Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 16.520
Filtrar
1.
PeerJ ; 11: e14692, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655053

RESUMO

Hybotidae fly species, also known as dance flies, in Cretaceous ambers have been described from Lebanon, France, Myanmar, Russia, and Canada. Here we describe Grimaldipeza coelica gen. et sp. n., and recognize another two un-named species, in Spanish amber from the middle Albian El Soplao and lower Cenomanian La Hoya outcrops. The fore tibial gland is present in the new genus, which is characteristic of the family Hybotidae. We compare Grimaldipeza coelica gen. et sp. n. with the holotypes of Trichinites cretaceus Hennig, 1970 and Ecommocydromia difficilis Schlüter, 1978, and clarify some morphological details present in the latter two species. Further taxonomic placement beyond family of the here described new genus was not possible and remains incertae sedis within Hybotidae until extant subfamilies are better defined. We provide new paleoecological data of the hybotids, together with paleogeographical and life paleoenvironmental notes. A table with the known Cretaceous Hybotidae is provided. Furthermore, the La Hoya amber-bearing outcrop is described in detail, filling the information gap for this deposit.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Dípteros , Animais , Dípteros/anatomia & histologia , Âmbar , Espanha , Fósseis , França
2.
PeerJ ; 11: e14517, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36684668

RESUMO

The Sevatian of the late Norian is one of the key intervals in biotic turnover and in changes of paleoclimate and paleoenvironments. Conodont faunas recovered from two sections of upper Norian strata of the Dashuitang and Nanshuba formations near Baoshan City in western Yunnan province provide new insights into the diversity and biostratigraphy of the Sevatian conodonts within China as well as globally. A lower Mockina (M.) bidentata Zone and an upper Parvigondolella (P.) andrusovi Zone are identified in this area according to the first occurrences of M. bidentata and of P. andrusovi. Rich conodont fauna of M. zapfei is detailed and presents various intraspecific forms. A total of 19 forms of P1 elements are presented, which, when combined with the reported conodonts in the M. bidentata Zone, suggest that there was a peak in conodont diversity within the M. bidentata Zone. A biotic crisis in the uppermost M. bidentata Zone is recognized from the contrast between the diverse conodont fauna in the M. bidentata Zone and the rare conodonts in the P. andrusovi Zone. The conodont turnover during the middle Sevatian highlights the fact that the prolonged phases of the end-Triassic mass extinction probably began in the transition interval from M. bidentata Zone to P. andrusovi Zone.


Assuntos
Extinção Biológica , Fósseis , China
3.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 68: 401-429, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689304

RESUMO

While Mesozoic, Paleogene, and Neogene insect faunas greatly resemble the modern one, the Paleozoic fauna provides unique insights into key innovations in insect evolution, such as the origin of wings and modifications of postembryonic development including holometaboly. Deep-divergence estimates suggest that the majority of contemporary insect orders originated in the Late Paleozoic, but these estimates reflect divergences between stem groups of each lineage rather than the later appearance of the crown groups. The fossil record shows the initial radiations of the extant hyperdiverse clades during the Early Permian, as well as the specialized fauna present before the End Permian mass extinction. This review summarizes the recent discoveries related to the documented diversity of Paleozoic hexapods, as well as current knowledge about what has actually been verified from fossil evidence as it relates to postembryonic development and the morphology of different body parts.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Insetos , Animais , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Extinção Biológica , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia
4.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 68: 341-361, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689301

RESUMO

The use of the functional feeding group-damage type system for analyzing arthropod and pathogen interactions with plants has transformed our understanding of herbivory in fossil plant assemblages by providing data, analyses, and interpretation of the local, regional, and global patterns of a 420-Myr history. The early fossil record can be used to answer major questions about the oldest evidence for herbivory, the early emergence of herbivore associations on land plants, and later expansion on seed plants. The subsequent effects of the Permian-Triassic ecological crisis on herbivore diversity, the resulting formation of biologically diverse herbivore communities on gymnosperms, and major shifts in herbivory ensuing from initial angiosperm diversification are additional issues that need to be addressed. Studies ofherbivory resulting from more recent transient spikes and longer-term climate trends provide important data that are applied to current global change and include herbivore community responses to latitude, altitude, and habitat. Ongoing paleoecological themes remaining to be addressed include the antiquity of modern interactions, differential herbivory between ferns and angiosperms, and origins of modern tropical forests. The expansion of databases that include a multitude of specimens; improvements in sampling strategies; development of new analytical methods; and, importantly, the ability to address conceptually stimulating ecological and evolutionary questions have provided new impetus in this rapidly advancing field.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Herbivoria , Animais , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Fósseis , Plantas , Ecossistema
5.
Nature ; 613(7945): 614, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639443
6.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1872): 20210411, 2023 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688391

