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1.
J Mol Biol ; 432(19): 5473-5488, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795532

RESUMO

One-carbon metabolism produces methionine and N10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate (N10-fTHF) required for aminoacylation and formylation of initiator tRNA (i-tRNA), respectively. In Escherichia coli, N10-fTHF is made from 5, 10-methylene-THF by a two-step reaction using 5,10-methylene-THF dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase (FolD). The i-tRNAs from all domains of life possess a highly conserved sequence of three consecutive G-C base pairs (3GC pairs) in their anticodon stem. A 3GC mutant i-tRNA (wherein the 3GC pairs are mutated to those found in elongator tRNAMet) is incompetent in initiation in E. coli (even though it is efficiently aminoacylated and formylated). Here, we show that E. coli strains having mutations in FolD (G122D or C58Y or P140L) allow a plasmid encoded 3GC mutant i-tRNA to participate in initiation. In vitro, the FolD mutants are highly compromised in their dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase activities leading to reduced production of N10-fTHF and decreased rates of i-tRNA formylation. The perturbation of one-carbon metabolism by trimethoprim (inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase) phenocopies FolD deficiency and allows initiation with the 3GC mutant i-tRNA. This study reveals an important crosstalk between one-carbon metabolism and the fidelity of translation initiation via formylation of i-tRNA, and suggests that augmentation of the age old sulfa drugs with FolD inhibitors could be an important antibacterial strategy.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Iniciação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , RNA de Transferência de Metionina/metabolismo , Anticódon/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Análise do Fluxo Metabólico , Meteniltetra-Hidrofolato Cicloidrolase/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares
2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(3): 1457-1464, 2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830412

RESUMO

[NiFe] hydrogenases catalyze the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen into two protons and two electrons. A key organometallic chemistry feature of the NiFe active site is that the iron atom is co-coordinated by two cyanides (CN-) and one carbon monoxide (CO) ligand. Biosynthesis of the NiFe(CN)2(CO) cofactor requires the activity of at least six maturation proteins, designated HypA-F. An additional maturase, HypX, is required for CO ligand synthesis under aerobic conditions, and preliminary in vivo data indicated that HypX releases CO using N10-formyltetrahydrofolate (N10-formyl-THF) as the substrate. HypX has a bipartite structure composed of an N-terminal module similar to N10-formyl-THF transferases and a C-terminal module homologous to enoyl-CoA hydratases/isomerases. This composition suggested that CO production takes place in two consecutive reactions. Here, we present in vitro evidence that purified HypX first transfers the formyl group of N10-formyl-THF to produce formyl-coenzyme A (formyl-CoA) as a central reaction intermediate. In a second step, formyl-CoA is decarbonylated, resulting in free CoA and carbon monoxide. Purified HypX proved to be metal-free, which makes it a unique catalyst among the group of CO-releasing enzymes.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/química , Enzimas/química , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/química , Hidrogenase/química , Oxigênio/química , Ligantes
3.
J AOAC Int ; 102(3): 971-974, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717819

RESUMO

Background: Recent development of LC methods for the determination of total folates (vitamin B9) in complex matrixes have been hindered by vitamer interconversion and yield variability. The official microbiological method (AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 944.12 and 960.46) uses an end point turbidity reading to determine folate concentration. However, when measuring complex matrixes, shifts are observed in the growth curves of the microorganism and inaccuracies are introduced to this quantification method. Objective/Methods: In addition to the tri-enzyme digestion of the standard microbiological method, we have applied enzyme modeling of the initial velocity of bacterial growth using Michaelis-Menten kinetics to achieve more accurate and reproducible determinations of total folates. Results/Conclusions: Accuracy determined through spike recovery in Infant/Adult Nutritional Drink and a complex vitamin matrix gave values acceptable to AOAC standards of 85-110%. Repeatability of the low mass fraction analyte measured at micrograms per 100 g yielded relative standard deviations <15% for all matrixes tested, including three standard reference materials.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Fast Foods/análise , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/análise , Animais , Bacillus licheniformis/enzimologia , Galinhas , Cinética , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Suínos , alfa-Amilases/química , gama-Glutamil Hidrolase/química
4.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 664: 40-50, 2019 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689984

