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1.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 178: 107621, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116731

RESUMO

Recent transcriptomic studies of myriapod phylogeny have been based on relatively small datasets with <40 myriapod terminals and variably supported or contradicted the traditional morphological groupings of Progoneata and Dignatha. Here we amassed a large dataset of 104 myriapod terminals, including multiple species for each of the four myriapod classes. Across the tree, most nodes are stable and well supported. Most analyses across a range of gene occupancy levels provide moderate to strong support for a deep split of Myriapoda into Symphyla + Pauropoda (=Edafopoda) and an uncontradicted grouping of Chilopoda + Diplopoda (=Pectinopoda nov.), as in other recent transcriptome-based analyses; no analysis recovers Progoneata or Dignatha as clades. As in all recent multi-locus and phylogenomic studies, chilopod interrelationships resolve with Craterostigmus excluded from Amalpighiata rather than uniting with other centipedes with maternal brood care in Phylactometria. Diplopod ordinal interrelationships are largely congruent with morphology-based classifications. Chilognathan clades that are not invariably advocated by morphologists include Glomerida + Glomeridesmida, such that the volvation-related characters of pill millipedes may be convergent, and Stemmiulida + Polydesmida more closely allied to Juliformia than to Callipodida + Chordeumatida. The latter relationship implies homoplasy in spinnerets and contradicts Nematophora. A time-tree with nodes calibrated by 25 myriapod and six outgroup fossil terminals recovers Cambrian-Ordovician divergences for the deepest splits in Myriapoda, Edafopoda and Pectinopoda, predating the terrestrial fossil record of myriapods as in other published chronograms, whereas age estimates within Chilopoda and Diplopoda overlap with or do not appreciably predate the calibration fossils. The grouping of Chilopoda and Diplopoda is recovered in all our analyses and is formalized as Pectinopoda nov., named for the shared presence of mandibular comb lamellae. New taxonomic proposals for Chilopoda based on uncontradicted clades are Tykhepoda nov. for the three blind families of Scolopendromorpha that share a "sieve-type" gizzard, and Taktikospina nov. for Scolopendromorpha to the exclusion of Mimopidae.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Filogenia , Artrópodes/genética , Fósseis , Transcriptoma
2.
Biol Lett ; 18(11): 20220398, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416032

RESUMO

Among social insects, army ants are exceptional in their voracious coordinated predation, nomadic life history and highly specialized wingless queens: the synthesis of these remarkable traits is referred to as the army ant syndrome. Despite molecular evidence that the army ant syndrome evolved twice during the mid-Cenozoic, once in the Neotropics and once in the Afrotropics, fossil army ants are markedly scarce, comprising a single known species from the Caribbean 16 Ma. Here we report the oldest army ant fossil and the first from the Eastern Hemisphere (EH), Dissimulodorylus perseus, preserved in Baltic amber dated to the Eocene. Using a combined morphological and molecular ultra conserved elements dataset spanning doryline lineages, we find that D. perseus is nested among extant EH army ants with affinities to Dorylus. Army ants are characterized by limited extant diversification throughout most of the Cenozoic; the discovery of D. perseus suggests an unexpected diversity of now-extinct army ant lineages in the Cenozoic, some of which were present in Continental Europe.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Comportamento Predatório , Fósseis , Região do Caribe , Europa (Continente)
3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1280, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443424

RESUMO

Patterns of growth throughout the lifetime of an animal reflect critical life history traits such as reproductive timing, physiology, and ecological interactions. The ancestral growth pattern for tetrapods has traditionally been described as slow-to-moderately paced, akin to modern amphibians, with fast growth and high metabolic rates considered a specialized physiological trait of amniotes. Here, we present bone histology from an ontogenetic series of the Early Carboniferous stem tetrapod Whatcheeria deltae, and document evidence of fibrolamellar bone-primary bone tissue associated with fast growth. Our data indicate that Whatcheeria juveniles grew rapidly and reached skeletal maturity quickly, allowing them to occupy a large-bodied predator niche in their paleoenvironment. This life history strategy contrasts with those described for other stem tetrapods and indicates that a diversity of growth patterns existed at the origins of tetrapod diversification. Importantly, Whatcheeria marks an unexpectedly early occurrence of fibrolamellar bone in Tetrapoda, both temporally and phylogenetically. These findings reveal that elevated juvenile growth is not limited to amniotes, but has a deep history in the tetrapod clade and may have played a previously unrecognized role in the tetrapod invasion of land.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Proliferação de Células , Ciclo Celular
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7135, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414628