RESUMO

A dynamic model and an agent-based simulation model implementing the assumptions of the confrontational scavenging hypothesis on early protolanguage as an adaptive response of Homo erectus to gradual change in their habitat has been developed and studied. The core assumptions of the hypothesis and the model scenario are the pre-adaptation of our ancestors to occupy the ecological niche that they constructed for themselves by having evolved displaced communication and a rudimentary tool manufacture, two features allowing them to use a new, concentrated and abundant resource-megafauna carrion-on the savannahs replacing arboreal habitats owing to the drying climate of East Africa at about 2 Ma. The shift in diet required coordinated cooperation by the hominin scavengers confronted with concurrent predators. Power scavenging compelled displaced symbolic communication featuring a limited semantic range; syntax was not yet required. We show that phenotypic evolution on the accuracy of information transfer between cooperating hominins is a necessary and sufficient condition for the population of agents to survive the diet shift. Both the individual and the group fitness of the hominin horde increased with the accuracy of their protolanguage, with decreasing time allocated to foraging and thus more time left for culture. This article is part of the theme issue 'Human socio-cultural evolution in light of evolutionary transitions'.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Ecologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Idioma , Fósseis
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1242, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690681

RESUMO

Choanoflagellates are microeukaryotes that inhabit freshwater and marine environments and have long been regarded as the closest living relatives of Metazoa. Knowledge on the evolution of choanoflagellates is key for the understanding of the ancestry of animals, and although molecular clock evidence suggests the appearance of choanoflagellates by late Neoproterozoic, no specimens of choanoflagellates are known to occur in the fossil record. Here the first putative occurrence of choanoflagellates in sediments from the Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Turonian) is described by means of several cutting-edge petrographic techniques, and a discussion of its paleoenvironmental significance is performed. Furthermore, their placement in the organic matter classification systems is argued, with a placement in the Zoomorph Subgroup (Palynomorph Group) of the dispersed organic matter classification system being proposed. Regarding the ICCP System 1994, incorporation of choanoflagellates is, at a first glance, straightforward within the liptinite group, but the definition of a new maceral may be necessary to accommodate the genetic origin of these organisms. While modern choanoflagellates may bring light to the cellular foundations of animal origins, this discovery may provide an older term of comparison to their extant specimens and provide guidelines for possible identification of these organic components in other locations and ages throughout the geological record.


Assuntos
Coanoflagelados , Animais , Filogenia , Coanoflagelados/genética , Fósseis , Água Doce , Evolução Biológica
8.
Curr Biol ; 33(2): R52-R58, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693306

RESUMO

This article begins as many others on sauropods before it: "Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest animals to ever walk the Earth, by far". The largest sauropods were easily four times heavier than the largest land mammals (and the largest other dinosaur species, for that matter). The iconic body plan of sauropods is dominated by their very long neck, in some species exceeding 14 meters in length, provided with a relatively small head (Figure 1). The neck was mostly held horizontally or at a low angle. The massive but relatively short trunk was supported by four columnar legs, much like in an elephant. The bones in the fore foot of sauropods are oriented vertically, and some late forms even lost their finger bones, walking on their metacarpals (middle bones of the hand). The hind leg, which bore most of the weight, has a half-upright foot. The femur (thigh bone) was the largest bone in the skeleton, like in most other true land vertebrates (amniotes). The long neck was counterbalanced by the long tail, the base of which also functioned as the anchoring region of the giant muscles that pulled back the hind leg during walking.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Fósseis , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos
9.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280114, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696373

