Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.571
Filtrar
1.
Zootaxa ; 5068(3): 435-442, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810698

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Cyana Walker, 1854, Cyana ebigane sp. n. is described from Gabon. The new species belongs to the subgenus Strigivulpecula Karisch, 2013 and comparisons are made with its congeners C. nemasisha Roesler, 1990, C. rufeola Karisch DallAsta, 2010, C. klausruedigerbecki Karisch, 2005 and C. fasciata Karisch, 2013. Cyana nemasisha Roesler, 1990 is reported from Gabon for the first time. Adults and male genitalia of the new and the similar species discussed in the paper are illustrated.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Gabão , Masculino
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1200, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCW) are at higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. We assessed healthcare facilities for their TB infection control standards and priorities. METHODS: A standardised tool was applied. The assessment was conducted by direct observation, documents review and interviews with the facility heads. RESULTS: Twenty healthcare facilities were assessed; 17 dispensaries, an HIV-clinic, a private not-for-profit hospital and a public regional hospital. In both hospitals, outpatient departments, internal medicine wards, paediatric wards, emergency departments; and the MDR-TB unit of the public regional hospital were assessed. In Gabon, there are currently no national guidelines for TB infection control (TBIC) in healthcare settings. Consequently, none of the facilities had an infection control plan or TBIC focal point. In three departments of two facilities (2/20 facilities), TB patients and presumed TB cases were observed to be consistently provided with surgical masks. One structure reported to regularly test some of its personnel for TB. Consultation rooms were adequately ventilated in six primary care level facilities (6/17 dispensaries) and in none of the hospitals, due to the use of air conditioning. Adequate personal protective equipment was not provided regularly by the facilities and was only found to be supplied in the MDR-TB unit and one of the paediatric wards. CONCLUSIONS: In Moyen-Ogooué province, implementation of TBIC in healthcare settings is generally low. Consequently, HCW are not sufficiently protected and therefore at risk for M. tuberculosis infection. There is an urgent need for national TBIC guidelines and training of health workers to safeguard implementation.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Controle de Infecções , Tuberculose , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde , Gabão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257544, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543331

RESUMO

In Gabon, the proportion of maternal deaths directly related to Primary PostPartum Haemorrhage (PPPH) is 15 to 25%, despite the different means that the World Health Organization has made available to the providers of Emergency Obstetrical and Neonatal Care (EmONC). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of Primary PostPartum Haemorrhage to improve its management and reduce the rate of maternal deaths. An analytical retrospective study involved 42,728 records, whose data were collected using a chart collection form on the basis of information contained in partograms and other patient records. Sociodemographic variables were expressed using percentage. The relationship between the etiologies of PPPH and certain characteristics of the women was established using the ORs with their 95% confidence intervals. The difference was significant if p < 0.05. The prevalence of PPPH was 1.6%. Delivery haemorrhages accounted for 65.5% of PPPH. The main factors associated with delivery haemorrhages were pauci parity and multiparity (p = 0.003 and 0.051), post-term (p = 0.042), and birth weight >4,000 g (p = 0.006). Those associated with genital tract injuries were young maternal age (p = 0.008) and multiparity (p = 0.028). The most common etiology was haemorrhage from delivery. Multiparity remains the most common risk factor and the young age of the patients. It is important to improve management through better assessment of blood loss in the primary postpartum period as well as capacity building of health providers on EmONC.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Idade Materna , Paridade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2124190, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519768