RESUMO

The biotic crisis following the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact resulted in a dramatic renewal of pelagic biodiversity. Considering the severe and immediate effect of the asteroid impact on the pelagic environment, it is remarkable that some of the most affected pelagic groups, like the planktonic foraminifera, survived at all. Here we queried a surface ocean metabarcoding dataset to show that calcareous benthic foraminifera of the clade Globothalamea are able to disperse actively in the plankton, and we show using molecular clock phylogeny that the modern planktonic clades originated from different benthic ancestors that colonized the plankton after the end-Cretaceous crisis. We conclude that the diversity of planktonic foraminifera has been the result of a constant leakage of benthic foraminifera diversity into the plankton, continuously refueling the planktonic niche, and challenge the classical interpretation of the fossil record that suggests that Mesozoic planktonic foraminifera gave rise to the modern communities.


Assuntos
Foraminíferos , Foraminíferos/genética , Plâncton/genética , Extinção Biológica , Planetas Menores , Fósseis
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18322, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396968

RESUMO

Marine turtles were common in the subtropical Upper Cretaceous epi-continental seas that once washed the coasts of the ancient European archipelago. But unlike its contemporaneous faunas from North America, in Europe no taxon surpassed the 1.5 m shell-length. Here, the remains of a new large marine turtle, Leviathanochelys aenigmatica gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Campanian of the Southern Pyrenees are described. Anatomical and histological evidence concur in identifying the specimen as a basal chelonioid. The new taxon autapomorphically differs from other marine turtles by possessing an additional process on the anteromedial side of the pelvis, and an acetabulum directed strongly ventrally. Based on the pelvis size, it is likely that Leviathanochelys was as large as Archelon, thus becoming one of the largest marine turtles found to ever exist. The large body size of the new taxon could have evolved as a response to the unique habitat conditions of the European Cretaceous archipelago seas. The presence of the accessory pubic process further suggests the occurrence of an additional insertion point of the Musculus rectus abdominis, which together with the paleohistologic evidences support the hypothesis that the new taxon had an open marine pelagic lifestyle.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Tartarugas/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Répteis , Europa (Continente) , América do Norte
6.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1242, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376479

RESUMO

Marine ecosystem recovery after the Permo-Triassic mass extinction (PTME) has been extensively studied in the shallow sea, but little is known about the nature of this process in pelagic ecosystems. Omphalosauridae, an enigmatic clade of open-water durophagous marine reptiles, potentially played an important role in the recovery, but their fragmentary fossils and uncertain phylogenetic position have hindered our understanding of their role in the process. Here we report the large basal ichthyosauriform Sclerocormus from the Early Triassic of China that clearly demonstrates an omphalosaurid affinity, allowing for the synonymy of the recently erected Nasorostra with Omphalosauridae. The skull also reveals the anatomy of the unique feeding apparatus of omphalosaurids, likely an adaptation for feeding on hard-shelled pelagic invertebrates, especially ammonoids. Morphofunctional analysis of jaws shows that omphalosaurids occupy the morphospace of marine turtles. Our discovery adds another piece of evidence for an explosive radiation of marine reptiles into the ocean in the Early Triassic and the rapid recovery of pelagic ecosystems after the PTME.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Animais , Filogenia , Répteis , Fósseis
7.
Biol Lett ; 18(11): 20220214, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382374

RESUMO

While the latitudinal diversity gradient has received much attention, biodiversity and species richness also vary between continents across similar latitudes. Fossil information can be used to understand the evolutionary mechanisms that generated such variation between continents of similar latitudes. We integrated fossil data into a phylogenetic analysis of the Mauritiinae palms, whose extant diversity is restricted to the Neotropics, but extended across Africa and India during most of the Cenozoic. Mauritiinae diverged from its sister lineage Raphiinae ca 106 Ma. Using ancestral state estimation and a lineage through time analysis, we found that diversity arose globally during the late Cretaceous and Palaeocene across South America, Africa and India. The Palaeocene-Eocene transition (ca 56 Ma) marked the end of global Mauritiinae expansion, and the beginning of their decline in both Africa and India. Mauritiinae disappeared from the Indian subcontinent and Africa at the end of the Eocene and the Miocene, respectively. By contrast, Neotropical diversity steadily increased over the last 80 Myr. Taken together, our results suggest that the Neotropics functioned as a continental-scale refuge for Mauritiinae palms, where lineages survived and diversified while global climatic changes that drastically reduced rainforests led to their demise on other continents.