RESUMO

Anthropogenically induced warming is transforming Arctic ecosystems across a geologically short timescale, but earlier episodes of Earth history provide insights on the nature and limitations of biotic change in a rapidly warming Arctic. Late early Eocene strata (~52 Ma) of the Margaret Formation on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada sample a warm temperate ecosystem with a polar light regime situated at ~77°N paleolatitude. This extinct boreal ecosystem hosted a diversity of early Cenozoic vertebrates, including thermophilic taxa such as crocodilians and tapiroid perissodactyls. Here we describe two new species of the early primatomorphan Ignacius from Ellesmere, which are by far the northernmost known records for Paleogene Primatomorpha. Ellesmere species of Ignacius are sister taxa, indicating a single colonization of Ellesmere from farther south in North America coincident with the onset of the hyperthermal Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). The Ellesmere Ignacius clade differs from closely related taxa inhabiting mid-latitudes in being larger (thereby conforming to Bergmann's rule) and having modified dentition and muscles of mastication for a dietary regime emphasizing hard objects, possibly reflecting an increased reliance on fallback foods during long polar winters. The late early Eocene mammalian fauna of Ellesmere indicates that its unique paleoenvironment rendered it uninhabitable to some clades, including euprimates, while selected taxa were able to adapt to its challenging conditions and diversify.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fósseis , Animais , Canadá , América do Norte , Mamíferos , Regiões Árticas
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 57, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596809

RESUMO

The archaeological record of the Lagar Velho rock shelter (Lapedo Valley, Leiria, Portugal) bears testimony to several significant Upper Palaeolithic occupations, most notably the Lapedo Child burial (LV1) dating from the Gravettian. Excavations undertaken at the site since 2018 have seen the recovery of a large quantity of coprolites, above all in layer 143 (c. 29 ka cal BP). The study of these fossilized remains points to the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) as the main coprogenic agent and provides the first descriptions of these avian coprolites in archaeological assemblages. The analyses reported involved the comparison of the coprogenic samples with modern bearded vulture scats. A new morphotype is proposed for discriminating the faeces of this avian scavenger based on (1) macroscopic analyses, (2) morphometric comparisons with other fossil and modern scats and (3) their mineralogical and elemental composition. Among the criteria proposed here to identify the coprolites of the bearded vulture are their cylindrical shape, diameter, pointed extremities and homogeneous porous texture, as well as their massive internal texture, hard consistency and total absence of bone inclusions (attributable in all likelihood to a high digastric juice acidity capable of dissolving bones). Our results indicate that, as well as being used by humans for short-term stays, the Lagar Velho rock shelter was used by the bearded vulture as a nesting site. We provide new evidence from Iberia of the activity of this avian scavenger as a bone accumulator in archaeological sites.


Assuntos
Falconiformes , Fósseis , Animais , Portugal
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278242, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652404

RESUMO

The Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Lameta Formation is well-known for its osteological and oological remains of sauropods from the eastern and western parts of the Narmada Valley, central India. The newly documented ninety-two titanosaur clutches from Dhar District (Madhya Pradesh State, central India) add further to this extensive data. Previously parataxonomy of these titanosaur clutches was carried out with a few brief reports on palaeobiological and taphonomic aspects. The quantitative data collected from the new clutches (this study) opens avenues to additionally understand more about titanosaur palaeobiology and to qualitatively understand preservation and taphonomical aspects of their egg clutches. Herein, we document 256 eggs and three clutch patterns (viz. circular, combination, linear) that are assignable to six oospecies. The high oospecies diversity points to a possible high diversity in titanosaur taxa in the Indian sub-continent though it is not reflected in titanosaurid body fossils. All the macro- and micro-structures helped in understanding egg deformation and preservation from a taphonomic point of view. Additionally, a pathologic egg documented from the study area helped in understanding the reproductive biology of titanosaurs, such as the possibility of segmented oviduct and sequential laying of eggs by titanosaurs. In addition, we made an attempt to infer aspects such as egg burial, absence of parental care, colonial nesting behavior. All the egg clutches were observed within sandy limestone and calcareous sandstone lithologies that occur in scattered outcrops with rocks showing floating siliciclastic grains in a micritic groundmass. Further, the presence of ferruginous sandstone in the Jamniapura and Padlya regions (Dhar District, central India) is indicative of a possible alluvial/fluvial setting. The presence of grainy intraclastic fabric, alveolar-septal fabrics, brecciation and shrinkage cracks observed in the clutch-bearing rocks are indicative of a low energy-low gradient palustrine depositional condition in a fluvial/alluvial setting. Finally, we envisage that a few egg clutches of this area were laid close to lake/pond margins while most were laid away from the lake/pond margins, and thus, were hatched.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Paleontologia , Animais , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Meio Ambiente , Fósseis , Índia
12.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278395, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652426

