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1.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(10): 530-536, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) reduce health care spending, higher deductibles may lead to forgone care. Our goal was to determine the effects of HDHPs on the use of and spending on substance use disorder (SUD) services. STUDY DESIGN: We used difference-in-differences models to compare service use and spending for treating SUD among enrollees who were newly offered an HDHP relative to enrollees offered only traditional plan options throughout the study period. METHODS: We used deidentified commercial claims data from OptumLabs (2007-2017) to identify a sample of 28,717,236 person-years (2.2% with a diagnosed SUD). The main independent measure was an indicator for being offered an HDHP. The main dependent measures were the probability of (and spending associated with) using SUD services and specific treatment types. RESULTS: Enrollees were 6.6% (P < .001) less likely to use SUD services after being offered an HDHP relative to the comparison group. Reductions were concentrated in inpatient, intermediate, and ambulatory care, as well as medication use. Being offered an HDHP was associated with a decrease of 21% (P < .001) on health plan spending and an increase of 14% (P < .01) on out-of-pocket spending. CONCLUSIONS: Offering an HDHP was associated with a reduction in SUD service use and a shift in spending from the plan to the enrollee. In the context of the US drug epidemic, these study findings highlight a concern that the movement toward HDHPs may be exacerbating undertreatment of SUD.


Assuntos
Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Assistência Ambulatorial , Gastos em Saúde , Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
2.
Health Policy ; 126(12): 1310-1316, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the effect of increased cost sharing on long-term care (LTC) service utilization among home-dwelling older adults, using nationwide long-term care insurance (LTCI) claims data in Japan. METHODS: In August 2015, the coinsurance rate for Japanese LTCI increased from 10% to 20% for higher-income beneficiaries. We analyzed 27,911,076 person-month observations between April 2015 and July 2016 from 1,983,163 home-dwelling older adults (aged ≥ 65 years). We employed a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the effect of the increased coinsurance rate on overall LTC service utilization and for each of the four main service subcategories. The control group comprised those whose coinsurance rates remained at 10%. RESULTS: The treatment group, whose coinsurance rate increased, accounted for 9.6% of all participants. The raised coinsurance rate caused statistically significant reductions of 0.46% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36%, 0.56%) and $25.7 (95% CI: $23.7, $27.8) in the percentage of utilization of LTC services and total monthly LTC expenditures per person, respectively. Service utilization decreased in each of the four service subcategories. CONCLUSIONS: The increased coinsurance rate resulted in statistically significant but small reductions in LTC service utilization overall and in each service type among higher-income home-dwelling beneficiaries. Requiring more cost sharing from higher-income individuals may alleviate the fiscal burden on LTC systems without serious reductions in service utilization.


Assuntos
Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo , Assistência de Longa Duração , Humanos , Idoso , Japão , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros
3.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(10): 641-644, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193658

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer screening is one of the best proven and most cost-effective of all preventive interventions. Screening lowers both incidence and mortality. Bearing some of the costs of colonoscopy, also known as cost-sharing, has been a barrier to completion of colonoscopy, both as a primary screen and as a second test to complete screening after an abnormal initial stool or radiologic screening test. While a newly published model concludes that eliminating cost-sharing for colonoscopy after an initial screen is cost-effective, the desired outcome has already been achieved. The Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services has announced the plan to eliminate this final out of pocket expense starting in 2023. While this is an important step, many barriers to screening for colorectal cancer and all other cancers remain. Eliminating downstream costs that result from an abnormal screen is a difficult to achieve but important goal. See related article by Fendrick et al., p. 653.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Medicare/economia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
J Health Econ ; 85: 102663, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944308

RESUMO

In this paper, I study tiered cost sharing, an innovative incentive structure designed to steer patients toward low-cost providers using large out-of-pocket price differentials. Using administrative data from New Hampshire, where two large insurers utilize tiered pricing programs, I estimate the effects of tiering on choices and spending for common gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. I first conduct a difference-in-differences analysis using the rollout of one insurer's tiered option. I then develop and estimate a demand model to explicitly compare the tiered design with other common plans. Both the reduced form and structural models imply that the tiered plans are associated with 4.5%-6.3% less in mean per-episode spending than high-deductible and coinsurance-based plans, and do not affect the likelihood of seeking care. I find evidence that the savings is in part due to a salience or "simple pricing" effect whereby patients respond to tiered out-of-pocket prices but not to traditional deductibles or coinsurance rates.