Assuntos
Cemitérios , Museus , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Fósseis
8.
J R Soc Interface ; 19(196): 20220588, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349446

RESUMO

Fossil tracks are important palaeobiological data sources. The quantitative analysis of their shape, however, has been hampered by their high variability and lack of discrete margins and landmarks. We here present the first approach using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) to study fossil tracks, overcoming the limitations of previous statistical approaches. We employ a DCNN to discriminate between theropod and ornithischian dinosaur tracks based on a total of 1372 outline silhouettes. The DCNN consistently outperformed human experts on an independent test set. We also used the DCNN to classify tracks of a large tridactyl trackmaker from Lark Quarry, Australia, the identity of which has been subject to intense debate. The presented approach can only be considered a first step towards the wider application of machine learning in fossil track research, which is not limited to classification problems. Current limitations, such as the subjectivity and information loss inherent in interpretive outlines, may be overcome in the future by training neural networks on three-dimensional models directly, though this will require an increased uptake in digitization among workers in the field.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Animais , Humanos , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Fósseis , Austrália
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(46): e2207475119, 2022 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343248

RESUMO

The Ediacara Biota-the oldest communities of complex, macroscopic fossils-consists of three temporally distinct assemblages: the Avalon (ca. 575-560 Ma), White Sea (ca. 560-550 Ma), and Nama (ca. 550-539 Ma). Generic diversity varies among assemblages, with a notable decline at the transition from White Sea to Nama. Preservation and sampling biases, biotic replacement, and environmental perturbation have been proposed as potential mechanisms for this drop in diversity. Here, we compile a global database of the Ediacara Biota, specifically targeting taphonomic and paleoecological characters, to test these hypotheses. Major ecological shifts in feeding mode, life habit, and tiering level accompany an increase in generic richness between the Avalon and White Sea assemblages. We find that ∼80% of White Sea taxa are absent from the Nama interval, comparable to loss during Phanerozoic mass extinctions. The paleolatitudes, depositional environments, and preservational modes that characterize the White Sea assemblage are well represented in the Nama, indicating that this decline is not the result of sampling bias. Counter to expectations of the biotic replacement model, there are minimal ecological differences between these two assemblages. However, taxa that disappear exhibit a variety of morphological and behavioral characters consistent with an environmentally driven extinction event. The preferential survival of taxa with high surface area relative to volume may suggest that this was related to reduced global oceanic oxygen availability. Thus, our data support a link between Ediacaran biotic turnover and environmental change, similar to other major mass extinctions in the geologic record.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Animais , Extinção Biológica , Biota , Oceanos e Mares
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19382, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371446

RESUMO

Based on new fossil materials, a new species Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) christelius sp. nov. has been described herein with complete documentation of drawings and photographs. Features such as wide spine on the gonocoxite differentiating the new species of Toxorhina were discussed. Finding new interesting fossil materials also allowed for providing an emended diagnosis and additional description of known Eocene species-Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) eridanus. Comparison of chosen morphological features of fossil and recent representatives of the genus were given and key for fossil species of subgenus Ceratocheilus was introduced. Distribution of recent Toxorhina and evolutionary history of the genus were discussed. The results of research on fossil materials prove that the stratigraphic range of the subgenus Ceratocheilus and the genus Toxorhina goes back to the Eocene, there is no evidence of their existence on Earth before. Moreover, these insects were probably associated with a warm climate, they were found for example in Baltic amber, the deposits of which were formed mainly in a subtropical climate. The reach diversity of the genus Toxorhina of recent fauna is strictly observed in tropical zones around the world.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Nematóceros , Fósseis , Insetos , Países Bálticos
11.
J Hum Evol ; 173: 103255, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375243

RESUMO

Postcranial bones may provide valuable information about fossil taxa relating to their locomotor habits, manipulative abilities and body sizes. Distinctive features of the postcranial skeleton are sometimes noted in species diagnoses. Although numerous isolated postcranial fossils have become accepted by many workers as belonging to a particular species, it is worthwhile revisiting the evidence for each attribution before including them in comparative samples in relation to the descriptions of new fossils, functional analyses in relation to particular taxa, or in evolutionary contexts. Although some workers eschew the taxonomic attribution of postcranial fossils as being less important (or interesting) than interpreting their functional morphology, it is impossible to consider the evolution of functional anatomy in a taxonomic and phylogenetic vacuum. There are 21 widely recognized hominin taxa that have been described from sites in Africa dated from the Late Miocene to the Middle Pleistocene; postcranial elements have been attributed to 17 of these. The bones that have been thus assigned range from many parts of a skeleton to isolated elements. However, the extent to which postcranial material can be reliably attributed to a specific taxon varies considerably from site to site and species to species, and is often the subject of considerable debate. Here, we review the postcranial remains attributed to African hominin taxa from the Late Miocene to the Middle and Late Pleistocene and place these assignations into categories of reliability. The catalog of attributions presented here may serve as a guide for making taxonomic decisions in the future.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Humanos , Animais , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fósseis , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia
12.
J Hum Evol ; 173: 103279, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375244