RESUMO

Importance: Since the emergence of COVID-19 in central China, sub-Saharan African countries, with the exception of South Africa, have been relatively spared during the COVID-19 pandemic. Consequently, few descriptive studies from this region are available. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 infection in Gabon, from March to June 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-center, cross-sectional study of 837 patients with COVID-19 was conducted from March to June 2020 in the Armed Forces Hospital in Libreville, Gabon. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic and clinical characteristics and imaging findings of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Results: Of the 837 patients enrolled, 572 (68.3%) were men, and 264 (31.5%) were women (male to female ratio, 2:1); the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 35 (30-45) years (mean [SD] age, 38.0 [12.2] years. The mortality rate associated with COVID-19 was low (1.4%). Of these 837 patients, 524 (62.6%) were categorized as having no symptoms, 282 (33.7%) as having mild symptoms, and 31 (3.7%) as having severe symptoms. Patients with severe symptoms were older (mean [SD] age, 46.1 [14.7] years) than patients with mild symptoms (mean [SD] age, 41.3 [12.5] years) and those with no symptoms (mean [SD] age, 35.7 [11.3] years) (Kruskal-Wallis χ22 = 53.5; P < .001). History of diabetes was the principal risk factor associated with both severe symptoms in 5 of 31 patients (16.1%) and mild symptoms in 11 of 282 (3.9%) compared with no symptoms in 5 of 524 (0.9%) (Pearson χ22 = 30.9; P < .001). Patients with severe symptoms and a fatal outcome were older (mean [SD] age, 53.4 [15.1] years) than survivors (mean [SD] age, 41.5 [12.9] years) (t20.83 = 2.2; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: In this single-center, cross-sectional study in Libreville, Gabon, the mortality rate associated with COVID-19 infection from March to June 2020 was low, and patients who died of COVID-19 infection were younger on average than reported elsewhere, possibly reflecting a smaller elderly population in Gabon.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009623, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loa loa and Mansonella perstans-the causative agents of loiasis and mansonellosis-are vector-borne filarial parasites co-endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Diagnosis of both infections is usually established by microscopic analysis of blood samples. It was recently established that the odds for detecting Plasmodium spp. is higher in capillary (CAP) blood than in venous (VEN) blood. In analogy to this finding this analysis evaluates potential differences in microfilaraemia of L. loa and M. perstans in samples of CAP and VEN blood. METHODS: Recruitment took place between 2015 and 2019 at the CERMEL in Lambaréné, Gabon and its surrounding villages. Persons of all ages presenting to diagnostic services of the research center around noon were invited to participate in the study. A thick smear of each 10 microliters of CAP and VEN blood was prepared and analysed by a minimum of two independent microscopists. Differences of log2-transformed CAP and VEN microfilaraemia were computed and expressed as percentages. Furthermore, odds ratios for paired data were computed to quantify the odds to detect microfilariae in CAP blood versus in VEN blood. RESULTS: A total of 713 participants were recruited among whom 52% were below 30 years of age, 27% between 30-59 years of age and 21% above 60 years of age. Male-female ratio was 0.84. Among 152 participants with microscopically-confirmed L. loa infection median (IQR) microfilaraemia was 3,650 (275-11,100) per milliliter blood in CAP blood and 2,775 (200-8,875) in VEN blood (p<0.0001), while among 102 participants with M. perstans this was 100 (0-200) and 100 (0-200), respectively (p = 0.44). Differences in linear models amount up to an average of +34.5% (95% CI: +11.0 to +63.0) higher L. loa microfilaria quantity in CAP blood versus VEN blood and for M. perstans it was on average higher by +24.8% (95% CI: +0.0 to +60.5). Concordantly, the odds for detection of microfilaraemia in CAP samples versus VEN samples was 1.24 (95% CI: 0.65-2.34) and 1.65 (95% CI: 1.0-2.68) for infections with L. loa and M. perstans, respectively. CONCLUSION: This analysis indicates that average levels of microfilaraemia of L. loa are higher in CAP blood samples than in VEN blood samples. This might have implications for treatment algorithms of onchocerciasis and loiasis, in which exact quantification of L. loa microfilaraemia is of importance. Furthermore, the odds for detection of M. perstans microfilariae was higher in CAP than in VEN blood which may pre-dispose CAP blood for detection of M. perstans infection in large epidemiological studies when sampling of large blood quantities is not feasible. No solid evidence for a higher odds of L. loa microfilariae detection in CAP blood was revealed, which might be explained by generally high levels of L. loa microfilaraemia in CAP and VEN blood above the limit of detection of 100 microfilariae/ml. Yet, it cannot be excluded that the study was underpowered to detect a moderate difference.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/patologia , Loa/isolamento & purificação , Loíase/patologia , Mansonella/isolamento & purificação , Mansonelose/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Loíase/epidemiologia , Loíase/parasitologia , Masculino , Mansonelose/epidemiologia , Mansonelose/parasitologia , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Parasitária , Parasitemia , Prevalência , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(8)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402781

