Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.669
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 374: 131778, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021580

RESUMO

Core-shell structured magnetic covalent-organic frameworks (Fe3O4@TaTp) were facilely synthesized based on one-step functionalization at room temperature and applied for magnetic solid-phase extraction of okadaic acid from seawater and shellfish prior to LC-MS/MS detection. Parameters, including adsorbent amount, extraction time, desorption solution, and desorption time which could affect the extraction efficiency, were respectively investigated. The developed methods demonstrated good linearity (R2 > 0.99), acceptable accuracy and good precision (<15%), and low limit of detection (0.5 pg·mL-1 for seawater and 0.04 µg·kg-1 for shellfish). The amount of the material used (1 mg for seawater and 5 mg for shellfish) and the time required (4 min for seawater and 15 min for shellfish) for extracting analyte from 5 mL of seawater and 2 g of shellfish are both greatly shortened compared with the previous reports. In addition, we successfully applied this method to real sample analysis.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Água do Mar , Frutos do Mar/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126690, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315019

RESUMO

Shellfish toxins are derived from harmful algae and are easily accumulated in environment and marine food through the food chain, exposing high risks on human health. Preliminary rapid screening is one of the most effective monitoring ways to reduce the potential risks; however, the traditional methods encounter with many limitations, such as complicated procedures, low sensitivity and specificity, and ethical problems. Alternatively, bioaffinity sensors are proposed and draw particular attention. Among them, the aptasensors are springing up and emerging as superior alternatives in recent years, exhibiting high practicability to analyze shellfish toxins in real samples in the marine food chain. Herein, the latest research progresses of aptasensors towards shellfish toxins in the marine food chain in the past five years was reviewed for the first time, in terms of the aptamers applied in these aptasensors, construction principles, signal transduction techniques, response types, individual performance properties, practical applications, and advantages/disadvantages of these aptasensors. Synchronously, critical discussions were given and future perspectives were prospected. We hope this review can serve as a powerful reference to promote further development and application of aptasensors to monitor shellfish toxins, as well as other analytes with similar demands.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Frutos do Mar
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130856, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425333

RESUMO

In this work, we present a novel dual-emissive fluoroimmunoassay for synchronous monitoring of okadaic acid (OA) and saxitoxin (STX) using multicolor fluorescent labels composed of sulfur, phosphorous co-doped graphene quantum dots (S, P-GQDs), and ovalbumin (OVA)-coated gold nanoparticles (OVA-AuNPs). The novel OVA-AuNPs were prepared by the reduction of chloroauric acid under alkaline conditions using OVA as a reducing agent. Both S, P-GQDs and OVA-AuNPs exhibit bright fluorescence, more importantly, a large emission wavelength difference (Δλ = 156 nm) under an excitation of 400 nm and relatively independent fluorescence behavior, which are essential to realizing the dual-signal marks in a directly mixing system. Using a competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (cFLISA) format, the dual-emissive cFLISA was successfully utilized to measure OA and STX contents in Alectryonella plicatula (commonly named as fingerprint oyster) and the detection results were in good agreement with the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Pontos Quânticos , Ouro , Imunoensaio , Ácido Okadáico , Saxitoxina , Frutos do Mar/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149807, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450439

RESUMO

It is expected that by 2050 human population will exceed nine billion leading to increased pressure on marine ecosystems. Therefore, it is conjectured various levels of ecosystem functioning starting from individual to population-level, species distribution, food webs and trophic interaction dynamics will be severely jeopardized in coming decades. Ocean warming and acidification are two prime threats to marine biota, yet studies about their cumulative effect on marine fish and shellfishes are still in its infancy. This review assesses existing information regarding the interactive effects of global environmental factors like warming and acidification in the perspective of marine capture fisheries and aquaculture industry. As climate change continues, distribution pattern of species is likely to be altered which will impact fisheries and fishing patterns. Our work is an attempt to compile the existing literatures in the biological perspective of the above-mentioned stressors and accentuate a clear outline of knowledge in this subject. We reviewed studies deciphering the biological consequences of warming and acidification on fish and shellfishes in the light of a molecule to ecosystem perspective. Here, for the first time impacts of these two global environmental drivers are discussed in a holistic manner taking into account growth, survival, behavioural response, prey predator dynamics, calcification, biomineralization, reproduction, physiology, thermal tolerance, molecular level responses as well as immune system and disease susceptibility. We suggest urgent focus on more robust, long term, comprehensive and ecologically realistic studies that will significantly contribute to the understanding of organism's response to climate change for sustainable capture fisheries and aquaculture.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água do Mar , Animais , Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Frutos do Mar
5.
Gene ; 808: 145971, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543688