RESUMO

Large bovids and cervids constituted major components of the European Middle Palaeolithic faunas and hence a key resource for Neanderthal populations. In paleoenvironmental reconstructions, red deer (Cervus elaphus) occurrence is classically considered as a tree-cover indicator while Bovinae (Bison priscus and Bos primigenius) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) occurrences are typically associated with open landscapes. However, insights into the ecology of extant ungulate populations show a more complex reality. Exploring the diet of past ungulates allows to better comprehend the hunting strategies of Palaeolithic populations and to reconstruct the modifications through time of past landscapes. By reflecting what animals have eaten during the last days or weeks of their life, dental microwear textures of herbivores link a population and its environment. Here we analyzed, via Dental Microwear Texture Analysis (DMTA), the diet of 50 Bos/Bison, 202 R. tarandus and 116 C. elaphus preyed upon by the Neanderthals that occupied Combe-Grenal rock-shelter, one of the most important Mousterian archaeo-sequences in southwestern France considering its long stratigraphy, abundance of faunal remains and the variations perceptible in Palaeolithic material culture. Grazers and mixed-feeders are the most represented dietary categories among Combe-Grenal's guild of herbivores, highlighting the availability, along the sequence, of open landscapes. The absence of clear changes in the use of plant resources by hunted ungulates through time, even though palaeoenvironmental changes were well-documented by previous studies along the sequence, is interpreted as resulting from the hunting of non-randomly selected prey by Neanderthals, preferentially in open environments. Thus, these results provide further insight into the hunting strategies of Neanderthals and modify our perception of potential links between subsistence and material culture. Combe-Grenal hunters "stayed in the open" through millennia, and were not forced to switch to hunting tactics and material technology adapted to close encounters in forested environments.


Assuntos
Bison , Cervos , Homem de Neandertal , Rena , Animais , Bovinos , França , Ecologia , Ruminantes , Fósseis
13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1130, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670191

RESUMO

Lower Permian deposits of the Boskovice Basin in the Czech Republic have long been renowned for extraordinarily abundant specimens of discosauriscid seymouriamorphs, some of which showing exceptional preservation, including widespread soft tissues. The only other tetrapods from the strata are represented by rare temnospondyls. However, recent fieldwork in the Asselian (lowermost Permian) of the Boskovice Basin has yielded a diverse assemblage of tetrapod tracks, illuminating a hidden terrestrial tetrapod diversity. Here, we describe well-preserved isolated tracks, manus-pes couples, and a slab with trackways composed of approximately 20 tracks in at least four different directions belonging to early-diverging, or 'pelycosaur-grade', synapsids. The material originates from three localities situated within the Letovice and Padochov formations and is assignable to the ichnotaxon Dimetropus. The best-preserved specimen further shows rare skin impressions, which have not been observed from the hands or feet of early-diverging mammal-line amniotes before. The new material adds to the scarce record of synapsids from the Carboniferous/Permian transitional interval of equatorial Pangea. At the same time, it highlights the significance of the ichnological record of the Boskovice Basin which has long been neglected despite offering evidence for the presence of diverse faunal components that have not been reported from these basinal deposits before.


Assuntos
, Fósseis , Animais , Mãos , Pele , República Tcheca , Mamíferos
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1990): 20221079, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629112

RESUMO

Devonian plants in Siberia present protracted pioneer succession. Research into the survivorship dynamics of early plant communities upon the palaeocontinent Angarida have demonstrated that transgression and volcanogenic nutrient influx were key to the survival of colonizing plants. Taxic proportions show that migrating taxa entered Angarida from the southwest, Kuznetsk and Minusinsk basins, dispersing across the continent in waves through central areas northwards. The patterns of dispersal are consistent throughout the Devonian. Increased nutrient load from the active pulses of the Viluy-Yakutsk Large Igneous Province, biogeomorphic ecosystem engineering and the increased biomass of Angaridan plants are assisted by Late Devonian transgression. These cumulative factors can be linked to the Late Devonian marine extinctions observed in Siberia.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Sobrevivência , Fósseis , Plantas , Biomassa
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1990): 20221994, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629116

