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1.
Toxicon ; 204: 31-36, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740561

RESUMO

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a fungal metabolite that causes a variety of toxicological effects to human and animals. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of FB1 on kidney injury and clarify the possible mechanism. Human kidney tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) were treated with FB1 for different concentrations. The results demonstrated that FB1 could suppress the viability of HK-2 cells. FB1 could lead to the apoptosis of HK-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of FB1 could induce the production of ROS and MDA. And the levels of SOD and GSH were decreased by FB1. The expression of Caspase-3 and Bax increased markedly and BCL2 expression was decreased by FB1 treatment. In addition, FB1 treatment could up-regulate PTEN expression and down-regulate PI3K and AKT expression. Also, FB1 could disrupt lipid raft by decreasing sphingomyelin level. In conclusion, FB1 exposure induces apoptosis of HK-2 cells through regulating PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway via disrupting lipid raft formation.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Animais , Apoptose , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Toxicon ; 202: 27-39, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562492

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungi, mainly from Penicillium, Fusarium, and Aspregillus genera. They can contaminate many raw materials both in the field and during storage under very different conditions. This study aimed to evaluate mycotoxin contamination levels of raw materials and products for animals in Poland in the years 2015-2020. Producers, farmers, and veterinary doctors delivered a total of 3980 samples (642 maize samples, 2027 feed samples, 990 small grain samples, 142 maize silage samples and 179 TMR samples). Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of several mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, H-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Trichothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins were determined using the LC-MS/MS technique. Ochratoxin A and aflatoxins were determined using the HPLC-FLD method. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were the most common contamination in maize samples (97.3% and 98.4%, respectively) and feed samples (99.7% and 100% samples, respectively). They were also present in all maize silage and TMR samples. The highest concentration levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were 16,889 µg/kg in the wheat sample and 1420 µg/kg in the maize sample. Additionally, in 51 samples, mycotoxins level (mainly deoxynivalenol and zearalenone levels) was above recommended levels set by the European Union. The present study showed that both feeding and raw materials are contaminated by mycotoxins, often by more than one.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Micotoxinas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112598, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388657

RESUMO

Oocyte quality is critical for fertilization and early embryo development. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin and it is commonly found in contaminated food and feedstuff, posing a potential health hazard to both animals and human. FB1 is reported to have hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity and embryotoxicity. However, the effects of FB1 on mouse oocyte quality are still unknown. Here, we explored the toxic effects and potential mechanisms of FB1 on oocyte maturation quality in mice. FB1 exposure inhibited the first polar body extrusion at concentrations of 30 µM and 50 µM, which further induced oocyte meiotic arrest. Besides, disrupted spindle structure was found in oocytes after FB1 exposure. Our results also showed that FB1 exposure impaired mitochondria dysfunction, which further induced oxidative stress and early apoptosis. In addition, we reported that FB1 exposure induced the accumulation of lysosome and occurrence of autophagy. Aberrant ER distribution and ER stress were also found in FB1-exposed oocytes. Moreover, DNA damage was also observed. These results together suggested that FB1 exposure affected oocyte quality by destroying spindle structure, leading to mitochondria, lysosome and ER dysfunction, which further induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy and DNA damage in mouse oocytes.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Animais , Apoptose , Dano ao DNA , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
4.
Toxicon ; 200: 165-172, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343521

RESUMO

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a major food-borne mycotoxin commonly found in maize and maize-based products, while cadmium is one of the most common toxic heavy metals found in food, particularly in wheat and rice. Given the possibility of co-exposure to FB1 and cadmium for consumers, we elevated combined toxicity of FB1 and cadmium using both in vitro and in vivo models. Acute toxicity setting was employed in the present study. Mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) and human L02 liver cells were used to determine the in vitro cytotoxicity, while C57BL/6 N mice were used to assess the in vivo toxicity. Results showed that treatment with combination of FB1 (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 µM) and cadmium (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 µM) for 24 h led to synergistic cytotoxicity in vitro, and acute treatment with the combination of FB1/cadmium (1.5 mg/kg/60 mg/kg) for 5 days increased liver damage in vivo. Mechanistically, the combined toxicity was associated with elevated activation of IRE1α-JNK pathway. Glycyrol, a representative coumarin compound isolated from licorice, was able to reduce the combination-induced toxicity both in vitro and in vivo through suppression of IRE1α-JNK axis. The combined toxicity of FB1/cadmium should be taken into consideration for performing human health risk assessment of FB1/cadmium exposure.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases , Fumonisinas , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Fibroblastos , Flavonoides , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases
5.
Toxicon ; 201: 164-168, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453986