RESUMO

A previous study conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, in 2010/11 found a high colonization rate with extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing enterobacterales (ESBL-E) among children of ~34 %. Eight years later, we aimed to reassess the ESBL-E rate and previously identified risk factors for colonization in children from Gabon. We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study in 2018 on 92 outpatients under 5 years of age with diarrhoea in Lambaréné, Gabon, in whom a rectal swab was obtained at the initial medical encounter (baseline). Fifty-eight of these provided a further rectal swab 1 week afterwards. ESBL-E colonization was assessed [following the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST)], and in confirmed ESBL-E isolates the susceptibility to meropenem and the prevalence of the most abundant ESBL genes, bla CTX-M, bla SHV, and bla TEM, were investigated. At baseline, the ESBL-E colonization rate was 57 % (52/92; 95 % CI: 46-67). Hospitalization during the previous year, chicken consumption in the past week and young age were identified as independent risk factors for ESBL-E colonization at baseline. On day 7, the ESBL-E carriage rate was 72 % (42/58; 95 % CI: 59-83). All ESBL-E isolates (n=293) were susceptible to meropenem and bla CTX-M was the most frequently detected ß-lactamase gene. The ESBL-E colonization rate among children from Gabon is alarmingly high, with indications of further increase over recent years. While all ESBL-E strains remain currently susceptible to meropenem, in practice no adequate treatment is available locally for severe infections with such isolates. It is thus of the utmost importance to invest in improved hospital infection prevention and control measures to combat ESBL-E effectively.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/fisiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
8.
Primates ; 62(5): 723-734, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218403

RESUMO

Ranging behavior has been studied extensively in eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and western (P. t. verus) chimpanzees, but relatively little is known regarding home ranges of the other two subspecies (P. t. ellioti; P. t. troglodytes). In this study, we determined the home range size and space use of a habituated community (Rekambo) of central chimpanzees living in a habitat mosaic in Loango National Park, Gabon. Data on travel routes were collected during follows between January 2017 and April 2019 (N = 670,616 relocations, collected over 640 days and 5690 h of observation). We used three methods for calculating home range size (minimum convex polygon, kernel density estimation, and biased random bridges). We compare our estimates to those obtained from prior genetic and camera trap studies of the Rekambo community and contrast them with estimates from other chimpanzee communities of the four chimpanzee subspecies. Depending on the methodology used, the home range size of the Rekambo community ranged between 27.64 and 59.03 km2. The location of the center of the home range remained relatively stable over the last decade, while the overall size decreased. The Rekambo home range is, therefore, one of the largest documented so far for chimpanzees outside savannah-woodland habitats. We discuss several explanations, including the presence of savannah, interspecies competition, and intercommunity interactions.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Gabão , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Parques Recreativos
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14673, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282175

RESUMO

Intraspecies violence, including lethal interactions, is a relatively common phenomenon in mammals. Contrarily, interspecies violence has mainly been investigated in the context of predation and received most research attention in carnivores. Here, we provide the first information of two lethal coalitionary attacks of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) on another hominid species, western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), that occur sympatrically in the Loango National Park in Gabon. In both events, the chimpanzees significantly outnumbered the gorillas and victims were infant gorillas. We discuss these observations in light of the two most widely accepted theoretical explanations for interspecific lethal violence, predation and competition, and combinations of the two-intraguild predation and interspecific killing. Given these events meet conditions proposed to trigger coalitional killing of neighbours in chimpanzees, we also discuss them in light of chimpanzees' intraspecific interactions and territorial nature. Our findings may spur further research into the complexity of interspecies interactions. In addition, they may aid in combining field data from extant models with the Pliocene hominid fossil record to better understand behavioural adaptations and interspecific killing in the hominin lineage.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Gorilla gorilla , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Animais Selvagens , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Gabão , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Territorialidade , Violência/psicologia
10.
J Hum Evol ; 158: 103046, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332420