Assuntos
Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Atenção à Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Seguradoras , Estados Unidos
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 914, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the Chinese government has been trying to improve informal-sector workers' and farmers' access to healthcare and reduce their financial burdens by introducing a plan of cost-sharing reduction, but the effect on outpatient care utilization remains unknown. Furthermore, scarce evidence has been provided to help understand the impact of cost-sharing reduction on healthcare use in low- and middle-income countries. The policy change of the coinsurance reduction for outpatient care from 75 to 55% for the enrollees of the Urban and Rural Residents Basic Medical Insurance in Taizhou, China in 2015 provides us a good quasi-experimental setting to explore such an impact. METHODS: We do a quasi-experimental study to explore the impact of coinsurance reduction on outpatient care use among the informal-sector workers and farmers aged 45 and above by estimating a fixed-effects negative binomial model with the difference-in-differences approach and the matching method. Heterogeneous effects in primary care clinics and for the older people aged 60 and above are also examined. Our data is from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2013 and 2015. RESULTS: We find neither statistically significant impact of coinsurance reduction on outpatient care utilization in all health facilities for informal-sector workers and farmers aged 45 and above, nor heterogeneous effects in primary care clinics and for older people aged 60 and above. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the coinsurance reduction cannot effectively improve the informal-sector workers' and farmers' utilization of healthcare if the cost-sharing undertaken by patients remains high even after the reduction. Besides, improving healthcare quality in primary care clinics may play a more important role than merely introducing a cost-sharing reduction plan in enhancing the role of primary care clinics as gatekeepers. We propose that only a substantial coinsurance reduction may help influence the utilization of healthcare for informal-sector workers and farmers, and enhancing the healthcare quality in primary care clinics should be given priority in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Fazendeiros , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , China , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2215720, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671056

RESUMO

Importance: High-deductible health plans (HDHPs) require high upfront cost-sharing, which has been associated with suboptimal anticancer medication uptake and adherence. Whether HDHP enrollment has limited the affordability and use of lenalidomide therapy among commercially insured patients with multiple myeloma is unknown. Objective: To assess the association of HDHP enrollment with out-of-pocket spending on and adherence to lenalidomide therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, data were obtained from the IBM MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database for adults aged 18 to 64 years with multiple myeloma who newly initiated lenalidomide therapy between April 1, 2013, and June 30, 2017. Quantile regression and modified Poisson regression evaluated out-of-pocket spending, and group-based trajectory models and multinomial logistic regression examined patterns of and factors associated with adherence. Analyses were conducted from April to August 2020. Exposures: High-deductible health plan enrollment in the 3 months before and 6 months after initiation of lenalidomide therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Distribution of out-of-pocket spending, the probability of paying more than $100 for the first and any lenalidomide prescription fill, and monthly lenalidomide therapy adherence using the proportion of days covered (≥80%). Results: Of the 3163 commercially insured patients who initiated lenalidomide therapy (median age, 57 years [IQR, 53-60 years for HDHP enrollees and 52-61 years for non-HDHP enrollees]), 328 (10.4%) were enrolled in HDHPs and 1769 (55.9%) were women. Among the highest spenders (95th percentile), HDHP enrollees paid $376 (95% CI, -$28 to $780) and $217 (95% CI, $106-$323) more for their first and any lenalidomide prescription fill, respectively, compared with non-HDHP enrollees in the 6 months after initiation. High-deductible health plan enrollment was also associated with an increased risk of paying more than $100 for the initial (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.30 [95% CI, 1.13-1.50]) and any (aRR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.12-1.42]) lenalidomide prescription fill. Three adherence trajectory groups were identified: those with high adherence (n = 1273), late nonadherence (n = 1084), and early nonadherence (n = 805). High-deductible health plan enrollment was not associated with adherence group assignment. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, HDHP enrollment was associated with higher out-of-pocket spending per lenalidomide prescription fill; however, no statistically significant differences in adherence patterns between HDHP and non-HDHP enrollees were observed. Patient (eg, perceptions of treatment benefits), payer (eg, out-of-pocket maximums), and clinician (eg, counseling patients on disease severity) factors may have limited the potential for nonadherence among commercially insured patients who initiated lenalidomide therapy.