RESUMO

The ameliorative potential of Moringa leaf meal (MLM) on nutrient digestibility and organ weights of rabbits fed FB1-contaminated diets was evaluated. The rabbits were divided into nine treatment groups (2.5 mg FB1, 5.0 mg FB1, 2.5 mg FB1 + 10 g of MLM, 5.0 mg FB1 + 10 g of MLM, 2.5 mg FB1 + 20 g of MLM, 5.0 mg FB1 + 20 g of MLM, control diet, control diet + 10 g of MLM, and control diet + 20 g of MLM) kg/diet coded Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, respectively, in a six-week feeding experiment. There was significant influence of the dietary FB1 on the apparent digestibility values of nutrients and relative organ weights of the animals. The values of crude protein digestibility in animals fed Diets 7, 8 and 9 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the others. The apparent ash digestibility values in animals fed MLM diets were higher than those fed diets containing FB1. The relative liver weights of rabbits fed FB1-contaminated diets were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those fed diets without FB1. Animals fed Diet 2, had the lowest relative liver and heart weights of 31-88% and 88-99%, respectively compared with other treatments. The potential of the antioxidant to ameliorate the impact of the toxin on nutrient digestibility of the rabbits, however, increased with increase in the MLM concentrations. Inclusion of MLM in FB1-contaminated feeds ameliorated the adverse impacts of the mycotoxin on nutrient digestibility of the animals.


Assuntos
Moringa , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta , Fumonisinas , Nutrientes , Coelhos
6.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 14(4): 295-305, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369295

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to determine the presence of Fusarium metabolites in maize samples collected from different regions of Northern Serbia (Backa, Banat and Srem) during a period of two years (2016-2017). A total of 458 maize samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 40 metabolites were detected, where 94% of the samples contained at least 5 metabolites. Fumonisins (including B1, B2, B3 and B4), moniliformin and bikaverin were the most frequent (80-98%) Fusarium metabolites in both years. Furthermore, in samples from 2016, fumonisin A1 and A2, deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, zearalenone, culmorin, 15-hydroxyculmorin, fusapyron, fusaproliferin and aurofusarin were detected with frequencies of 58-80%. Levels of certain Fusarium metabolites in 2016 were higher on average due to increased humidity when compared to 2017, which was characterised by warm and dry conditions.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Sérvia , Zea mays
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112533, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303040

RESUMO

The natural co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins has been reported in cereals and cereal products worldwide. Even though the dietary exposure to mycotoxins constitutes a serious human health, most reports are limited to the toxic effect of individual mycotoxins. The purpose of the present study was to assess the combined toxic effects of zearalenone (ZEN) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) and the potential interaction of their mixture on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Our results showed that ZEN possessed the higher toxicity to embryonic zebrafish (7-day LC50 value of 0.78 mg a.i. L-1) compared with FB1 (7-day LC50 value of 227.7 mg a.i. L-1). The combination of ZEN and FB1 exerted an additive effect on zebrafish embryos. Meanwhile, the activities of antioxidant CAT, caspase-3, and detoxification enzyme CYP450, as well as the expressions of six genes (Mn-sod, cas9, bax, cc-chem, ERα, and crh) associated with oxidative stress, cellular apoptosis, immune system, and endocrine system were prominently altered in the mixture exposure compared with the corresponding single treatment group of ZEN or FB1. Taken together, the regulatory standards of mycotoxins in food and feed should be updated based on the mixture effects of mycotoxins, and there is an increased need on effective detoxification methods for controlling and reducing the toxicity of multiple mycotoxins in animal feed and throughout the food supply chain.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Zearalenona , Animais , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266625

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisin B1 (FB1), as the main mycotoxins contaminating rice, often coexist in food. Thus, we have measured the genotoxicity of the three rice fungal contaminants, singly and in different combinations, with a 28-day multi-endpoint (Pig-a assay + in vivo micronucleus [MN] test + comet assay) genotoxicity platform. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received the agents orally via gavage for 28 consecutive days, before performing the abovementioned tests. Results indicated that low dose of a single mycotoxin did not show significant genotoxicity. However, some of these mycotoxins in combination induced significant genotoxicity in the peripheral blood and tissues, at sacrifice. In the peripheral blood, the binary combination of DON and FB1 significantly induced MN. In the liver, ZEN might aggravate the DNA-damaging effects of DON and FB1. Therefore, the genotoxicity of sub-chronic exposure to mycotoxins in combination cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Oryza/toxicidade , Animais , Ensaio Cometa/métodos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Zearalenona/toxicidade
9.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117793, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274647

