Acta Pharm ; 74(2): 229-248, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815205

RESUMO

Pediatric patients often require individualized dosing of medicine due to their unique pharmacokinetic and developmental characteristics. Current methods for tailoring the dose of pediatric medications, such as tablet splitting or compounding liquid formulations, have limitations in terms of dosing accuracy and palatability. This paper explores the potential of 3D printing as a solution to address the challenges and provide tailored doses of medication for each pediatric patient. The technological overview of 3D printing is discussed, highlighting various 3D printing technologies and their suitability for pharmaceutical applications. Several individualization options with the potential to improve adherence are discussed, such as individualized dosage, custom release kinetics, tablet shape, and palatability. To integrate the preparation of 3D printed medication at the point of care, a decentralized manufacturing model is proposed. In this setup, pharmaceutical companies would routinely provide materials and instructions for 3D printing, while specialized compounding centers or hospital pharmacies perform the printing of medication. In addition, clinical opportunities of 3D printing for dose-finding trials are emphasized. On the other hand, current challenges in adequate dosing, regulatory compliance, adherence to quality standards, and maintenance of intellectual property need to be addressed for 3D printing to close the gap in personalized oral medication.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos , Impressão Tridimensional , Comprimidos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica , Humanos , Administração Oral , Criança , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Formas de Dosagem , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 318: 124471, 2024 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776669

RESUMO

Simultaneous determination of atenolol (ATN), losartan potassium (LOS), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) in presence of HCZ impurity B was conducted by chemometric approaches and radial basis function network (RBFN) using UV-spectrophotometry without preliminary separation. Three chemometric models namely, classical least-squares (CLS), principal component regression (PCR), and partial least-squares (PLS) along with RBFN were utilized using the ternary mixtures of the three drugs. The multivariate calibrations were obtained by measuring the zero-order absorbance of the mixtures from 250 to 270 nm at the interval of 0.2 nm. The models were built covering the concentration range of (4.0 to 20.0), (3.8 to 20.2), and (0.9 to 50.1) µg mL-1 for ATN, LOS, and HCZ, respectively. The regression coefficient was calculated between the actual and predicted concentrations of the 3 drugs using CLS, PCR, PLS and RBFN. The accuracy of the developed models was evaluated using the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) giving satisfactory results. The proposed methods were simple, accurate, precise and were applied efficiently for the quantitation of the three components in laboratory-prepared mixtures, and in dosage form showing good recovery values. In addition, the obtained results were compared statistically with each other using ANOVA test showing non-significant difference between them.


Assuntos
Atenolol , Hidroclorotiazida , Losartan , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Hidroclorotiazida/análise , Atenolol/análise , Losartan/análise , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal , Formas de Dosagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 319: 124519, 2024 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815314

RESUMO

Vilazodone is a recently approved antidepressant medicine used for treating major depressive disorder. A simple, extremely sensitive, accurate and green spectrofluorimetric method was constructed for its determination through formation of ion-pair complex with erythrosine B. The formation of ion-pair complex lowers the dye's native fluorescence emission measured at 552 nm (λ ex = 530 nm). In terms of analysis, the system's parameters for producing the vilazodone-erythrosine B complex have been optimized. The reaction was carried out in Teorell-Stenhagen buffering solution (pH 4.6). The fluorescence emission intensity of the dye decreased linearly in the range of 20 - 600 ng mL-1 and the correlation coefficient was 0.9999. The quantitation and detection limit values were 18.5 and 6.1 ng mL-1, respectively. The proposed strategy has been validated according to the ICH criteria. The proposed technique was thoroughly employed for evaluating vilazodone in raw material and pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. Furthermore, it was also successfully used for content uniformity testing. Lastly, using four advanced tools namely the Eco-Scale, the National Environmental Method Index (NEMI), the Green Analytical Procedure Index (GAPI), and the Analytical Greenness metric approach (AGREE), the greenness of the established technique was evaluated.