Assuntos
Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Mieloma Múltiplo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(6): 814-820, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666974

RESUMO

Two decades ago Congress enabled Americans to open tax-favored health savings accounts (HSAs) in conjunction with qualifying high-deductible health plans (HDHPs). This HSA tax break is regressive: Higher-income Americans are more likely to have HSAs and fund them at higher levels. Proponents, however, have argued that this regressivity is offset by reductions in wasteful health care spending because consumers with HDHPs are more cost-conscious in their use of care. Using published sources and our own analysis of National Health Interview Survey data, we argue that HSAs no longer appreciably achieve this cost-consciousness aim because cost sharing has increased so much in non-HSA-qualified plans. Indeed, people who have HDHPs with HSAs are becoming less likely than others with private insurance to report financial barriers to care. In sum, promised gains in efficiency from HSAs have not borne out, so it is difficult to justify maintaining this regressive tax break.


Assuntos
Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados , Poupança para Cobertura de Despesas Médicas , Estado de Consciência , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Impostos , Estados Unidos
8.
J Health Econ ; 84: 102642, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709565

RESUMO

This paper studies a market for a medical product in which there is perfect competition among health insurers, while the good is sold by a monopolist. Individuals differ in their severity of illness and there is ex postmoral hazard. We consider two regimes: one in which insurers use coinsurance rates (ad valorem reimbursements) and one in which insurers use co-payments (specific reimbursements). We show that the induced equilibrium with co-payments involves a lower producer price and a higher level of welfare for consumers even though it may imply a larger consumer price. This result provides strong support for a reference price based reimbursement policy.


Assuntos
Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Seguradoras , Humanos , Seguro Saúde
9.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(10): 653-660, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768200

RESUMO

Commercial insurance covers a follow-up colonoscopy after a positive colorectal cancer-screening test with no patient cost-sharing. Instituting a similar policy for Medicare beneficiaries may increase screening adherence and improve outcomes. The cost-effectiveness of stool-based colorectal cancer screening was compared across adherence scenarios that assumed Medicare coinsurance status quo (20% for follow-up colonoscopy) or waived coinsurance. The CRC-AIM model simulated previously unscreened eligible Medicare beneficiaries undergoing stool-based colorectal cancer screening at age 65 for 10 years. Medicare costs, colorectal cancer cases, colorectal cancer-related deaths, life-years gained (LYG), and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were estimated versus no screening. Scenario 1 (S1) assumed 20% coinsurance for follow-up colonoscopy. Scenario 2 (S2) assumed waived coinsurance without adherence changes. Scenarios 3-7 (S3-S7) assumed that waiving coinsurance increased real-world stool-based screening and/or follow-up colonoscopy adherence by 5% or 10%. Sensitivity analyses assumed 1%-4% increased adherence. Cost-effectiveness threshold was ≤$100,000/QALY. Waiving coinsurance without adherence changes (S2) did not affect outcomes versus S1. S3-S7 versus S1 over 10 years estimated up to 3.6 fewer colorectal cancer cases/1,000 individuals, up to 2.1 fewer colorectal cancer deaths, up to 20.7 more LYG, and had comparable total costs per-patient (≤$6,478 vs. $6,449, respectively) as reduced colorectal cancer medical costs offset increased screening and colonoscopy costs. In sensitivity analyses, any increase in adherence after waiving coinsurance was cost-effective and increased LYG. In simulated Medicare beneficiaries, waiving coinsurance for follow-up colonoscopy after a positive stool-based test improved outcomes and was cost-effective when assumed to modestly increase colorectal cancer screening and/or follow-up colonoscopy adherence. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Follow-up colonoscopy after a positive stool-based test is necessary to complete the colorectal cancer-screening process. This analysis demonstrated that in a simulated Medicare population, waiving coinsurance for a follow-up colonoscopy improved estimated outcomes and was cost-effective when it was assumed that waiving the coinsurance modestly increased screening adherence. See related Spotlight, p. 641.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Idoso , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Seguimentos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Medicare , Sangue Oculto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(5): e170-e177, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine how health care utilization and spending vary for low-income employees compared with high-income employees enrolled in an employer-sponsored high-deductible health plan (HDHP). STUDY DESIGN: We use commercial medical claims data and administrative human resource data from a large employer between 2014 and 2018. We link the administrative data, which include details on salary and other benefit choices, to each employee in each year with medical claims. Our variables of interest include medical spending and utilization outcomes grouped into different care settings. METHODS: Using multivariate regressions, we estimate the association between salary buckets and health care utilization and spending, controlling for demographic characteristics, comorbidities of employees, human resource health plan benefits, and geography. RESULTS: Employees earning less than $75,000 show lower rates of utilization and spending on preventive measures, such as outpatient visits and prescription drugs, while having higher rates of utilization of preventable and avoidable emergency department visits and inpatient stays, resulting in lower overall health care spending among lower-salary employees. CONCLUSIONS: Low-salary employees enrolled in HDHPs have higher rates of acute care utilization and spending but lower rates of primary care spending compared with high-salary employees. Results suggest that HDHPs discourage routine physician-patient care among low-salary employees.