RESUMO

The hydroxyornithine transformylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known by the gene name pvdF, and has been hypothesized to use N10-formyltetrahydrofolate (N10-fTHF) as a co-substrate formyl donor to convert N5-hydroxyornithine (OHOrn) to N5-formyl- N5-hydroxyornithine (fOHOrn). PvdF is in the biosynthetic pathway for pyoverdin biosynthesis, a siderophore generated under iron-limiting conditions that has been linked to virulence, quorum sensing and biofilm formation. The structure of PvdF was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.3 Å, revealing a formyltransferase fold consistent with N10-formyltetrahydrofolate dependent enzymes, such as the glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylases, N-sugar transformylases and methionyl-tRNA transformylases. Whereas the core structure, including the catalytic triad, is conserved, PvdF has three insertions of 18 or more amino acids, which we hypothesize are key to binding the OHOrn substrate. Steady state kinetics revealed a non-hyperbolic rate curve, promoting the hypothesis that PvdF uses a random-sequential mechanism, and favors folate binding over OHOrn.


Assuntos
Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/química , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/biossíntese , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzimologia
5.
Biochemistry ; 56(29): 3818-3825, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665588

RESUMO

The causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a bacterium with a complex cell wall and a complicated life cycle. The genome of M. tuberculosis contains well over 4000 genes thought to encode proteins. One of these codes for a putative enzyme referred to as Rv3404c, which has attracted research attention as a potential virulence factor for over 12 years. Here we demonstrate that Rv3404c functions as a sugar N-formyltransferase that converts dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose into dTDP-4-formamido-4,6-dideoxyglucose using N10-formyltetrahydrofolate as the carbon source. Kinetic analyses demonstrate that Rv3404c displays a significant catalytic efficiency of 1.1 × 104 M-1 s-1. In addition, we report the X-ray structure of a ternary complex of Rv3404c solved in the presence of N5-formyltetrahydrofolate and dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose. The final model of Rv3404c was refined to an overall R-factor of 16.8% at 1.6 Å resolution. The results described herein are especially intriguing given that there have been no published reports of N-formylated sugars associated with M. tuberculosis. The data thus provide a new avenue of research into this fascinating, yet deadly, organism that apparently has been associated with human infection since ancient times.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/química , Modelos Moleculares , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Fatores de Virulência/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Catálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desoxiaçúcares/química , Desoxiaçúcares/metabolismo , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/química , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/metabolismo , Cinética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Nucleotídeos de Timina/química , Nucleotídeos de Timina/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
6.
Protein Sci ; 25(8): 1555-62, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171345

RESUMO

ArnA from Escherichia coli is a key enzyme involved in the formation of 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose. The addition of this sugar to the lipid A moiety of the lipopolysaccharide of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria allows these organisms to evade the cationic antimicrobial peptides of the host immune system. Indeed, it is thought that such modifications may be responsible for the repeated infections of cystic fibrosis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ArnA is a bifunctional enzyme with the N- and C-terminal domains catalyzing formylation and oxidative decarboxylation reactions, respectively. The catalytically competent cofactor for the formylation reaction is N(10) -formyltetrahydrofolate. Here we describe the structure of the isolated N-terminal domain of ArnA in complex with its UDP-sugar substrate and N(5) -formyltetrahydrofolate. The model presented herein may prove valuable in the development of new antimicrobial therapeutics.


Assuntos
Amino Açúcares/química , Carboxiliases/química , Coenzimas/química , Escherichia coli/química , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/química , Açúcares de Uridina Difosfato/química , Amino Açúcares/metabolismo , Carboxiliases/genética , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Coenzimas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Açúcares de Uridina Difosfato/metabolismo
7.
Protein Sci ; 24(6): 976-86, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25752909