RESUMO

Trehalose is an important disaccharide that plays an important role in extreme environmental conditions. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) gene is the key gene for trehalose synthesis in Marsupenaeus japonicus. In this study, a TPS gene was isolated and characterized from M. japonicus. The full-length cDNA of TPS gene of M. japonicus (MjTPS) was 3308 bp, encoding 844 amino acids. The protein of the deduced MjTPS contained a glycol_transf_20 domain and a trehalose_PPase domain. The mRNA expression level of MjTPS was the highest in hepatopancreas. The further analysis found that MjTPS gene expression was up-regulated in a short time under low-salinity and high-nitrite stress, indicating that MjTPS gene had certain resistance to low-salinity and high-nitrite stress. Compared with the control group, both the expression of MjTPS and the trehalose content significantly decreased from 3 h to 24 h after MjTPS gene interference,. After RNAi, the mortality of M. japonicus increased, the expression level of MjTPS and the synthesis of downstream products decreased under low-salinity and high-nitrite stress, and what's more, the expression of immune genes PMO25, ERP, CD, HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, HMC and CLEC2 were significantly changed, implying that MjTPS might be participated in the immune response of M. japonicus. In addition, MjTPS gene silencing could affect the expression of CHI1 and CHS, suggesting that MjTPS might be involved in molting behavior of M. japonicus. These results provide new information for further studying the function of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase in shrimp.


Assuntos
Glucosiltransferases/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , China , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Expressão Gênica , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Filogenia , Frutos do Mar , Trealose/metabolismo
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt A): 126202, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710598

RESUMO

Rapid growth of aquatic weeds in treatment pond poses undesirable challenge to shellfish aquaculture, requiring the farmers to dispose these weeds on a regular basis. This article reviews the potential and application of various aquatic weeds for generation of biofuels using recent thermochemical technologies (torrefaction, hydrothermal carbonization/liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification). The influence of key operational parameters for optimising the aquatic weed conversion efficiency was discussed, including the advantages, drawbacks and techno-economic aspects of the thermochemical technologies, and their viability for large-scale application. Via extensive study in small and large scale operation, and the economic benefits derived, pyrolysis is identified as a promising thermochemical technology for aquatic weed conversion. The perspectives, challenges and future directions in thermochemical conversion of aquatic weeds to biofuels were also reviewed. This review provides useful information to promote circular economy by integrating shellfish aquaculture with thermochemical biorefinery of aquatic weeds rather than disposing them in landfills.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Aquicultura , Biomassa , Frutos do Mar
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343669

RESUMO

Digestive enzymes are found in the digestive tract of animals which assist in the breakdown of larger food molecules into more easily absorbed particles that can then be used by the body. The ability of fish to break down a diet is highly dependent on the availability of suitable digestive enzymes which mediate specific degradation pathways and on both the physical and chemical nature of food. Probiotics are known to produce helpful enzymes that aid in digestion and protect the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals. When applied appropriately, probiotics improve intestinal microbial balance which also improves digestive enzyme activities, food absorption, and decrease pathogenic issues in the GIT. They work hand-in-hand with the digestive enzymes in the GIT of animals as supplements thereby improvings nutrition. This in turn leads to higher feed efficiency and growth as well as the prevention of antinutritional factors present in the ingredients, intestinal disorders, and pre-digestion. This review seeks to present summaries of the results of research findings on the application of probiotics on the activities of digestive enzymes including amylase, lipase, and protease. Further, this review points out gaps in available literature and suggests ideas that could be explored in further investigations to better understand and enhance the activities of these digestive enzymes to increase feed and nutrient utilization and the production of aquaculture species.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Ração Animal , Animais , Aquicultura , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Peixes , Probióticos/farmacologia , Frutos do Mar
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127383, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879574