RESUMO

The Middle and Late Pleistocene is arguably the most interesting period in human evolution. This broad period witnessed the evolution of our own lineage, as well as that of our sister taxon, the Neanderthals, and related Denisovans. It is exceptionally rich in both fossil and archaeological remains, and uniquely benefits from insights gained through molecular approaches, such as paleogenetics and paleoproteomics, that are currently not widely applicable in earlier contexts. This wealth of information paints a highly complex picture, often described as 'the Muddle in the Middle,' defying the common adage that 'more evidence is needed' to resolve it. Here we review competing phylogenetic scenarios and the historical and theoretical developments that shaped our approaches to the fossil record, as well as some of the many remaining open questions associated with this period. We propose that advancing our understanding of this critical time requires more than the addition of data and will necessitate a major shift in our conceptual and theoretical framework.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Homem de Neandertal , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis
13.
Science ; 378(6621): 696-697, 2022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395232

RESUMO

Paleontologists are urged to take a stand against a market that may provide cover for continued poaching.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Crime , Elefantes , Mamutes , Animais , Fósseis
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19012, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347897

RESUMO

The migration of Homo erectus in Southeast Asia during Early Pleistocene is cardinal to our comprehension of the evolution of the genus Homo. However, the limited consideration of the rapidly changing physical environment, together with controversial datings of hominin bearing sites, make it challenging to secure the robust timeline needed to unveil the behavior of early humans. Here, we reappraise the first appearance datum of Javanese H. erectus by adding the most reliable age constraints based on cosmogenic nuclides [Formula: see text]Be and [Formula: see text]Al produced in situ to a compilation of earlier estimates. We find that H. erectus reached Java and dwelled at Sangiran, Java, ca. 1.8 Ma. Using this age as a baseline, we develop a probabilistic approach to reconstruct their dispersal routes, coupling ecological movement simulations to landscape evolution models forced by reconstructed geodynamic and climatic histories. We demonstrate that the hospitable terra firma conditions of Sundaland facilitated the prior dispersal of hominins to the edge of Java, where they conversely could not settle until the Javanese archipelago emerged from the sea and connected to Sundaland. The dispersal of H. erectus across Sundaland occurred over at least tens to hundreds kyr, a time scale over which changes in their physical environment, whether climatic or physiographic, may have become primary forcings on their behavior. Our comprehensive reconstruction method to unravel the peopling timeline of SE Asia provides a novel framework to evaluate the evolution of early humans.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Hominidae , Humanos , Animais , Indonésia , Ásia , Fósseis
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2205476119, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375073

RESUMO

Anatomy of the first flying feathered dinosaurs, modern birds and crocodylians, proposes an ancestral flight system divided between shoulder and chest muscles, before the upstroke muscles migrated beneath the body. This ancestral flight system featured the dorsally positioned deltoids and supracoracoideus controlling the upstroke and the chest-bound pectoralis controlling the downstroke. Preserved soft anatomy is needed to contextualize the origin of the modern flight system, but this has remained elusive. Here we reveal the soft anatomy of the earliest theropod flyers preserved as residual skin chemistry covering the body and delimiting its margins. These data provide preserved soft anatomy that independently validate the ancestral theropod flight system. The heavily constructed shoulder and more weakly constructed chest in the early pygostylian Confuciusornis indicated by a preserved body profile, proposes the first upstroke-enhanced flight stroke. Slender ventral body profiles in the early-diverging birds Archaeopteryx and Anchiornis suggest habitual use of the pectoralis could not maintain the sternum through bone functional adaptations. Increased wing-assisted terrestrial locomotion potentially accelerated sternum loss through higher breathing requirements. Lower expected downstroke requirements in the early thermal soarer Sapeornis could have driven sternum loss through bone functional adaption, possibly encouraged by the higher breathing demands of a Confuciusornis-like upstroke. Both factors are supported by a slender ventral body profile. These data validate the ancestral shoulder/chest flight system and provide insights into novel upstroke-enhanced flight strokes and early sternum loss, filling important gaps in our understanding of the appearance of modern flight.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Ombro , Animais , Ombro/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Esterno/anatomia & histologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Fósseis , Evolução Biológica
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1987): 20221947, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382514