RESUMO

The existence of N-formylated sugars in the O-antigens of Gram-negative bacteria has been known since the middle 1980s, but only recently have the biosynthetic pathways for their production been reported. In these pathways, glucose-1-phosphate is first activated by attachment to a dTMP moiety. This step is followed by a dehydration reaction and an amination. The last step in these pathways is catalyzed by N-formyltransferases that utilize N(10) -formyltetrahydrofolate as the carbon source. Here we describe the three-dimensional structure of one of these N-formyltransferases, namely VioF from Providencia alcalifaciens O30. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose (dTDP-Qui4N) to dTDP-4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-d-glucose (dTDP-Qui4NFo). For this analysis, the structure of VioF was solved to 1.9 Å resolution in both its apoform and in complex with tetrahydrofolate and dTDP-Qui4N. The crystals used in the investigation belonged to the space group R32 and demonstrated reticular merohedral twinning. The overall catalytic core of the VioF subunit is characterized by a six stranded mixed ß-sheet flanked on one side by three α-helices and on the other side by mostly random coil. This N-terminal domain is followed by an α-helix and a ß-hairpin that form the subunit:subunit interface. The active site of the enzyme is shallow and solvent-exposed. Notably, the pyranosyl moiety of dTDP-Qui4N is positioned into the active site by only one hydrogen bond provided by Lys 77. Comparison of the VioF model to that of a previously determined N-formyltransferase suggests that substrate specificity is determined by interactions between the protein and the pyrophosphoryl group of the dTDP-sugar substrate.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/química , Providencia/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/genética , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Providencia/genética
8.
J Bacteriol ; 197(4): 717-26, 2015 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25448816

RESUMO

In cells, N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate (N(10)-fTHF) is required for formylation of eubacterial/organellar initiator tRNA and purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Biosynthesis of N(10)-fTHF is catalyzed by 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase (FolD) and/or 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (Fhs). All eubacteria possess FolD, but some possess both FolD and Fhs. However, the reasons for possessing Fhs in addition to FolD have remained unclear. We used Escherichia coli, which naturally lacks fhs, as our model. We show that in E. coli, the essential function of folD could be replaced by Clostridium perfringens fhs when it was provided on a medium-copy-number plasmid or integrated as a single-copy gene in the chromosome. The fhs-supported folD deletion (ΔfolD) strains grow well in a complex medium. However, these strains require purines and glycine as supplements for growth in M9 minimal medium. The in vivo levels of N(10)-fTHF in the ΔfolD strain (supported by plasmid-borne fhs) were limiting despite the high capacity of the available Fhs to synthesize N(10)-fTHF in vitro. Auxotrophy for purines could be alleviated by supplementing formate to the medium, and that for glycine was alleviated by engineering THF import into the cells. The ΔfolD strain (harboring fhs on the chromosome) showed a high NADP(+)-to-NADPH ratio and hypersensitivity to trimethoprim. The presence of fhs in E. coli was disadvantageous for its aerobic growth. However, under hypoxia, E. coli strains harboring fhs outcompeted those lacking it. The computational analysis revealed a predominant natural occurrence of fhs in anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Clostridium perfringens/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Formiato-Tetra-Hidrofolato Ligase/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Viabilidade Microbiana , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbono/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Formiato-Tetra-Hidrofolato Ligase/genética , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase (NADP)/metabolismo , Oxigênio/análise
9.
Protein Sci ; 23(3): 273-83, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24347283

RESUMO

N-formylated sugars have been observed on the O-antigens of such pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria as Campylobacter jejuni and Francisella tularensis. Until recently, however, little was known regarding the overall molecular architectures of the N-formyltransferases that are required for the biosynthesis of these unusual sugars. Here we demonstrate that the protein encoded by the wbtj gene from F. tularensis is an N-formyltransferase that functions on dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose as its substrate. The enzyme, hereafter referred to as WbtJ, demonstrates a strict requirement for N(10) -formyltetrahydrofolate as its carbon source. In addition to the kinetic analysis, the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was solved in the presence of dTDP-sugar ligands to a nominal resolution of 2.1 Å. Each subunit of the dimeric enzyme is dominated by a "core" domain defined by Met 1 to Ser 185. This core motif harbors the active site residues. Following the core domain, the last 56 residues fold into two α-helices and a ß-hairpin motif. The hairpin motif is responsible primarily for the subunit:subunit interface, which is characterized by a rather hydrophobic pocket. From the study presented here, it is now known that WbtJ functions on C-4' amino sugars. Another enzyme recently investigated in the laboratory, WlaRD, formylates only C-3' amino sugars. Strikingly, the quaternary structures of WbtJ and WlaRD are remarkably different. In addition, there are several significant variations in the side chains that line their active site pockets, which may be important for substrate specificity. Details concerning the kinetic and structural properties of WbtJ are presented.