RESUMO

Mesopelagic fishes are an important element of marine food webs, a huge, still mostly untapped food resource and great contributors to the biological carbon pump, whose future under climate change scenarios is unknown. The shrinking of commercial fishes within decades has been an alarming observation, but its causes remain contended. Here, we investigate the effect of warming climate on mesopelagic fish size in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during a glacial-interglacial-glacial transition of the Middle Pleistocene (marine isotope stages 20-18; 814-712 kyr B.P.), which included a 4°C increase in global seawater temperature. Our results based on fossil otoliths show that the median size of lanternfishes, one of the most abundant groups of mesopelagic fishes in fossil and modern assemblages, declined by approximately 35% with climate warming at the community level. However, individual mesopelagic species showed different and often opposing trends in size across the studied time interval, suggesting that climate warming in the interglacial resulted in an ecological shift toward increased relative abundance of smaller sized mesopelagic fishes due to geographical and/or bathymetric distribution range shifts, and the size-dependent effects of warming.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fósseis , Animais , Temperatura , Peixes , Mar Mediterrâneo , Ecossistema
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(4): e2119970120, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649420

RESUMO

The Devonian trilobite Walliserops carries a remarkable anterior cephalic trident posing a challenge to functional interpretation. A unique teratological specimen of Walliserops trifurcatus showing four, rather than three tines, is inconsistent with possible hypotheses connecting the trident to feeding techniques and suggests a sexually selected function. Malformations in a variety of living organisms support this conclusion. Morphometric comparisons to similar structures used for intraspecific combat in dynastine beetles show that the trident occupies a comparable shape space consistent with the hypothesis that it was a sexual combat weapon, the oldest reported example of its kind. This lends further credibility to the idea that some trilobites may have been strongly sexually dimorphic.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Besouros , Animais , Fósseis , Pesos e Medidas Corporais
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 17, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635320

RESUMO

Amber exquisitely preserves the delicate organs of fossil flowers for millions of years. However, flower inclusions can be rare and usually do not exceed 10 mm in size. Here we report an exceptionally large flower from late Eocene Baltic amber, measuring 28 mm across, which is about three times as large as most floral inclusions. This fossil was described over 150 years ago as Stewartia kowalewskii (Theaceae) and has never been revised. The analysis of pollen extracted from the anthers of the flower inclusion, however, revealed strong affinities to Asian species of Symplocos (Symplocaceae), prompting the new combination Symplocos kowalewskii comb. nov. et emend. This fossil represents the first record of Symplocaceae from Baltic amber and supports affinities of its flora to evergreen broadleaved and mixed mesophytic forests of present-day East and Southeast Asia. The rarity of such large-sized flower inclusions is likely due to the size of the resin outpouring and its properties, which might affect the embedding of plant organs.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Flores , Fósseis , Países Bálticos , Florestas
19.
Nature ; 613(7942): 208, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596947
20.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 7(1): 20-31, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593291

RESUMO

The Cretaceous is a critical time interval that encompasses explosive diversifications of terrestrial vertebrates, particularly the period when the earliest-branching birds, after divergence from their theropod ancestors, evolved the characteristic avian Bauplan that led eventually to their global radiation. This early phylogenetic diversity is overwhelmed by the Ornithothoraces, consisting of the Enantiornithes and Ornithuromorpha, whose members evolved key derived features of crown birds. This disparity consequently circumscribes a large morphological gap between these derived clades and the oldest bird Archaeopteryx. The non-ornithothoracine pygostylians, with an intermediate phylogenetic position, are key to deciphering those evolutionary transformations, but progress in their study has been hampered by the limited diversity of known fossils. Here we report an Early Cetaceous non-ornithothoracine pygostylian, Cratonavis zhui gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits a unique combination of a non-avialan dinosaurian akinetic skull with an avialan post-cranial skeleton, revealing the key role of evolutionary mosaicism in early bird diversification. The unusually elongated scapular and metatarsal one preserved in Cratonavis highlights a breadth of skeletal plasticity, stemming from their distinct developmental modules and selection for possibly raptorial behaviour. Mapped changes in these two elements across theropod phylogeny demonstrate clade-specific evolutionary lability.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Crânio , Animais , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...