Assuntos
Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza , Salários e Benefícios
11.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(2)2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275453

RESUMO

Objective: High-deductible health plans paired with health savings accounts (HSA-HDHPs) require substantial out-of-pocket spending for most services, including medications. We examined effects of HSA-HDHPs on medication out-of-pocket spending and use among people with bipolar disorder.Methods: This quasi-experimental study used claims data for January 2003 through December 2014. We studied a national sample of 348 members with bipolar disorder (defined based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision), aged 12 to 64 years, who were continuously enrolled for 1 year in a low-deductible plan (≤ $500) then 1 year in an HSA-HDHP (≥ $1,000) after an employer-mandated switch. HSA-HDHP members were matched to 4,087 contemporaneous controls who remained in low-deductible plans. Outcome measures included out-of-pocket spending and use of bipolar disorder medications, non-bipolar psychotropics, and all other medications.Results: Mean pre-to-post out-of-pocket spending per person for bipolar disorder medications increased by 149.7% among HSA-HDHP versus control members (95% confidence interval [CI], 109.9% to 189.5%). Specifically, out-of-pocket spending increased for antipsychotics (220.9% [95% CI, 150.0% to 291.8%]) and anticonvulsants (109.6% [95% CI, 67.3% to 152.0%]). Both higher-income and lower-income HSA-HDHP members experienced increases in out-of-pocket spending for bipolar disorder medications (135.2% [95% CI, 86.4% to 184.0%] and 164.5% [95% CI, 100.9% to 228.1%], respectively). We did not detect statistically significant changes in use of bipolar disorder medications, non-bipolar psychotropics, or all other medications in this study population of HSA-HDHP members.Conclusions: HSA-HDHP members with bipolar disorder experienced substantial increases in out-of-pocket burdens for medications essential for their functioning and well-being. Although HSA-HDHPs were not associated with detectable reductions in medication use, high out-of-pocket costs could cause financial strain for lower-income enrollees.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Poupança para Cobertura de Despesas Médicas
12.
Diabetes Care ; 45(5): 1193-1200, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High-deductible health plans (HDHPs) are increasingly more common but can be challenging for patients to navigate and may negatively affect care engagement for chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes. We sought to understand how higher out-of-pocket costs affect participation in provider visits, medication adherence, and routine monitoring by patients with type 2 diabetes with an HDHP. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a retrospective cohort of 19,379 Kaiser Permanente Northern California patients with type 2 diabetes (age 18-64 years), 6,801 patients with an HDHP were compared with those with a no-deductible plan using propensity score matching. We evaluated the number of telephone and office visits with primary care, oral diabetic medication adherence, and rates of HbA1c testing, blood pressure monitoring, and retinopathy screening. RESULTS: Patients with an HDHP had fewer primary care office visits compared with patients with no deductible (4.25 vs. 4.85 visits per person; P < 0.001), less retinopathy screening (49.9% vs. 53.3%; P < 0.001), and fewer A1c and blood pressure measurements (46.7% vs. 51.4%; P < 0.001 and 93.2% vs. 94.4%; P = 0.004, respectively) compared with the control group. Medication adherence was not significantly different between patients with an HDHP and those with no deductible (57.4% vs. 58.6%; P = 0.234). CONCLUSIONS: HDHPs seem to be a barrier for patients with type 2 diabetes and reduce care participation in both visits with out-of-pocket costs and preventive care without out-of-pocket costs, possibly because of the increased complexity of cost sharing under an HDHP, potentially leading to decreased monitoring of important clinical measurements.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças Retinianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 297, 2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing spending and use of prescription drugs pose an important challenge to governments that seek to expand health insurance coverage to improve population health while controlling public expenditures. Patient cost-sharing such as deductibles and coinsurance is widely used with aim to control healthcare expenditures without adversely affecting health. METHODS: We conducted a systematic umbrella review with a quality assessment of included studies to examine the association of prescription drug insurance and cost-sharing with drug use, health services use, and health. We searched five electronic bibliographic databases, hand-searched eight specialty journals and two working paper repositories, and examined references of relevant reviews. At least two reviewers independently screened the articles, extracted the characteristics, methods, and main results, and assessed the quality of each included study. RESULTS: We identified 38 reviews. We found consistent evidence that having drug insurance and lower cost-sharing among the insured were associated with increased drug use while the lack or loss of drug insurance and higher drug cost-sharing were associated with decreased drug use. We also found consistent evidence that the poor, the chronically ill, seniors and children were similarly responsive to changes in insurance and cost-sharing. We found that drug insurance and lower drug cost-sharing were associated with lower healthcare services utilization including emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and outpatient visits. We did not find consistent evidence of an association between drug insurance or cost-sharing and health. Lastly, we did not find any evidence that the association between drug insurance or cost-sharing and drug use, health services use or health differed by socioeconomic status, health status, age or sex. CONCLUSIONS: Given that the poor or near-poor often report substantially lower drug insurance coverage, universal pharmacare would likely increase drug use among lower-income populations relative to higher-income populations. On net, it is probable that health services use could decrease with universal pharmacare among those who gain drug insurance. Such cross-price effects of extending drug coverage should be included in costing simulations.