Assuntos
Desoxiaçúcares/metabolismo , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Francisella tularensis/enzimologia , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/química , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos de Timina/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Francisella tularensis/química , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(41): 9758-68, 2013 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24033320

RESUMO

The B-vitamin folate has specific tasks as a one-carbon (C1) group supplier in the building and repair of DNA and RNA as well as in the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. Folate occurs in all living cells as a dynamic pool of several interconvertible forms carrying different C1 groups. Along the food chain, this dynamic pool of folates constantly changes due to either enzymatic or chemical interconversions during food processing and storage. These interconversions make it difficult to determine individual folate forms in foods. The formyl folates, the second most predominant forms of food folates, after 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, are particularly prone to interconvert at low pH. Today, this knowledge is often neglected, leading to risks for analytical underestimation of formyl folates. The purpose of the review is to explore the stability and interconversions of formyl folates in foods as well as to analyze the pitfalls in the determination of formyl folates.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/química , Complexo Vitamínico B/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Oxirredução
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 92(6): 1416-22, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20844072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of unmetabolized folic acid in maternal and fetal blood is not known. OBJECTIVE: We investigated total folate, tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), formyl-THF, 5,10-methenylTHF, and folic acid concentrations in women and in umbilical cord blood at delivery. DESIGN: The study included 87 pregnant women and 29 cord blood samples, including 24 mother-infant pairs. We measured serum concentrations of folate forms by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Pregnant women who received 400 µg folic acid daily (n = 25) had higher total folate (P = 0.041), 5-MTHF (P = 0.049), and formyl-THF (P < 0.001) concentrations and slightly higher THF (P = 0.093) concentrations than did nonsupplemented pregnant women (n = 61). We measured folic acid concentrations >0.20 nmol/L in 38 (44%) pregnant women and in 55% of the cord serum samples, but these measurements were not explained by maternal supplement use. Concentrations of folic acid were nonsignificantly higher in cord blood from supplemented women than in cord blood from nonsupplemented women (P = 0.154). Proportions of folic acid to total folate in cord serum did not differ according to maternal supplement usage (0.54% compared with 0.43% in supplemented and nonsupplemented women, respectively). Concentrations of folic acid did not differ between maternal and cord serum. However, folic acid constituted a significantly lower proportion of total folate in cord serum than in maternal serum. CONCLUSIONS: We detected unmetabolized folic acid in more than one-half of cord blood samples. Folic acid (400 µg/d) supplied during pregnancy is not likely to accumulate in the fetus, in contrast to 5-MTHF and THF, which accumulate in the fetus.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/química , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/sangue , Recém-Nascido/sangue , Gravidez/sangue , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/sangue , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 90(1): 116-23, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19439459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate deficiency increases the risk of several human diseases. Likewise, high intakes of folate, particularly synthetic folic acid intake, may be associated with adverse health outcomes in humans. A more comprehensive understanding of the "input side" of folate nutrition may help to set dietary recommendations that strike the right balance between health benefits and risks. It is well known that the microflora in the colon produce large quantities of folate that approach or exceed recommended dietary intakes; however, there is no direct evidence of the bioavailability of this pool in humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether, and to what extent, the natural folate vitamer 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid is absorbed across the intact colon of humans. DESIGN: During screening colonoscopy, 684 nmol (320 microg) [(13)C]glutamyl-5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid was infused directly into the cecum of 6 healthy adults. Three or more weeks later, each subject received an intravenous injection of the same compound (172 nmol). Blood samples were collected before and after each treatment. The ratio of labeled to unlabeled folates was determined in plasma by tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The apparent rate of folate absorption across the colon of a bolus dose of [(13)C]5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid infused into the cecum was 0.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/h, as determined by the appearance of [(13)C(5)]5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in plasma. In comparison, the rate of appearance of [(13)C(5)]5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid after an intravenous injection of [(13)C(5)]5-formyltetrahydrofolate was 7 +/- 1.2 nmol/h. CONCLUSION: Physiologic doses of natural folate are absorbed across the intact colon in humans.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/farmacocinética , Ceco/fisiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/farmacocinética , Leucovorina/metabolismo , Adulto , Colonoscopia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Plant Cell ; 20(7): 1818-32, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18628352