Assuntos
Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Cloridrato de Vilazodona , Cloridrato de Vilazodona/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comprimidos , Química Verde/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Formas de Dosagem
14.
Int J Pharm ; 659: 124229, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762166

RESUMO

The swallowability of solid oral dosage forms (SODFs) is crucial for medication safety and adherence. Both regulatory agencies and sponsors are concerned with bringing swallowable SODFs to patients. However, no best practices are available for assessing swallowability. Therefore, we conducted a comparative analysis of clinical swallowability assessments (CSAs) for SODFs in regulatory submissions to identify current study design practices. CSAs were identified from a "swallowability" keyword search of a Food and Drug Administration database. Notable design trends among the 17 CSAs were not assessing swallowability as a primary endpoint (76 %); enrolling pediatric patients (76 %); administering assessments post-screening (76 %); and utilizing questionnaires (100 %). A design trend with near equal frequency (∼50 %) was single- or multiple-doses of product administration. Study subjects were the primary questionnaire respondents (82 %), usually using a Likert scale (92 %, 12/13). CSAs generally dichotomized the responses for analysis (65 %) without pre-specified threshold values (59 %). Overall, while study designs exhibited trends, methodology variations may impact swallowability measurements affecting the interpretation of results. Thus, developing robust and valid assessment tools for swallowability is imperative to produce clinically relevant data and inform regulatory decision-making. Collaboration between regulatory agencies and sponsors is warranted to create best practices and ensure high quality swallowability data.


Assuntos
Deglutição , Formas de Dosagem , Humanos , Administração Oral , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Inquéritos e Questionários , Projetos de Pesquisa , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem
15.
Int J Pharm ; 657: 124163, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670473

RESUMO

Parenteral administration is one of the most commonly used drug delivery routes for nanoparticle-based dosage forms, such as lipid-based and polymeric nanoparticles. For the treatment of various diseases, parenteral administration include intravenous, subcutaneous, and intramuscular route. In drug development phase, multiparameter strategy with a focus on drug physicochemical properties and the specificity of the administration route is required. Nanoparticle properties in terms of size and targeted delivery, among others, are able to surpass many drawbacks of conventional dosage forms, but these unique properties can be a bottleneck for approval by regulatory authorities. Quality by Design (QbD) approach has been widely utilized in development of parenteral nanoparticle-based dosage forms. It fosters knowledge of product and process quality by involving sound scientific data and risk assessment strategies. A full and comprehensive investigation into the state of implementation and applications of the QbD approach in these complex drug products can highlight the gaps and challenges. In this review, the analysis of critical attributes and Design of Experiment (DoE) approach in different nanoparticulate systems, together with the proper utilization of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) applications are described. The essential of QbD approach for the design and development of nanoparticle-based dosage forms for delivery via parenteral routes is discussed thoroughly.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Nanopartículas/química , Humanos , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Infusões Parenterais , Formas de Dosagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química
16.
Farm. comunitarios (Internet) ; 16(2): 37-42, Abr. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232406

RESUMO

Paciente de 78 años, polimedicada e incluida en el servicio de Sistema Personalizado de Dosificación de Medicamentos (SPD). Al acudir a retirar su medicación nos informa que desde hace unos meses sufre cansancio, debilidad, mareos y confusión. Se realiza una revisión de la medicación, centrada en la dosificación de los medicamentos de metabolismo o eliminación renal, en función del valor de Filtrado Glomerular estimado de la paciente (FGe). Se realiza derivación al Médico de Atención Primaria (MAP) mediante un informe, en el que se recomienda la reducción de dosis de losartán y manidipino según el valor de FGe de la paciente. El MAP redujo la dosis de los antihipertensivos. Se efectuó seguimiento del caso, que permitió observar que la paciente dejó de presentar los síntomas descritos inicialmente.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Polimedicação , Dosagem , Insuficiência Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Formas de Dosagem , Drogas Desenhadas , Exame Físico , Confusão , Tontura , Pacientes Internados , Debilidade Muscular
17.
J Pharm Sci ; 113(7): 1726-1748, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582283