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are increasingly considered as micropollutants in the environment. Fumonisins, as one of the most important mycotoxins, cause potential health threats to humans and animals due to their ubiquitous contamination on cereals, fruit, vegetables and other environmental samples around the world. However, the contribution of fumonisins to the interaction of fungi with plant hosts is not still fully understood. Here, we investigated the effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on the infection of Fusarium proliferatum on banana fruit and the underlying mechanisms from the host perspective. Our results found that FB1 treatment increased the aggressiveness of F. proliferatum on banana fruit and inhibited the defense ability of banana fruit via decreasing phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), ß-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and chitinase (CHI) activities. Meanwhile, FB1 accelerated cell death, indicated by higher relative conductivity, MDA content and higher transcripts of cell death-related genes. FB1 treatment resulted in higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content possibly due to MaRBOHs induction. These consequences accelerated the ROS-dependent cell death, which subsequently result in reduction of disease resistance of banana fruit. Additionally, energy metabolism and MaDORN1s-mediated eATP signaling might involve in FB1-meidiated suppression of banana defense responses. Collectively, results of the current study indicated that FB1 contamination triggered the cell death of banana peel, subsequently instigating the invasion and growth of F. proliferatum on banana fruit. In summary, for the first time, we demonstrated a previously unidentified role of fumonisins as a potential virulence factor of F. proliferatum in modulating fruit defense response, which provides new insight on the biological roles of fumonisins.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Fusarium , Musa , Animais , Frutas , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 354: 109323, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298484

RESUMO

Fusarium verticillioides is one of the major fumonisin producers. The ingestion of this mycotoxin represents a risk for both human and animal health. The development of F. verticillioides is associated with environmental conditions, especially carbon sources. We developed a reliable and fast reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay and determined fum1 gene expression upon growth of two F. verticillioides strains isolated from maize and wheat in Czapek's medium containing four different sugars as sole carbon sources. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) production was determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. High growth and production of FB1 were observed in fructose-containing medium for the strain that originated from maize. Less production of FB1 occurred using maltose as sole carbon source for both strains. The fum1 gene expression started between 2 and 4 days of incubation, and positive signals were detected prior to the initial production of FB1. The RT-LAMP assay was effective in the detection of fum1 gene expression at very early stages of F. verticillioides growth and allowed the prediction of FB1 formation.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Açúcares , Cromatografia Líquida , Fumonisinas/metabolismo , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Açúcares/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070555

RESUMO

Fumonisins (FB) are metabolites found in cereal grains (including maize), crop products, and pelleted feed. There is a dearth of information concerning the effects of FB intoxication on the intestinal histomorphometry, the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, and the bone structure and liver in pre-laying hens. The current experiment was carried out on hens from the 11th to the 14th week of age. The hens were orally administered an extract containing fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) at doses of 0.0 mg/kg b.w. (body weight), 1.0 mg/kg b.w., 4.0 mg/kg b.w., and 10.9 mg/kg b.w. for 21 days. Following FB intoxication, the epithelial integrity of the duodenum and jejunum was disrupted, and dose-dependent degenerative changes were observed in liver. An increased content of immature collagen was observed in the bone tissue of FB-intoxicated birds, indicating intensified bone turnover. A similar effect was observed with regards to the articular cartilage, where enhanced fibrillogenesis was observed mainly in the group of birds that received the FB extract at a dose of 10.9 mg/kg b.w. In conclusion, FB intoxication resulted in negative structural changes in the bone tissue of the hens, which could result in worsened bone mechanics and an increase in the risk of bone fractures. Fumonisin administration, even at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg b.w., can lead to degradation of the intestinal barrier and predispose hens to intestinal disturbances later in life.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumonisinas/envenenamento , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/análise , Administração Oral , Animais , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Galinhas , Feminino , Intestinos/química , Intestinos/patologia , Fígado/patologia
12.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071776