RESUMO

Accentuated lines in dental microstructure are hypothesized to correlate with potentially stressful life history events, but our understanding of when, how and why such accentuated lines form in relation to stressful events is limited. We examined accentuated line formation and life history events in the teeth of three naturally deceased mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx, Cercopithecidae), for whom we had detailed life history information. We determined the ages at formation of accentuated lines in histological tooth sections and used dates of birth and death to calibrate dental histology to calendar time and individual age. We found accentuated lines that matched their mother's resumption of sexual cycles in two individuals, and possibly in the third individual. The subjects also formed lines when their mothers were mate-guarded by males or wounded. Accentuated lines matched the birth of the next sibling in one of two cases. Both females formed accentuated lines when they experienced their own sexual swelling cycles, but lines did not match all sexual swelling cycles. Mate-guarding matched an accentuated line in one case, but not in another. Lines matched all three parturitions in the two females. Changes in alpha male and captures did not consistently coincide with accentuated line formation, but repeated captures were associated with lines. Using simulated data, we show that the observed number of matches between lines and events would be very unlikely under a null hypothesis of random line formation. Our results support the hypothesis that some life history events are physiologically stressful enough to cause accentuated line formation in teeth. They contribute to our understanding of how primate life histories are recorded during dental development and enhance our ability to use teeth to reconstruct life history in the absence of direct observation.


Assuntos
Mandrillus , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Gabão , Masculino , Mandrillus/fisiologia , Paleodontologia , Reprodução
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4505, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301941

RESUMO

By structuring farmers' informal networks of seed exchange, kinship systems play a key role in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity in smallholder farming systems. However, because many crop diseases are propagated through infected germplasm, local seed systems can also facilitate the dissemination of seedborne pathogens. Here, we investigate how the interplay of kinship systems and local networks of germplasm exchange influences the metapopulation dynamics of viruses responsible for the cassava mosaic disease (CMD), a major threat to food security in Africa. Combining anthropological, genetic and plant epidemiological data, we analyzed the genetic structure of local populations of the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), one of the main causal agents of CMD. Results reveal contrasted patterns of viral diversity in patrilineal and matrilineal communities, consistent with local modes of seed exchange. Our results demonstrate that plant virus ecosystems have also a cultural component and that social factors that shape regional seed exchange networks influence the genetic structure of plant virus populations.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/genética , Variação Genética , Manihot/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Agricultura/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Begomovirus/classificação , Begomovirus/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Família , Fazendeiros , Gabão , Geografia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Manihot/classificação , Manihot/virologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Sementes/virologia , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 254-260, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232911

RESUMO

Diarrheal disease is the second most frequent cause of mortality in children younger than 5 years worldwide, causing more than half a million deaths each year. Our knowledge of the epidemiology of potentially pathogenic agents found in children suffering from diarrhea in sub-Saharan African countries is still patchy, and thereby hinders implementation of effective preventative interventions. The lack of cheap, easy-to-use diagnostic tools leads to mostly symptomatic and empirical case management. An observational study with a total of 241 participants was conducted from February 2017 to August 2018 among children younger than 5 years with diarrhea in Lambaréné, Gabon. Clinical and demographic data were recorded, and a stool sample was collected. The samples were examined using a commercial rapid immunoassay to detect Rotavirus/adenovirus, conventional bacterial culture for Salmonella spp., and multiplex real-time PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC)/Shigella. At least one infectious agent was present in 121 of 241 (50%) samples. The most frequently isolated pathogens were EIEC/Shigella and ETEC (54/179; 30.2% and 44/179; 24.6%, respectively), followed by G. lamblia (33/241; 13.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (31/241; 12.9%), and Rotavirus (23/241; 9.5%). Coinfection with multiple pathogens was observed in 33% (40/121) of the positive cases with EIEC/Shigella, ETEC, and Cryptosporidium spp. most frequently identified. Our results provide new insight into the possible causes of diarrheal disease in the Moyen-Ogooué region of Gabon and motivate further research on possible modes of infection and targeted preventive measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
13.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 195(1): 21-29, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286846

RESUMO

This paper describes the essential of the "Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement" Framework (GUMF) Method and Monte Carlo Method (MCM) for propagating uncertainties, with an application to Gabon results obtained during the 2018 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regional intercomparison exercise. The work has shown that the output quantity Hp (10) follows a lognormal distribution. The study has also shown that although the normal distribution does not best approximate the distribution of the output quantity Hp (10), it has been observed that its estimate, the associated standard uncertainty and the coverage interval determined by GUMF and MCM were close, meaning that the application of the GUMF could still be seen as valid. Finally, the results obtained by the two methods are in agreement with International Commission on Radiological Protection and IAEA requirements for overall accuracy.