RESUMO

The late Quaternary is characterized by the extinction of many terrestrial megafauna, which included tortoises (Family: Testudinidae). However, limited information is available on how extinction shaped the phenotype of surviving taxa. Here, based on a global dataset of straight carapace length, we investigate the temporal variation, spatial distribution and evolution of tortoise body size over the past 23 million years, thereby capturing the effects of Quaternary extinctions in this clade. We found a significant change in body size distribution characterized by a reduction of both mean body size and maximum body size of extant tortoises relative to fossil taxa. This reduction of body size occurred earlier in mainland (Early Pleistocene 2.588-0.781 Ma) than in island tortoises (Late Pleistocene/Holocene 0.126-0 Ma). Despite contrasting body size patterns between fossil and extant taxa on a spatial scale, tortoise body size showed limited variation over time until this decline. Body size is a fundamental functional trait determining many aspects of species ecologies, with large tortoises playing key roles as ecosystem engineers. As such, the transition from larger sized to smaller sized classes indicated by our findings likely resulted in the homogenization of tortoises' ecological functions and diminished the role of tortoises in structuring the vegetation community.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Tartarugas/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema , Tamanho Corporal , Fósseis , Extinção Biológica
17.
Science ; 378(6622): 831-832, 2022 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423278

RESUMO

Cambrian fossils reveal ancestry of the segmented brain in arthropods.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo , Animais , Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Artrópodes/genética , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis
18.
Science ; 378(6622): 905-909, 2022 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423269

RESUMO

For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the arthropod head and brain have eluded a unifying rationale reconciling divergent morphologies and phylogenetic relationships. Here, clarification is provided by the fossilized nervous system of the lower Cambrian lobopodian Cardiodictyon catenulum, which reveals an unsegmented head and brain comprising three cephalic domains, distinct from the metameric ventral nervous system serving its appendicular trunk. Each domain aligns with one of three components of the foregut and with a pair of head appendages. Morphological correspondences with stem group arthropods and alignments of homologous gene expression patterns with those of extant panarthropods demonstrate that cephalic domains of C. catenulum predate the evolution of the euarthropod head yet correspond to neuromeres defining brains of living chelicerates and mandibulates.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo , Animais , Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Artrópodes/genética , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Endoderma , Filogenia , Expressão Gênica , Fósseis
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7306, 2022 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435820

RESUMO

The Ediacaran biota were soft-bodied organisms, many with enigmatic phylogenetic placement and ecology, living in marine environments between 574 and 539 million years ago. Some studies hypothesize a metazoan affinity and aerobic metabolism for these taxa, whereas others propose a fundamentally separate taxonomic grouping and a reliance on chemoautotrophy. To distinguish between these hypotheses and test the redox-sensitivity of Ediacaran organisms, here we present a high-resolution local and global redox dataset from carbonates that contain in situ Ediacaran fossils from Siberia. Cerium anomalies are consistently >1, indicating that local environments, where a diverse Ediacaran assemblage is preserved in situ as nodules and carbonaceous compressions, were pervasively anoxic. Additionally, δ238U values match other terminal Ediacaran sections, indicating widespread marine euxinia. These data suggest that some Ediacaran biotas were tolerant of at least intermittent anoxia, and thus had the capacity for a facultatively anaerobic lifestyle. Alternatively, these soft-bodied Ediacara organisms may have colonized the seafloor during brief oxygenation events not recorded by redox proxy data. Broad temporal correlations between carbon, sulfur, and uranium isotopes further highlight the dynamic redox landscape of Ediacaran-Cambrian evolutionary events.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Animais , Filogenia , Biota , Hipóxia , Oxigênio
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360297

RESUMO

Pleurotomarioidea represents a truly isolated and basally diverging lineage in Vetigastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) whose fossil record can date back to the late Cambrian, thus providing rare insights into the evolutionary history of molluscs. Here, we sequenced and assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of one representative species from Pleurotomarioidea-Entemnotrochus rumphii (Schepman, 1879)-of which the mitogenome is 15,795 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The nucleotide composition was biased toward AT, and A + T content reached 65.2%. E. rumphii was recovered as sister to all other living vetigastropods according to mitogenome-based phylogenetic analysis. The mitochondrial gene order was consistent with major vetigastropods and the hypothetical ancestral gastropoda, suggesting the deep conservation of mitogenome arrangement in Vetigastropoda.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Gastrópodes/genética , Fósseis , Filogenia , Moluscos/genética
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