RESUMO

It is now recognized that additional exposure to mycotoxins may occur through inhalation of contaminated dust at a workplace. The aim of this study was to characterize the multi-mycotoxin exposure of French grain elevator workers using biomonitoring and airborne measurements. Eighteen workers participated in the study. Personal airborne dust samples were analyzed for their mycotoxin concentrations. Workers provided multiple urine samples including pre-shift, post-shift and first morning urine samples or 24 h urine samples. Mycotoxin urinary biomarkers (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, ochratoxin α, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, ß-zearalenol, fumonisin B1, HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin) were measured using a liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry method. Grain elevator workers were highly exposed to organic airborne dust (median 4.92 mg.m-3). DON, ZEN and FB1 were frequent contaminants in 54, 76 and 72% of air samples, respectively. The mycotoxin biomarkers quantified were DON (98%), ZEN (99%), α-ZEL (52%), ß-ZEL (33%), OTA (76%), T-2 (4%) and HT-2 (4%). DON elimination profiles showed highest concentrations in samples collected after the end of the work shift and the urinary DON concentrations were significantly higher in post-shift than in pre-shift-samples (9.9 and 22.1 µg/L, respectively). ZEN and its metabolites concentrations did not vary according to the sampling time. However, the levels of α-/ß-ZEL were consistent with an additional occupational exposure. These data provide valuable information on grain worker exposure to mycotoxins. They also highlight the usefulness of multi-mycotoxin methods in assessing external and internal exposures, which shed light on the extent and pathways of exposure occurring in occupational settings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Micotoxinas/análise , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Fumonisinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocratoxinas/análise , Zearalenona/análise
13.
Food Res Int ; 145: 110395, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112398

RESUMO

Mycotoxin intoxication is in general an acknowledged and tackled issue in animals. However, in several parts of the world, mycotoxicoses in humans still remain a relevant issue. The efficacy of two mycotoxin detoxifying animal feed additives, an aflatoxin bentonite clay binder and a fumonisin esterase, was investigated in a human child gut model, i.e. the in vitro Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®). Additionally, the effect of the detoxifiers on gut microbiota was examined in the SHIME. After an initial two weeks of system stabilisation, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) were added to the SHIME diet during one week. Next, the two detoxifiers and mycotoxins were added to the system for an additional week. The AFB1, FB1, hydrolysed FB1 (HFB1), partially hydrolysed FB1a and FB1b concentrations were determined in SHIME samples using a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were determined by a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Colonic bacterial communities were analysed using metabarcoding, targeting the hypervariable V1-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA genes. The AFB1 and FB1 concentrations significantly decreased after the addition of the detoxifiers. Likewise, the concentration of HFB1 significantly increased. Concentrations of SCFAs remained generally stable throughout the experiment. No major changes in bacterial composition occurred during the experiment. The results demonstrate the promising effect of these detoxifiers in reducing AFB1 and FB1 concentrations in the human intestinal environment, without compromising the gastrointestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Fumonisinas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Criança , Ecossistema , Esterases , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 154: 112326, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111490

RESUMO

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a well-known mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. and has a wide range of dose-dependent toxic effects, including nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. This research illustrated that FB1 exerts its toxicity in the neuroblastoma cell line through a distinct cell-death pathway called parthanatos. FB1 can cause excessive DNA strand breaks, leading to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation and cell death. In this study, we used 50 µM FB1-treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to elucidate the signaling pathway of FB1-induced parthanatos. We observed that FB1-induced cell death is caspase-independent and accompanied by rapid activation of PARP-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and intracellular calcium increase. FB1 treatment also increased endoplasmic reticulum stress due to the rapid increase of calcium ions and ROS levels. In addition, FB1 induced massive DNA damage and chromatin decondensation. We also observed that apoptosis-inducing factor nuclear translocation and PAR accumulation were associated with the necroptosis signal.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas/farmacologia , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Parthanatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
Analyst ; 146(10): 3328-3335, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999047