Assuntos
Energia Nuclear , Proteção Radiológica , Gabão , Método de Monte Carlo , Incerteza
14.
Malar J ; 20(1): 334, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in African countries. It is one of the leading causes of hospital visits and hospitalization in pediatric wards for children under 5 years old. Interestingly however, the economic burden of this disease remains unknown in these endemic countries including Gabon. The purpose of this study is to assess the direct hospital cost for the management of malaria in children under 5 years old at the Libreville University Hospital Centre (CHUL, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Libreville) in Gabon. METHODS: This research work is a retrospective study using a comprehensive review of medical records of patients seen at the CHUL over a two-year period extending from January 2018 through December 2019. The study focused on children under 5 years old, admitted for malaria in the paediatric ward of the CHUL. The analysis targeted specifically direct hospital costs, which excluded salary and wages of health care workers. The monetary currency used in this study was the CFA francs, as that currency is the one used in Central Africa (as reference, 1 Euro = 656 CFA francs). RESULTS: For the set timeframe, 778 patient records matched the study criteria. Thus, out of 778 admitted patients, 58.4% were male while 41.5% were female. Overall, the average age was 13.2 months (± 13.8 months). The total cost incurred by the hospital for the management of these 778 malaria patients was 94,922,925 CFA francs (144,699.58 €), for an average expense per patient topping at 122,008 CFA francs (185.99 €). The highest expenditure items were hospitalizations (44,200,000 CFA francs, 67,378.1 €), followed by drugs (26,394,425 CFA francs, 40,235.4 €) and biomedical examinations (14,036,000 CFA francs, 21,396.34 €). CONCLUSION: The financial burden for managing malaria in the paediatric ward seems to be very high, not only for the hospital, but also for families in spite of the government medical insurance coverage in some cases. These findings bring new insights as to the urgency to develop policies that foster preventive initiatives over curative approaches in the management of malaria in children in endemic countries.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/economia , Malária/economia , Malária/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297784