Assuntos
Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Criança , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico
14.
JAMA Surg ; 157(4): 321-326, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152285

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: About half of people younger than 65 years with private insurance are enrolled in a high-deductible health plan (HDHP). While these plans entail substantially higher out-of-pocket costs for patients with chronic medical conditions who require ongoing care, their effect on patients undergoing surgery who require acute care is poorly understood. It is plausible that higher out-of-pocket costs may lead to delays in care and more complex surgical conditions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between enrollment in HDHPs and presentation with incarcerated or strangulated hernia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective cohort analysis included privately insured patients aged 18 to 63 years from a large commercial insurance claims database who underwent a ventral or groin hernia operation from January 2016 through June 2019 and classified their coverage as either a traditional health plan or an HDHP per the Internal Revenue Service's definition. Multivariable regression, adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates, was used to examine the association between enrollment in an HDHP and the primary outcome of presentation with an incarcerated or strangulated hernia. EXPOSURES: Traditional health plan vs HDHP. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Presence of an incarcerated or strangulated hernia per International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision diagnosis codes. RESULTS: Among 83 281 patients (71.9% men and 28.1% women; mean [SD] age, 48.7 [10.9] years) who underwent hernia surgery, 27 477 (33.0%) were enrolled in an HDHP and 21 876 (26.2%) had a hernia that was coded as incarcerated or strangulated. The mean annual deductible was considerably higher for those in the HDHP group than their traditional health plan counterparts (unadjusted mean [SD], $3635 [$2094] vs $705 [$737]; adjusted, -$2931; P < .001). Patients in the HDHP group were more likely to present with an incarcerated or strangulated hernia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study, enrollment in an HDHP was associated with higher odds of presenting with an incarcerated or strangulated hernia, which is more likely to require emergency surgery that precludes medical optimization. These data suggest that, among patients with groin and ventral hernias, enrollment in an HDHP may be associated with delays in surgical care that result in complex disease presentation.