RESUMO

Quantitative characterization of nanoparticles (NPs) in marine shellfish is critical to understanding the risks of bio-accumulation. Based on single particle (sp)ICP-MS and electron microscopy, a standardized protocol was developed to extract Ag, Au, and indigenous Ti-containing NPs from mussels. The optimal parameters are: dry sample extraction with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), 5% (v/v) final concentration of TMAH, extraction at 25 â„ƒ for 12 h, and separation by centrifugation (3000 rpm for 5 min). The particle number recoveries of spiked Ag and Au NPs were 88 ± 0.9% and 95 ± 1.1%, respectively, while Ti-containing NPs had a particle number concentration of 8.2 × 106 particles/mg and an average size of 70 nm in tested mussels. Furthermore, titanium oxide NPs, including rutile, anatase, and Magnéli phases (TixO2x-1) were found ubiquitously in 10 shellfish based on the optimal method. The particle number concentrations and average sizes of the Ti-containing NPs were 2.1 × 106-8.4 × 106 particles/mg and 70-80 nm, respectively. These Ti-containing NPs, such as TiO2, accounted for about half of the Ti mass in shellfish, indicating that marine shellfish may be a significant sink for Ti-containing NPs.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas , Tamanho da Partícula , Frutos do Mar
9.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118388, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699922

RESUMO

Seafood is well recognized as a major source of Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC n-3 PUFA, especially ecosapentaenoic acid, i.e. EPA and docosaheaxaenoic acid, i.e. DHA) and essential trace elements (As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn). It is also a source of non-essential trace elements (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb) that can be deleterious for health even at low concentrations. Edible parts of sixteen species (fish, cephalopods, crustaceans and bivalves) of great importance in the Pertuis Charentais region, one of the main shellfish farming and fishing areas along the french coastline, were sampled in winter and analyzed to determine their fatty acid (FA) composition and trace element concentrations. Based on these analyses, a suite of indices was calculated to estimate risk and benefit of seafood consumption: the n-6/n-3 ratio, the atherogenic index, the thrombogenic index, the EPA + DHA daily recommended portion, as well as the maximum safe consumption. The results showed that fish contributed the most to LC n-3 PUFA supply, while bivalves and crustaceans were more beneficial in essential trace elements. Whatever the species, the concentrations of non-essential elements were not limiting for seafood consumption, as important amounts of the analyzed species can be eaten daily or weekly before becoming hazardous to consumers. Yet, concentrations of Hg in dogfish and seabass can become a concern for frequent seafood consumers (>three meals a week), confirming that varying seafood items is a key point for consumers to optimize the benefits of diverse seafood resources. Considering FA composition, whiting and pilchard are the most beneficial fish species for human diet, while surmullet was the least beneficial one. However, using an index integrating the relative risk due to Hg content, the surmullet appears as one of the most beneficial. This study provides a temporal shot of the quality of marine resources consumed in winter period in the studied area and highlights the complexity of a quantitative risk and benefit assessment with respect to the biochemical attributes of selected seafood.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Oligoelementos , Animais , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Frutos do Mar , Oligoelementos/análise
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150361, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818778