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to identify the associated factors with cancerous and precancerous lesions of cervix. In Africa, the incidence of uterine cervical neoplasms varies from one region to another, where most women with uterine cervical neoplasms are seen at an advanced stage. For this reason, uterine cervical neoplasms mass screening reduces the incidence and mortality due to this disease, similar to what is being done in Europe. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted. Socio-demographic characteristics, gynaecological-obstetrical history, risk factors, data from visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol, colposcopy impressions and results of cytological analysis were performed. A simple and multiple regression were performed to establish a statistically significant difference between certain factors and the presence of precancerous or cancerous lesions of uterine cervical. In this study, of 63 women diagnosed histologically, 43 had precancerous lesions and 20 had cancerous lesions. we found that being older than 35, having the first intercourse before 18, having an antecedent of STI, being a widow and using of tobacco were risk factors associated with precancerous lesions (p = 0.013 with OR = 3.44 (1.22-9.73), p = 0.009 with OR = 4.07 (1.69-13.08), p < 0.001 with OR = 3.80 (1.94-7.47), p < 0.001 with OR = 9.77 (3.87-24.70) and p < 0.001 with OR = 5.47 (2.60-11.52)) respectively. Only being older than 45, being a widow and using tobacco were risk factors associated with cancerous lesions (p = 0.021 with OR = 2.01 (1.58-3.56), p = 0.02 with OR = 2.96 (2.10-3.87), p = 0.041 with OR = 1.98 (1.46-2.44)) respectively. Among participants diagnosed with uterine cervical neoplasms, there was a significant association with the STI, marital status and smoking. Despite the integration of the detection of precancerous uterine cervical neoplasms lesions into health facilities in Gabon, uterine cervical neoplasms ranks second among women's cancers in terms of incidence and first in terms of mortality.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Gabão , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 354, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases are a serious threat to both public health and animal conservation. Most non-human primates (NHP) are facing the threat of forest loss and fragmentation and are increasingly living in closer spatial proximity to humans. Humans are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) at a high prevalence, and bidirectional infection with NHP has been observed. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, distribution and presence of co-infections of STH in free-ranging gorillas, chimpanzees and other NHP species, and to determine the potential role of these NHP as reservoir hosts contributing to the environmental sustenance of zoonotic nematode infections in forested areas of Cameroon and Gabon. METHODS: A total of 315 faecal samples from six species of NHPs were analysed. We performed PCR amplification, sequencing and maximum likelihood analysis of DNA fragments of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA to detect the presence and determine the genetic diversity of Oesophagostomum spp., Necator spp. and Trichuris spp., and of targeted DNA fragments of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) to detect the presence of Ascaris spp. RESULTS: Necator spp. infections were most common in gorillas (35 of 65 individuals), but also present in chimpanzees (100 of 222 individuals) and in one of four samples from greater spot-nosed monkeys. These clustered with previously described type II and III Necator spp. Gorillas were also the most infected NHP with Oesophagostomum (51/65 individuals), followed by chimpanzees (157/222 individuals), mandrills (8/12 samples) and mangabeys (7/12 samples), with O. stephanostomum being the most prevalent species. Oesophagostomum bifurcum was detected in chimpanzees and a red-capped mangabey, and a non-classified Oesophagostomum species was detected in a mandrill and a red-capped mangabey. In addition, Ternidens deminutus was detected in samples from one chimpanzee and three greater spot-nosed monkeys. A significant relative overabundance of co-infections with Necator and Oesophagostomum was observed in chimpanzees and gorillas. Trichuris sp. was detected at low prevalence in a gorilla, a chimpanzee and a greater spot-nosed monkey. No Ascaris was observed in any of the samples analysed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results on STH prevalence and genetic diversity in NHP from Cameroon and Gabon corroborate those obtained from other wild NHP populations in other African countries. Future research should focus on better identifying, at a molecular level, the species of Necator and Oesophagostomum infecting NHP and determining how human populations may be affected by increased proximity resulting from encroachment into sylvatic STH reservoir habitats.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/transmissão , Helmintos/genética , Primatas/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Primatas/classificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
17.
Primates ; 62(5): 709-722, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138391

RESUMO

Intercommunity competition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) has been widely studied in eastern (P. t. schweinfurthii) and western (P. t. verus) communities. Both subspecies show hostility towards neighboring communities but differ in rates of lethal attacks and female involvement. However, relatively little is known about the territorial behavior of the two other subspecies, central (P. t. troglodytes) and Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzees (P. t. ellioti). Here, we present the first insights into intercommunity interactions of individuals of a community of central chimpanzees living in the Loango National Park in Gabon. The presence of individuals of neighboring communities in the Rekambo home range was assessed using 27 camera traps. Information was compiled on intergroup interactions recorded before (2005-2016) and after (January 2017-June 2019) the habituation of the community. Individuals from neighboring communities entered the core area, where nine out of 16 recorded intercommunity encounters occurred. Males were the main participants in territorial patrols and intercommunity aggressions. Females were part of all six territorial patrols recorded and dependent offspring participated in five patrols. Females were involved in intercommunity aggression in five out of twelve recorded encounters in which there was visual contact between communities. While the intercommunity encounter rate was lower than that reported across most other long-term chimpanzee sites, the annual intercommunity killing rate was among the highest. These results suggest that the frequency of lethal attacks at Loango is comparable to that reported for the eastern subspecies. In contrast, female involvement in intercommunity interactions mirrors that of the western subspecies.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Feminino , Gabão , Homicídio , Masculino , Parques Recreativos
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009511, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in Africa. Praziquantel is effective against adult schistosomes but leaves prepatent stages unaffected-which is a limit to patient management and elimination. Given the large-scale use of praziquantel, development of drug resistance by Schistosoma is feared. Antimalarials are promising drugs for alternative treatment strategies of Schistosoma infections. Development of drugs with activity against both malaria and schistosomiasis is particularly appealing as schistosome infections often occur concomitantly with malaria parasites in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, antiplasmodial compounds were progressively tested against Schistosoma in vitro, in mice, and in a clinical study. RESULTS: Amongst 16 drugs and 1 control tested, pyronaridine, methylene blue and 5 other antimalarials were highly active in vitro against larval stage schistosomula with a 50% inhibitory concentration below 10 µM. Both drugs were lethal to ex vivo adult worms tested at 30 µM with methylene blue also active at 10 µM. Pyronaridine treatment of mice infected with S. mansoni at the prepatent stage reduced worm burden by 82% and cured 7 out of 12 animals, however in mice adult stages remained viable. In contrast, methylene blue inhibited adult worms by 60% but cure was not achieved. In an observational pilot trial in Gabon in children, the antimalarial drug combination pyronaridine-artesunate (Pyramax) reduced S. haematobium egg excretion from 10/10 ml urine to 0/10 ml urine, and 3 out of 4 children were cured. CONCLUSION: Pyronaridine and methylene blue warrant further investigation as candidates for schistosomiasis treatment. Both compounds are approved for human use and evidence for their potential as antischistosomal compounds can be obtained directly from clinical testing. Particularly, pyronaridine-artesunate, already available as an antimalarial drug, calls for further clinical evaluation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03201770.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artesunato/farmacologia , Criança , Combinação de Medicamentos , Gabão , Humanos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Camundongos , Schistosoma haematobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 370, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173067