RESUMO

Mycotoxins cause significant harm to human health, so it is imperative to develop a highly sensitive and easy-to-operate method for the detection of mycotoxins. Herein, a fluorescence-based magnetic separation immunoassay for simultaneous detection of mycotoxins fumonisin B1 and zearalenone is established. The method employed high fluorescent upconversion-nanoparticles(UCNPs) conjugated with biotinylated antigens as upconversion fluoroscent probes. Magnetic nanoparticles(MNPs) immobilized with monoclonal antibodies are used as immune-capture probes. Highly sensitive detection of FB1 and ZEN was achieved based on the luminescence properties of UCNPs and the separation effects of MNPs. The results showed a robust linear correlation between the enhanced fluorescence emission intensity and the logarithmic concentrations of FB1 and ZEN under the optimal conditions (R2(FB1) = 0.9965, R2(ZEN) = 0.9976), and the linear ranges were 0.05-5 ng mL-1. Furthermore, the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.016 ng mL-1 for FB1 and 0.012 ng mL-1 for ZEN. The standard addition method was used to determine the content of FB1 and ZEN in the samples to evaluate the accuracy of the process. The average recoveries were 89.48% to 113.69% and 85.97% to 113.82%, respectively. Compared with the other five mycotoxins, this method had high selectivity. It is expected that the multi-component simultaneous detection can be further realized by using the multicolor labeling characteristics of UCNPs.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas , Zearalenona , Imunofluorescência , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fumonisinas , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Micotoxinas/análise
16.
Toxicon ; 198: 164-170, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019909

RESUMO

The study was undertaken to identify the major mycotoxigenic fungi, aflatoxin and fumonisin levels in prepared poultry feeds in Ghana. Three hundred and fifty (350) prepared feed samples were randomly collected from 133 commercial poultry farms, 76 feed processors and eight (8) feed vendors in three major poultry producing regions of Ghana over two seasons. Fungi were isolated using the serial dilution method on potato dextrose agar and identified using standard methods of identification. Total aflatoxin and fumonisin levels were quantified using AgraStrip® Total Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Quantitative test Watex® from RomerLab, USA. Eight (8) different fungi were isolated from the feed samples with isolation frequency as follows: Aspergillus flavus (47%), A. niger (24%), A. fumigatus (17%), A. oryzae (3%), A. tamarii (2%), Penicillium sp. (3%), Colletotrichum sp. (4%) and Rhizopus sp. (0.1%). Feed samples collected during the rainy season recorded higher mean colony counts (3.39 ± 0.29) than that of the dry season (1.10 ± 0.18). Total aflatoxin and fumonisin levels ranged from 0 to 118 ppb with a mean of 57.25 ± 2.55 ppb, and 0.28-15 ppm with a mean of 1.54 ± 0.12 ppm, respectively. The study revealed co-occurrence of aflatoxin and fumonisin in all the feed samples. Significant correlations (r = 0.298, r = 0.694) (p < 0.05) were observed among the aflatoxin and fumonisin levels and the fungi isolated. Seventy-four percent (74%) of all the feed samples exceeded the 15 ppb Ghana Standards Authority threshold, the EU regulatory limit of 20 ppb and the FAO/WHO recommended maximum permissible limit of 30 ppb for poultry feeds. Although fumonisin levels were less than the EU guidance values of 20 ppm for poultry feeds, 20% of the samples were higher than the FAO/WHO maximum tolerable daily intake limit of 2 ppm. Proper handling of prepared feeds and ingredients could prevent or minimize toxigenic fungi contamination and lower the likelihood of mycotoxin development in poultry feeds.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Fumonisinas , Micotoxinas , Aflatoxinas/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fumonisinas/análise , Gana , Micotoxinas/análise , Aves Domésticas
17.
Matern Child Nutr ; 17(4): e13188, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945210

RESUMO

Complementary feeding of 6- to 24-month-old infants and young children with adequate, safe and developmentally appropriate food is essential to child health. Inappropriate complementary foods and feeding practices are linked to the high incidences of undernutrition among infant and young children in most developing countries, including Tanzania. Mycotoxin risk is an additional concern, given the documented presence of aflatoxin and fumonisin in food systems of Africa, especially maize and groundnut. In preparation for a trial of mycotoxin mitigation, we conducted focus group discussions and recipe trials to explore complementary foods and feeding practices in Kongwa, a rural district of central Tanzania. Sixty mothers of infants from 6 to 18 months of age in five villages across the district were purposefully sampled. During focus group discussions, mothers reported to mostly feed their children with cereal and groundnut-based foods as thin or thick porridges. The most common porridge preparations contained cereal (mostly, maize) ranging from 66.7% to 80.0% by weight and groundnuts from 7.7% to 33.3%. The ratio of cereal to groundnut ranged from 3:1 to 4:1. For the recipe trial sessions, mothers chose similar ingredients reported during discussions to prepare complementary foods. The reliance on maize and groundnuts in complementary foods predisposes the children to undernutrition and exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins. These formative research results suggest multiple intervention points to improve complementary feeding and reduce mycotoxin exposure in this population, including education messages package on feeding practices, mycotoxin control practices and complementary food formulation.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Fumonisinas , Micotoxinas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Tanzânia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(38): 53917-53925, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041664