Assuntos
Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Gastos em Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hérnia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Med Care ; 60(4): 279-286, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While researchers use patient expenditures in claims data to estimate insurance benefit features, little evidence exists to indicate whether the resulting measures are accurate. OBJECTIVE: To develop and test an algorithm for deriving copayment and coinsurance values from behavioral health claims data. SUBJECTS: Employer-sponsored insurance plans from 2011 to 2013 for a national managed behavioral health organization (MBHO). MEASURES: Twelve benefit features, distinguishing between carve-in and carve-out, in-network and out-of-network, inpatient and outpatient, and copayment and coinsurance, were created. Measures drew from claims (claims-derived measures), and benefit feature data from a claims processing engine database (true measures). STUDY DESIGN: We calculate sensitivity and specificity of the claims-derived measures' ability to accurately determine if a benefit feature was required and for plan-years requiring the benefit feature, the accuracy of the claims-derived measures. Accuracy rates using the minimum, 25th, 50th, 75th, and maximum claims value for a plan-year were compared. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sensitivity (82% or higher for all but 3 benefit features) and specificity (95% or higher for all but 2 benefit features) were relatively high. Accuracy rates were highest using the 75th or maximum claims value, depending on the benefit feature, and ranged from 69% to 99% for all benefit features except for out-of-network inpatient coinsurance. CONCLUSIONS: For most plan-years, claims-derived measures correctly identify required specialty mental health copayments and coinsurance, although the claims-derived measures' accuracy varies across benefit design features. This information should be considered when creating claims-derived benefit features to use for policy analysis.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Psiquiatria , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estados Unidos
17.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(4): 769-776, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term, continuous treatment with medication like buprenorphine is the gold standard for opioid use disorder (OUD). As high deductible health plans (HDHPs) become more prevalent in the commercial insurance market, they may pose financial barriers to people with OUD. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of HDHPs on continuity of buprenorphine treatment, concurrent visits for counseling/psychotherapy and OUD-related evaluation and management, and out-of-pocket spending. DESIGN: Difference-in-differences analysis comparing trends in outcomes among enrollees whose employers offer an HDHP (treatment group) to enrollees whose employers never offer an HDHP (comparison group). PARTICIPANTS: Enrollees with OUD from a national sample of commercial health insurance plans during 2007-2017 who initiate buprenorphine treatment. MAIN MEASURES: Number of days of continuous buprenorphine treatment; probabilities of continuous buprenorphine treatment ≥30, ≥90, ≥180, and ≥365 days; probability of concurrent (i.e., within the same month) behavioral therapy (i.e., counseling or psychotherapy); probability of concurrent OUD-related evaluation and management visits; proportions of buprenorphine treatment episodes with counseling/psychotherapy and evaluation and management visits; and out-of-pocket (OOP) spending on buprenorphine, behavioral therapy, and evaluation and management visits. KEY RESULTS: HDHPs were associated with an average increase of $98 (95% CI: $48, $150) on OOP spending on buprenorphine per treatment episode but no change in the number of days of continuous buprenorphine treatment or concurrent use of related services. CONCLUSIONS: HDHPs do not reduce continuity of buprenorphine treatment among commercially insured enrollees with OUD but may increase financial burden for this population.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Eur J Health Econ ; 23(5): 847-861, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779932