RESUMO

The use of aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) as fire retardants is an critical point-source for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) pollution into the aquatic environment. This study investigated PFASs pollution in the surface waters and biota (shellfish and fish) of Galveston Bay, following AFFFs use to extinguish a petrochemical fire (March 17th to 20th, 2019) of oil storage tanks at the International Terminals Company (ITC) in Deer Park (Houston, TX). The levels of up to twelve EPA priority PFASs were measured in surface waters and biota from March-November 2019. PFASs levels in surface waters showed mean total levels in March and April 2019 to be from 4× to ~300× higher than those measured in the following months. PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid) was the most abundant homolog measured at ≥66% of total PFASs. Maximal PFOS levels exceeded the State of Texas' water regulatory limit of 0.6 µg L-1 in 3% of the samples analyzed in March and April 2019. PFOS was also the most prominent homolog (≥66% of total PFASs) measured in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus), and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). A statistically significant elevation of PFOS body-burdens was measured in oysters and spotted seatrout in April and May 2019, respectively. A Hazard Ratio calculation for seafood safety suggests an advisory of 1-2 meals per week for gafftopsail catfish and red drum, and 2 meals per week for spotted seatrout to be protective for human exposure to PFOS. The levels in oysters indicated no immediate concerns for the dietary exposure of humans. Our results highlight a need for continual monitoring to assess the long-term fate and seafood advisories for PFASs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Cervos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , Baías , Biota , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos , Frutos do Mar , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127329, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601414

RESUMO

Aquatic weeds pose hazards to aquatic ecosystems and particularly the aquatic environment in shellfish aquaculture due to its excessive growth covering entire freshwater bodies, leading to environmental pollution particularly eutrophication intensification, water quality depletion and aquatic organism fatality. In this study, pyrolysis of six aquatic weed types (wild and cultured species of Salvinia sp., Lemna sp. and Spirodella sp.) were investigated to evaluate its potential to reduce and convert the weeds into value-added chemicals. The aquatic weeds demonstrated high fixed carbon (8.7-47.3 wt%), volatile matter content (39.0-76.9 wt%), H/C ratio (1.5-2.0) and higher heating value (6.6-18.8 MJ/kg), representing desirable physicochemical properties for conversion into biofuels. Kinetic analysis via Coats-Redfern integral method obtained different orders for chemical reaction mechanisms (n = 1, 1.5, 2, 3), activation energy (55.94-209.41 kJ/mol) and pre-exponential factor (4.08 × 104-4.20 × 1017 s-1) at different reaction zones (zone 1: 150-268 °C, zone 2: 268-409 °C, zone 3: 409-600 °C). The results provide useful information for design and optimization of the pyrolysis reactor and establishment of the process condition to dispose this environmentally harmful species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pirólise , Aquicultura , Cinética , Frutos do Mar , Termogravimetria
12.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960010

RESUMO

A pre-gestational thyroid reserve of iodine is crucial to guarantee the increased demand for thyroid hormone production of early pregnancy. An iodine intake ≥150 µg/day is currently recommended. The objective of this study was to assess average pre-gestational food-based iodine consumption in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit (<12 gestational weeks), and its association with adverse materno-fetal events (history of miscarriages, early fetal losses, Gestational Diabetes, prematurity, caesarean sections, and new-borns large/small for gestational age). Between 2015-2017, 2523 normoglycemic women out of 3026 eligible had data in the modified Diabetes Nutrition and Complication Trial (DNCT) questionnaire permitting assessment of pre-gestational food-based iodine consumption, and were included in this study. Daily food-based iodine intake was 123 ± 48 µg, with 1922 (76.1%) not reaching 150 µg/day. Attaining this amount was associated with consuming 8 weekly servings of vegetables (3.84; 3.16-4.65), 1 of shellfish (8.72; 6.96-10.93) and/or 2 daily dairy products (6.43; 5.27-7.86). Women who reached a pre-gestational intake ≥150 µg had lower rates of hypothyroxinemia (104 (17.3%)/384 (21.4%); p = 0.026), a lower miscarriage rate, and a decrease in the composite of materno-fetal adverse events (0.81; 0.67-0.98). Reaching the recommended iodine pre-pregnancy intake with foods could benefit the progression of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Dieta , Análise de Alimentos , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Laticínios , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Iodo/química , Iodo/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Frutos do Mar , Glândula Tireoide/química , Verduras
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261963, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972178