RESUMO

In prokaryotes, PurU (10-formyl tetrahydrofolate [THF] deformylase) metabolizes 10-formyl THF to formate and THF for purine and Gly biosyntheses. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains two putative purU genes, At4g17360 and At5g47435. Knocking out these genes simultaneously results in plants that are smaller and paler than the wild type. These double knockout (dKO) mutant plants show a 70-fold increase in Gly levels and accumulate elevated levels of 5- and 10-formyl THF. Embryo development in dKO mutants arrests between heart and early bent cotyledon stages. Mature seeds are shriveled, accumulate low amounts of lipids, and fail to germinate. However, the dKO mutant is only conditionally lethal and is rescued by growth under nonphotorespiratory conditions. In addition, culturing dKO siliques in the presence of sucrose restores normal embryo development and seed viability, suggesting that the seed and embryo development phenotypes are a result of a maternal effect. Our findings are consistent with the involvement of At4g17360 and At5g47435 proteins in photorespiration, which is to prevent excessive accumulation of 5-formyl THF, a potent inhibitor of the Gly decarboxylase/Ser hydroxymethyltransferase complex. Supporting this role, deletion of the At2g38660 gene that encodes the bifunctional 5,10-methylene THF dehydrogenase/5,10-methenyl THF cyclohydrolase that acts upstream of 5-formyl THF formation restored the wild-type phenotype in dKO plants.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Amidoidrolases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Formiatos/metabolismo , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/genética , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/fisiologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sacarose/farmacologia
14.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 11(2): 116-9, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18344075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the toxicity and safety of FOLFOX regimen concurrent with radiotherapy in neoadjuvant setting in patients with low rectal cancer. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with stage T(3-4)N(0)M(0) and T(1-4)N(1-2)M(0) were eligible from Aug. 2004 to Jul. 2007. Upon entry the study, they received 4 cycles of chemotherapy with FOLFOX regimen. Radiotherapy was added from the second cycle of chemotherapy (CT). The total dose of radiotherapy (RT) was 46 Gy (2 Gy x 23). Total mesorectal excision (TME) was performed 4-8 weeks after RT. RESULTS: Among them, 54 cases received 4 cycles of CT, 1 patient stopped CT after the second cycle of CT because of unrecovery from neutropenia. One patient stopped chemoradiotherapy(CRT) because of complicating with active pulmonary tuberculosis after 2 cycles of CT and 10 times of RT. Two occurred liver, lung and bone metastases after CT. Totally 220 cycles of CT were administrated. Fifty-two patients received operation after CRT, 50 with anal interior sphincter reservation, 19 with prophylactic ileac stoma. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 2 patients after operation, and rectal vaginal fistula in 2 patients 1 month after operation. According to the pathologic results, 7 patients achieved complete response, 41 partial response, 4 stable disease, and the objective response rate was 85.7%. CONCLUSION: Concomitant treatment of FOLFOX regimen and RT in neoadjuvant setting of rectal cancer was safe and tolerable, and it suggests that protective ileostomy for anastomotic leakage following anus-preserving operation should be performed.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
FEBS J ; 274(16): 4148-60, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17651438