RESUMO

The production of paediatric pharmaceutical forms represents a unique challenge within the pharmaceutical industry. The primary goal of these formulations is to ensure therapeutic efficacy, safety, and tolerability in paediatric patients, who have specific physiological needs and characteristics. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in attention towards this area, driven by the need to improve drug administration to children and ensure optimal and specific treatments. Technological innovation has played a crucial role in meeting these requirements, opening new frontiers in the design and production of paediatric pharmaceutical forms. In particular, three emerging technologies have garnered considerable interest and attention within the scientific and industrial community: 3D printing, prilling/vibration, and microfluidics. These technologies offer advanced approaches for the design, production, and customization of paediatric pharmaceutical forms, allowing for more precise dosage modulation, improved solubility, and greater drug acceptability. In this review, we delve into these cutting-edge technologies and their impact on the production of paediatric pharmaceutical forms. We analyse their potential, associated challenges, and recent developments, providing a comprehensive overview of the opportunities that these innovative methodologies offer to the pharmaceutical sector. We examine different pharmaceutical forms generated using these techniques, evaluating their advantages and disadvantages.


Assuntos
Microfluídica , Impressão Tridimensional , Humanos , Criança , Microfluídica/métodos , Formas de Dosagem , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Pediatria/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Solubilidade
18.
Mol Pharm ; 21(4): 1553-1562, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440796

RESUMO

Oral dosage forms are the most widely and frequently used formulations to deliver active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), due to their ease of administration and noninvasiveness. Knowledge of intragastric release rates and gastric mixing is crucial for predicting the API release profile, especially for immediate release formulations. However, knowledge of the intragastric fate of oral dosage forms in vivo to date is limited, particularly for dosage forms administered when the stomach is in the fed state. An improved understanding of gastric food processing, dosage form location, disintegration times, and food effects is essential for greater understanding for effective API formulation design. In vitro standard and controlled modeling has played a significant role in predicting the behavior of dosage forms in vivo. However, discrepancies are reported between in vitro and in vivo disintegration times, with these discrepancies being greatest in the fed state. Studying the fate of a dosage form in vivo is a challenging process, usually requiring the use of invasive methods, such as intubation. Noninvasive, whole body imaging techniques can however provide unique insights into this process. A scoping review was performed systematically to identify and critically appraise published studies using MRI to visualize oral solid dosage forms in vivo in healthy human subjects. The review identifies that so far, an all-purpose robust contrast agent or dosage form type has not been established for dosage form visualization and disintegration studies in the gastrointestinal system. Opportunities have been identified for future studies, with particular focus on characterizing dosage form disintegration for development after the consumption food, as exemplified by the standard Food and Drug Administration (FDA) high fat meal.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal , Estômago , Humanos , Administração Oral , Estômago/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Formas de Dosagem , Solubilidade , Comprimidos
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3661, 2024 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351288

RESUMO

A straightforward and efficient spectrum technique was created using Ortho-chloranil as the electron acceptor (-acceptor) in a charge transfer (CT) complex formation reaction to determine the concentration of famotidine (FMD) in solutions. Compared to the double-distilled blank solution, the reaction result detected a definite violet colour at a maximum absorption wavelength of 546 nm, For concentrations range 2-28 µg/ml, the technique demonstrated excellent compliance with Beer-Law and Lambert's, as evidenced by its molar absorptivity of 2159.648 L mol-1 cm-1. Lower detection limits of 0.3024 µg/ml and 1.471 µg/ml, respectively, were discovered. The complexes of famotidine and Ortho-chloranil were found to have a 2:1 stoichiometry. Additionally, the suggested approach effectively estimated famotidine concentrations in pharmaceutical formulations, particularly in tablet form.


Assuntos
Cloranila , Famotidina , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Comprimidos , Formas de Dosagem
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