RESUMO

Movement by animals to obtain resources and avoid predation often depends on natural cycles, and human alteration of the landscape may disrupt or enhance the utility of different habitats or resources to animals through the phases of these cycles. We studied habitat selection by GPS/accelerometer-tagged great egrets (Ardea alba) foraging in areas with shellfish aquaculture infrastructure and adjacent natural wetlands, while accounting for tide-based changes in water depth. We used integrated step selection analysis to test the prediction that egrets would express stronger selection for natural wetlands (eelgrass, tidal marsh, and other tidal wetlands) than for shellfish aquaculture areas. We also evaluated differences in foraging behavior among shellfish aquaculture areas and natural wetlands by comparing speed travelled (estimated from distance between GPS locations) and energy expended (Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration) while foraging. We found evidence for stronger overall habitat selection for eelgrass than for shellfish aquaculture areas, with results conditional on water depth: egrets used shellfish aquaculture areas, but only within a much narrower range of water depths than they used eelgrass and other natural wetlands. We found only slight differences in our metrics of foraging behavior among shellfish aquaculture areas and natural wetlands. Our results suggest that although great egrets appear to perceive or experience shellfish aquaculture areas as suitable foraging habitat during some conditions, those areas provide less foraging opportunity throughout tidal cycles than natural wetlands. Thus, expanding the footprint of shellfish aquaculture into additional intertidal areas may reduce foraging opportunities for great egrets across the range of tidal cycles. Over longer time scales, the ways in which natural wetlands and shellfish aquaculture areas adapt to rising sea levels (either through passive processes or active management) may change the ratios of these wetland types and consequently change the overall value of Tomales Bay to foraging great egrets.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Áreas Alagadas , Aceleração , Acelerometria , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Estuários , Geografia , Comportamento Predatório , Análise de Regressão , Elevação do Nível do Mar , Frutos do Mar
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(12): 6027-6036, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909995

RESUMO

In 2019, an oil spill of yet unknown origin affected several locations on the Brazilian coast. The purpose of this research was to capture the perceptions of women shellfish gatherers in the Jaguaribe River estuary, Ceará, about exposure to oil and its consequences. The focal group technique was used for data collection and the Iramuteq software for the processing and analysis of the material. The results indicated the creation of two analytical categories: Social, economic, food production and consumption implications of shellfish gatherer families; and the knowledges, the participation and the surveillance in the context of (in)visibility of exposure to oil. It was observed that shellfisherwomen and their families constitute a population that is very exposed to the negative impacts caused by the oil spill, as they are significant from the socioeconomic, environmental, food production, consumption and health perspectives. Attention is drawn to health and social assistance policies for these fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers, with consequences on the food, water and nutrition security of families and the recognition of their knowledges and practices, constructed within a traditional way of life that produces and reproduces the existence in a close society/nature relationship.