RESUMO

Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) belongs to the alpha-family of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes and catalyzes the reversible conversion of L-Ser and tetrahydrofolate to Gly and 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate. 5,10-Methylene tetrahydrofolate serves as a source of one-carbon fragment in many biological processes. SHMT also catalyzes the tetrahydrofolate-independent conversion of L-allo-Thr to Gly and acetaldehyde. The crystal structure of Bacillus stearothermophilus SHMT (bsSHMT) suggested that E53 interacts with the substrate, L-Ser and tetrahydrofolate. To elucidate the role of E53, it was mutated to Q and structural and biochemical studies were carried out with the mutant enzyme. The internal aldimine structure of E53QbsSHMT was similar to that of the wild-type enzyme, except for significant changes at Q53, Y60 and Y61. The carboxyl of Gly and side chain of L-Ser were in two conformations in the respective external aldimine structures. The mutant enzyme was completely inactive for tetrahydrofolate-dependent cleavage of L-Ser, whereas there was a 1.5-fold increase in the rate of tetrahydrofolate-independent reaction with L-allo-Thr. The results obtained from these studies suggest that E53 plays an essential role in tetrahydrofolate/5-formyl tetrahydrofolate binding and in the proper positioning of Cbeta of L-Ser for direct attack by N5 of tetrahydrofolate. Most interestingly, the structure of the complex obtained by cocrystallization of E53QbsSHMT with Gly and 5-formyl tetrahydrofolate revealed the gem-diamine form of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate bound to Gly and active site Lys. However, density for 5-formyl tetrahydrofolate was not observed. Gly carboxylate was in a single conformation, whereas pyridoxal 5'-phosphate had two distinct conformations. The differences between the structures of this complex and Gly external aldimine suggest that the changes induced by initial binding of 5-formyl tetrahydrofolate are retained even though 5-formyl tetrahydrofolate is absent in the final structure. Spectral studies carried out with this mutant enzyme also suggest that 5-formyl tetrahydrofolate binds to the E53QbsSHMT-Gly complex forming a quinonoid intermediate and falls off within 4 h of dialysis, leaving behind the mutant enzyme in the gem-diamine form. This is the first report to provide direct evidence for enzyme memory based on the crystal structure of enzyme complexes.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/enzimologia , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Catálise , Dicroísmo Circular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/genética , Ácido Glutâmico/química , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutamina/química , Glutamina/genética , Glutamina/metabolismo , Glicina/metabolismo , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/genética , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Espectrofotometria , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo
17.
J Biol Chem ; 281(27): 18335-42, 2006 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16627483

RESUMO

10-Formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (FDH) catalyzes the NADP(+)-dependent conversion of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate to CO(2) and tetrahydrofolate (THF) and is an abundant high affinity folate-binding protein. Although several activities have been ascribed to FDH, its metabolic role in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is not well understood. FDH has been proposed to: 1) inhibit purine biosynthesis by depleting 10-formyl-THF pools, 2) maintain cellular folate concentrations by sequestering THF, 3) deplete the supply of folate-activated one-carbon units, and 4) stimulate the generation of THF-activated one-carbon unit synthesis by channeling folate cofactors to other folate-dependent enzymes. The metabolic functions of FDH were investigated in neuroblastoma, which do not contain detectable levels of FDH. Both low and high FDH expression reduced total cellular folate concentrations by 60%, elevated rates of folate catabolism, and depleted cellular 5-methyl-THF and S-adenosylmethionine levels. Low FDH expression increased the formyl-THF/THF ratio nearly 10-fold, whereas THF accounted for nearly 50% of total folate in neuroblastoma with high FDH expression. FDH expression did not affect the enrichment of exogenous formate into methionine, serine, or purines and did not suppress de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis. We conclude that low FDH expression facilitates the incorporation of one-carbon units into the one-carbon pool, whereas high levels of FDH expression deplete the folate-activated one-carbon pool by catalyzing the conversion of 10-formyl-THF to THF. Furthermore, FDH does not increase cellular folate concentrations by sequestering THF in neuroblastoma nor does it inhibit or regulate de novo purine biosynthesis. FDH expression does deplete cellular 5-methyl-THF and S-adenosylmethionine levels indicating that FDH impairs the folate-dependent homocysteine remethylation cycle.