RESUMO

Gabon buck is a breed with little marked seasonality in our latitude (Uruguay, 35° SL). The role of thyroid hormones on the regulation of their seasonal reproductive activity and sperm cryoresistance is unknown. Seasonal changes in testosterone concentration can affect sperm variables, but the influence of testosterone changes on sperm cryoresistance in other species determines that the recommended time for freezing sperm does not coincide with the period with greater sperm fresh quality. The objectives of the present work were to (i) describe the thyroxine seasonal pattern in bucks in a subtropical area, and its association with annual changes in sperm variables; (ii) relate the seasonal changes of testosterone and thyroxine concentrations with the sperm cryoresistance. For one year, semen of 10 adult Gabon bucks was collected by electroejaculation every two weeks. After sperm selection, the sample was frozen. Testosterone and thyroxine concentrations varied according to the month (P < 0.0001). Testosterone reached the greatest values in April (P < 0.0001) and May (P < 0.0001) and thyroxine reached minimum values (P < 0.0001) in the same months. During these months, a negative correlation ratio (CR) was found between testosterone concentration and CR-functional membrane (R = - 0.50; P < 0.0001). CR values for most sperm variables decreased during March-May, coinciding with the presence of maximum testosterone concentrations. In conclusion, high testosterone levels are associated with the worst sperm response to freezing-thawing process. Thyroxine concentrations have a strong seasonal pattern, but there was no relationship to sperm cryoresistance.


Assuntos
Testosterona , Tiroxina , Animais , Gabão , Cabras , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1244-1253, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085899

RESUMO

ABSTRACTThe two main Zika virus (ZIKV) vectors, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (invasive and native species, respectively), are present in Gabon (Central Africa). The aim of this study was to determine the entomological ZIKV risk associated with these mosquito species in Gabon by evaluating their vector competence for an African (i.e. representative of the endemic strains circulating in sub-Saharan Africa) and two Asian (i.e. representatives of exogenous epidemic strains that could be introduced) ZIKV strains. The transmission efficiency of one Ae. aegypti and two Ae. albopictus field-collected populations from Libreville and Franceville was assayed at day 7, 14 and 21 after experimental oral infection. The two mosquito species could transmit all three ZIKV strains already at day 7 post-infection, but transmission efficiency was higher for the African strain than the non-African strains (>60% versus <14%; incubation period of 14-21 days). The two mosquito species exhibited comparable vector competence for ZIKV, although the amount of viral particles (African strain) in saliva was significantly higher in Ae. albopictus than Ae. aegypti at day 14 post-infection. These findings suggest that overall, ZIKV risk in Gabon is mainly related to virus strains that circulate endemically across sub-Saharan Africa, although the transmission of non-African strains remain possible in case of introduction. Due to its high infestation indexes and ecological/geographical ranges, this risk appears mainly associated with Ae. albopictus. Vector surveillance and control methods against this invasive mosquito must be strengthened in the region to limit the risk of future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/fisiologia , África ao Sul do Saara , Animais , Ásia , Gabão , Saliva/virologia , Carga Viral , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...