Em 2019 um derramamento de petróleo de origem desconhecida afetou várias localidades do litoral brasileiro. Nessa pesquisa, objetivou-se apreender as percepções das marisqueiras do estuário do Rio Jaguaribe, Ceará, acerca da exposição ao petróleo e suas consequências. Utilizou-se o grupo focal como técnica para a coleta de dados e o software Iramuteq para o processamento e análise do material. Os resultados apontaram para a criação de duas categorias analíticas: implicações sociais, econômicas, produtivas e de consumo de alimentos das famílias marisqueiras; e os saberes, a participação e a vigilância no contexto de (in)visibilização da exposição ao petróleo. Percebeu-se que as marisqueiras e suas famílias são uma população muito exposta aos impactos negativos causados pelo derramamento de petróleo por se apresentarem significativos sob as perspectivas socioeconômicas, ambientais, produtivas e de saúde. Chama-se a atenção para as políticas de saúde e assistência social para as trabalhadoras, consequências na segurança alimentar, hídrica e nutricional das famílias e sobre o reconhecimento de seus saberes e práticas, construídos dentro de um modo de vida tradicional que produz e reproduz a existência numa estreita relação sociedade/natureza.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Frutos do Mar
15.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(6): 967-974, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An ultra performance liquid chromatography-hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap-mass spectrometry(UPLC-QqLIT-MS) was established for determination of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish. And the 12 lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish were surveyed. METHODS: The lipophilic marine biotoxins in homogenized shellfish were ultrasonically extracted by methanol in super-sonic instrument, and cleaned up by solid phase extraction of Strata-X column, and eluted with methanol(containing 0.3% ammonia water). The elution was diluted with water, and cleaned by 0.22 µm millipore filter. The filtrate was separated on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(150 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm)by gradient elution in 12 minutes with acetronitrile-water(containing 0.01%(V/V) ammonia and 2 mmol/L ammonium formate) as mobile phase, and detected by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS), identified by electrospray ionization(ESI) in simultaneous scanning mode of positive and negative ions using multiple reaction monitoring, and quantified with external standards. Information dependent acquisition scan function(IDA) combined with enhanced production scan(EPI) was used to confirm the 12 lipophilic marine biotoxins. RESULTS: The calibration curves of 12 lipophilic marine biotoxins showed good linearity in the range of 0.5-50 µg/L with correlation coefficients were 0.9984-0.9999.The detection limits of the method were 0.15-0.29 µg/kg. The recoveries of three spiking levels ranged from 80.0% to 116.0%, and the relative standard deviation(RSD) were 0.6%-6.4%(n=7). CONCLUSION: The method for determination of 12 lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish by UPLC-QqLIT-MS was of operation convenience, less interference from impurities and good accuracy, which could meet the requirements for the determination of 12 lipophilic marine biotoxins residues in sea foods.


Assuntos
Toxinas Marinhas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Alimentos Marinhos , Frutos do Mar/análise
16.
Toxicon ; 204: 56-63, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742781

RESUMO

Saxitoxin and its derivatives, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are well known to be toxic to humans, and maximum permitted levels in seafood have been established by regulatory authorities in many countries. Monitoring of PSTs is typically performed using chemical methods which quantify the concentration of the individual PST analogues, of which there are many. However, since the toxicities of analogues are different, they do not equally contribute to the overall toxicity of the sample. To account for these differences, toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) need to be determined for each analogue and applied. Currently there are no established TEFs for decarbamoyl gonyautoxin 1&4 (dcGTX1&4), which occurs in some clam species such as Mactra chinensis contaminated with PSTs due to metabolism within the shellfish. In this study the median lethal dose of purified, equilibrated epimeric mixture of dcGTX1&4 has been determined by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) (4.75 µmol/kg) and by feeding (34.9 µmol/kg). The most relevant route of exposure is orally with feeding being more representative of human consumption and more reliable than gavage. Based on the median lethal dose by feeding, a TEF of 0.1 is recommended for dcGTX1&4. Receptor binding activity and i.p. toxicity results showed dcGTX1&4 to be much less toxic than STX (140-170-fold). However, by feeding a much smaller difference in toxicity was observed with dcGTX1&4 being only 11-fold less toxic than STX. Analysis of the gut contents of mice dosed with dcGTX1&4 showed the presence of decarbamoyl gonyautoxin 2&3, decarbamoyl saxitoxin and decarbamoyl neosaxitoxin, all of which are of greater toxicity. This conversion of dcGTX1&4 within the digestive track to more toxic congeners may explain the high relative toxicity of dcGTX1&4 by feeding compared to that determined by i.p. and by sodium channel activity.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Camundongos , Saxitoxina/análogos & derivados , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Frutos do Mar/análise
17.
Toxicon ; 204: 5-8, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666135

RESUMO

The Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease characterized by a progressive deterioration of the articular cartilage producing a strong inflammatory activity and chronic pain in patients. Horses also show osteoarthritis. Since the activation and progression of the disease are similar to that of human we developed a study model in horses. In this study, we test the effect of Neosaxitoxin, a phycotoxin from Paralytic Shellfish Poison, in the remediation of osteoarthritis equine clinical symptoms such as pain (showed in lameness) and inflammation quantifying the amounts of pro-inflammatory markers like cellular infiltration, TNF-alpha and nitric oxide in the synovial fluid obtained from the horse damaged joint. The outcomes show that Neosaxitoxin blocks pain for long lasting period (average 24.7 days). Furthermore, the amounts of pro-inflammatory markers were reduced and consequently an enhanced horse's well-being was obtained. Neosaxitoxin showed to be a candidate for establishing treatment protocols for OA, being safe and effective as a pain blocker in equine osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Osteoartrite , Venenos , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/veterinária , Osteoartrite/induzido quimicamente , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Saxitoxina/análogos & derivados , Frutos do Mar
18.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641352