Assuntos
Carbono , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Purinas/biossíntese , Isótopos de Carbono , Catálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA Complementar/genética , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/genética , Humanos , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo
19.
J Bacteriol ; 187(21): 7511-7, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16237034

RESUMO

QscR, a LysR-type regulator, is the major regulator of assimilatory C1 metabolism in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. It has been shown to interact with the promoters of the two operons that encode the majority of the serine cycle enzymes (sga-hpr-mtdA-fch for the qsc1 operon and mtkA-mtkB-ppc-mclA for the qsc2 operon), as well as with the promoter of glyA and its own promoter. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms of this regulation, we mapped transcriptional start sites for the qsc1 and qsc2 operons and for glyA via primer extension analysis. We also identified the specific binding sites for QscR upstream of the qsc1 and qsc2 operons and glyA by DNase I footprinting. The QscR protected areas were located at nucleotides -216 to -165, nucleotides -59 to -26, and nucleotides -72 to -39 within the promoter-regulatory regions upstream of transcriptional starts of, respectively, qsc1, qsc2 and glyA. To examine the nature of the metabolic signal that may influence QscR-mediated regulation of the serine cycle genes, Pqsc1::xylE translational fusions were constructed and expression of XylE monitored in the wild-type strain, as well as in knockout mutants defective in a variety of methylotrophy functions. The data from these experiments pointed toward formyl-H4F being a coinducer of QscR and possibly the major signal in the regulation of the serine cycle in M. extorquens AM1. The ability of formyl-H4F to enhance the binding of QscR to a specific region upstream of one of the serine cycle operons was demonstrated in gel retardation experiments.


Assuntos
Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reguladores , Methylobacterium extorquens/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Ativação Transcricional , Região 5'-Flanqueadora/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Pegada de DNA , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos , Deleção de Genes , Genes Bacterianos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Óperon , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Serina/genética , Serina/metabolismo , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
20.
J Biol Chem ; 280(28): 26137-42, 2005 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15888445

RESUMO

5-Formyltetrahydrofolate (5-CHO-THF) is formed via a second catalytic activity of serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) and strongly inhibits SHMT and other folate-dependent enzymes in vitro. The only enzyme known to metabolize 5-CHO-THF is 5-CHO-THF cycloligase (5-FCL), which catalyzes its conversion to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate. Because 5-FCL is mitochondrial in plants and mitochondrial SHMT is central to photorespiration, we examined the impact of an insertional mutation in the Arabidopsis 5-FCL gene (At5g13050) under photorespiratory (30 and 370 micromol of CO2 mol(-1)) and non-photorespiratory (3200 micromol of CO2 mol(-1)) conditions. The mutation had only mild visible effects at 370 micromol of CO2 mol(-1), reducing growth rate by approximately 20% and delaying flowering by 1 week. However, the mutation doubled leaf 5-CHO-THF level under all conditions and, under photorespiratory conditions, quadrupled the pool of 10-formyl-/5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolates (which could not be distinguished analytically). At 370 micromol of CO2 mol(-1), the mitochondrial 5-CHO-THF pool was 8-fold larger in the mutant and contained most of the 5-CHO-THF in the leaf. In contrast, the buildup of 10-formyl-/5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolates was extramitochondrial. In photorespiratory conditions, leaf glycine levels were up to 46-fold higher in the mutant than in the wild type. Furthermore, when leaves were supplied with 5-CHO-THF, glycine accumulated in both wild type and mutant. These data establish that 5-CHO-THF can inhibit SHMT in vivo and thereby influence glycine pool size. However, the near-normal growth of the mutant shows that even exceptionally high 5-CHO-THF levels do not much affect fluxes through SHMT or any other folate-dependent reaction, i.e. that 5-CHO-THF is well tolerated in plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases/metabolismo , Formiato-Tetra-Hidrofolato Ligase/genética , Leucovorina/análogos & derivados , Leucovorina/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases/química , Catálise , DNA Bacteriano/química , Flores/metabolismo , Formiato-Tetra-Hidrofolato Ligase/química , Formiltetra-Hidrofolatos/química , Glicina/química , Glicina Hidroximetiltransferase/química , Hidrólise , Leucovorina/química , Leucovorina/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Genéticos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese , Isoformas de Proteínas , RNA/química , Serina/química , Temperatura , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/química , Fatores de Tempo
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