RESUMO

Despite rapidly rising health expenditure associated with population aging, empirical evidence on the effects of cost-sharing on older people is still limited. This study estimated the effects of cost-sharing on the utilization of healthcare and health among older people, the most intensive users of healthcare. We employed a regression discontinuity design by exploiting a drastic reduction in the coinsurance rate from 30 to 10% at age 70 in Japan. We used large administrative claims data as well as income information at the individual level provided by a municipality. Using the claims data with 1,420,252 person-month observations for health expenditure, we found that reduced cost-sharing modestly increased outpatient expenditure, with an implied price elasticity of - 0.07. When examining the effects of reduced cost-sharing by income, we found that the price elasticities for outpatient expenditure were almost zero, - 0.08, and - 0.11 for lower-, middle-, and higher-income individuals, respectively, suggesting that lower-income individuals do not have more elastic demand for outpatient care compared with other income groups. Using large-scale mail survey data with 3404 observations for self-reported health, we found that the cost-sharing reduction significantly improved self-reported health only among lower-income individuals, but drawing clear conclusions about health outcomes is difficult because of a lack of strong graphical evidence to support health improvement. Our results suggest that varying cost-sharing by income for older people (i.e., smaller cost-sharing for lower-income individuals and larger cost-sharing for higher-income individuals) may reduce health expenditure without compromising health.


Assuntos
Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Gastos em Saúde , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Humanos , Renda
19.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 167(1): 163-169, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of high-deductible health plans on elective surgery (tonsillectomy) in the pediatric population. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Health claims database from a third-party payer. METHODS: Data were reviewed for children up to 18 years of age who underwent tonsillectomy or arm fracture repair (nonelective control) from 2016 to 2019. Incidence of surgery by health plan deductible (high, low, or government insured) and met or unmet status of deductibles were compared. RESULTS: A total of 10,047 tonsillectomy claims and 9903 arm fracture repair claims met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The incidence of tonsillectomy was significantly different across deductible plan types. Patients with met deductibles were more likely to undergo tonsillectomy. In patients with deductibles ≥$4000, a 1.75-fold increase in tonsillectomy was observed in those who had met their deductible as compared with those who had not. These findings were not observed in controls (nonelective arm fracture). For those with met deductibles, those with high deductibles were much more likely to undergo tonsillectomy than those with low, moderate, and government deductibles. Unmet high deductibles were least likely to undergo tonsillectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Health insurance plan type influences the incidence of pediatric elective surgery such as tonsillectomy but not procedures such as nonelective repair of arm fracture. High deductibles may discourage elective surgery for those deductibles that are unmet, risking inappropriate care of vulnerable pediatric patients. However, meeting the deductible may increase incidence, raising the question of overutilization.


Assuntos
Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Seguro Saúde , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
20.
Health Serv Res ; 57(1): 27-36, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether out-of-pocket costs and negotiated hospital prices for childbirth change after enrollment in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) and whether price effects differ in markets with more hospitals. DATA SOURCES: Administrative medical claims data from 2010 to 2014 from three large commercial insurers with plans in all U.S. states provided by the Health Care Cost Institute (HCCI). STUDY DESIGN: I identify employer groups that switched from non-HDHPs in 1 year to HDHPs in a subsequent year. I estimate enrollees' change in out-of-pocket costs and negotiated hospital prices for childbirth after HDHP switch, relative to a comparison group of employers that do not switch plans. I use a triple-difference design to estimate price changes for enrollees in markets with more hospital choices. Finally, I re-estimate models with hospital-fixed effects. DATA COLLECTION: From the HCCI sample, childbearing women enrolled in an employer-sponsored plan with at least 10 people. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Switching to an HDHP increases out-of-pocket cost $227 (p < 0.001; comparison group base $790) and has no meaningful effect on hospital-negotiated prices (-$26, p = 0.756; comparison group base $5821). HDHP switch is associated with a marginally statistically significant price increase in markets with three or fewer hospitals ($343, p = 0.096; comparison group base $5806) and, relative to those markets, with a price decrease in markets with more than three hospitals (-$512; p = 0.028). Predicted prices decrease from $5702 to $5551 after HDHP switch in markets with more than three hospitals due primarily to lower prices conditional on using the same hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Prices for childbirth in markets with more hospitals decrease after HDHP switch due to lower hospital prices for HDHPs relative to prices at those same hospitals for non-HDHPs. These results reinforce previous findings that HDHPs do not promote price shopping but suggest negotiated prices may be lower for HDHP enrollees.


Assuntos
Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/economia , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Feminino , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados/economia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
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