RESUMO

Although fumonisins are toxic and carcinogenic mold products that contaminate feed, food, and water, their photodegradation has not yet been reported. In this work, the efficiency of photolysis (UV, UV/H2O2, and UV/[Formula: see text]) and photocatalysis (TiO2 (Degussa P25/Wackherr) and ZnO) for the degradation of fumonisins in an aqueous medium were investigated. In the case of fumonisin B1 (FB1) optimal conditions in terms of pH, the initial concentrations of H2O2/[Formula: see text] for UV, UV/H2O2, and UV/[Formula: see text] treatments were investigated. The photocatalytic degradation using TiO2 Wackherr as catalyst at natural pH (about 8) proved to be the most efficient treatment for removal of FB1 and FB3. Namely, during the first 30 min of irradiation, 99% of FB1 (1.39 µM) was degraded, while FB3 (0.425 µM) was completely removed during the first 20 min of irradiation. In the case of FB2 (0.687 µM), UV/[Formula: see text] was the most efficient treatment, and complete removal occurred in the first 90 min of irradiation. All applied treatments for fumonisins removal have followed pseudo-first-order kinetics under the relevant experimental conditions. Toxicity of fumonisins and their mixtures formed during photodegradation were investigated using mammalian cell lines (BHK, H-4-II-E, Neuro-2a, and MRC-5). The BHK cell line was the most sensitive to fumonisins, especially FB2 and FB3, and its photodegradation mixtures.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Fotólise , Água
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147405, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000555

RESUMO

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a contaminant that commonly present in the global environment, especially in food and feed. Epidemiologic studies have shown that esophageal cancer is associated with fumonisin toxicity. However, the molecular mechanism of FB1-induced esophageal cancer is unclear. In this research, the molecular mechanism of FB1-induced cell carcinogenesis in human esophageal epithelial cells line (HEEC) was explored. We found that FB1 (0.3125-5 µM) could promote cell proliferation, and the same phenomenon was found in a 3D cell model. FB1 could also accelerate cell migration. The expression levels of DNA damage markers were significantly increased after FB1 exposure. Meanwhile, the expression levels of cell cycle-regulated proteins and cancer-related genes were abnormal. Furthermore, FB1 significantly upregulated the histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression and activated the phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signalling pathway. The HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) could repressed FB1-promoted cell proliferation and abnormal phenomenon induced by FB1. Moreover, myriocin (ISP-1) could relieve FB1-enhanced HDAC expression and cell proliferation, which implied that ISP-1 may be used to block the fumonisin toxicity in the future. Our findings suggested that the HDAC/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway is a novel mechanism for FB1-induced cell carcinogenesis in HEEC and provided new ideas for the prevention and control of fumonisin toxicity, subsequently avoiding adverse effects on the ecosystem and human health.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Carcinogênese , Ecossistema , Células Epiteliais , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Histona Desacetilases , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt
20.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806221

RESUMO

A 65-day study was undertaken to test the effects of two doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of dietary fumonisin Bs (FB) on the rabbit male reproduction system. Body and testicular weight was not affected by the intoxication, neither the fatty acid composition of the testicular total phospholipids; the testis histological analysis failed to reveal any toxic effect. The FBs increased the testicular concentration and activity of reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase and decreased initial phase lipid peroxidation (conjugated dienes and trienes) in a dose dependent manner. Sperm morphology and chromatin condensation were monitored on Feulgen-stained smears. No significant differences were observed between the treatment groups and between sampling time points. The live cell ratio in the sperm (as assessed with flow cytometry) was not different among groups at any of the five sampling timepoints and was also identical within groups. Similarly, the spermatozoa membrane lipid profile was also identical in all three groups after the total intoxication period. In summary, it was demonstrated that FBs in an unrealistic and unjustified high dose still do not exert any drastic harmful effect on the leporine, male reproduction system, meanwhile slightly augmenting testicular antioxidant response.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Fusarium/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fumonisinas/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Coelhos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/patologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
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