RESUMO

This paper presents the development and the application of a multisyringe flow injection analysis system for the fluorimetric determination of the major heat-stable known allergen in shrimp, rPen a 1 (tropomyosin). This muscle protein, made up of 284 amino acids, is the main allergen in crustaceans and can be hydrolyzed by microwave in hydrochloric acid medium to produce glutamic acid, the major amino acid in the protein. Glutamic acid can then be quantified specifically by thermal conversion into pyroglutamic acid followed by chemical derivatization of the pyroglutamic acid formed by an analytical protocol based on an OPA-NAC reagent. Pyroglutamic acid can thus be quantified between 1 and 100 µM in less than 15 min with a detection limit of 1.3 µM. The method has been validated by measurements on real samples demonstrating that the response increases with the increase in the tropomyosin content or with the increase in the mass of the shrimp sample.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Análise de Injeção de Fluxo/métodos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Tropomiosina/análise , Animais , Frutos do Mar
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682387

RESUMO

The long-term effects of diving on human lung function are controversially discussed. We investigated the lung function of traditional shellfish divers in southern Chile and identified risk factors for reduced lung volumes in divers. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed lung function in traditional shellfish divers and fishermen from two fishing communities. Male divers and fishermen aged 18-60 years were recruited. Participants' health and diving habits were assessed via standardized questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared tests and multiple linear regression models were applied. Through door-to-door sampling, we recruited 112 divers and 63 fishermen (response 67%). Valid spirometries were obtained from 98 divers and 52 fishermen. Divers had higher values of forced vital capacity (FVC, Beta = 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09; 0.47) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, Beta = 0.23, 95%-CI: 0.07; 0.39) compared to fishermen. Among divers, lower values of FVC (Beta = -0.35, 95%-CI: -0.65; -0.05) were found in those with a high diving frequency, while diving depth was associated with higher values of FVC (Beta = 0.28, 95%-CI = 0.04; 0.52). Professional divers had better lung function compared to fishermen. However, among divers, lung function decreased with cumulative diving exposure, warranting approval in future studies to ensure the safety and health of divers.


Assuntos
Mergulho , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Frutos do Mar , Capacidade Vital
20.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684397

RESUMO

Crustacean allergy, especially to shrimp, is the most predominant cause of seafood allergy. However, due to the high flexibility of immunoglobulin E (IgE), its three-dimensional structure remains unsolved, and the molecular mechanism of shrimp allergen recognition is unknown. Here a chimeric IgE was built in silico, and its variable region in the light chain was replaced with sequences derived from shrimp tropomyosin (TM)-allergic patients. A variety of allergenic peptides from the Chinese shrimp TM were built, treated with heating, and subjected to IgE binding in silico. Amino acid analysis shows that the amino acid residue conservation in shrimp TM contributes to eliciting an IgE-mediated immune response. In the shrimp-allergic IgE, Glu98 in the light chain and other critical residues that recognize allergens from shrimp are implicated in the molecular basis of IgE-mediated shrimp allergy. Heat treatment could alter the conformations of TM allergenic peptides, impact their intramolecular hydrogen bonding, and subsequently decrease the binding between these peptides and IgE. We found Glu98 as the characteristic amino acid residue in the light chain of IgE to recognize general shrimp-allergic sequences, and heat-induced conformational change generally desensitizes shrimp allergens.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Penaeidae/imunologia , Frutos do Mar , Tropomiosina/química , Tropomiosina/imunologia , Alérgenos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Epitopos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Temperatura Alta , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imunoglobulina E/química , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Tropomiosina/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...