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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679534

RESUMO

Head-worn displays (HWDs) as timely condition monitoring are increasingly used in aviation. However, interface design characteristics that mainly affect HWD use have not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of several important interface design characteristics (i.e., the distance between calibration lines and the layouts of vertical and horizontal scale belts) on task performance and user preference between different conditions of display, i.e., HWD or head-up display (HUD). Thirty participants joined an experiment in which they performed flight tasks. In the experiment, the calibration lines' distance was set to three different levels (7, 9 and 11 mrad), and the scale belt layouts included horizontal and vertical scale belt layouts. The scale belts were set as follows: the original vertical scale belt width was set as L, and the horizontal scale belt height as H. The three layouts of the vertical calibration scale belt used were 3/4H, H and 3H/2. Three layouts of horizontal calibration scale belts were selected as 3L/4, L and 3L/2. The results indicated that participants did better with the HWD compared to the HUD. Both layouts of vertical and horizontal scale belts yielded significant effects on the users' task performance and preference. Users showed the best task performance while the vertical calibration scale belts were set as H and horizontal calibration scale belts were set as L, and users generally preferred interface design characteristics that could yield an optimal performance. These findings could facilitate the optimal design of usable head-worn-display technology.


Assuntos
Aviação , Óculos Inteligentes , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Interface Usuário-Computador , Cabeça
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679671

RESUMO

Recent advances in mobile technology have shown that augmented unisensory feedback can be leveraged to improve gait using wearable systems, but less is known about the possible benefits and usability of multisensory (i.e., multimodal) feedback. This paper introduces the preliminary results of an innovative research project aiming to develop an mHealth system including Android smart glasses, and providing multisensory cues for gait rehabilitation of people affected by Parkinson's disease in and out of the medical context. In particular, the paper describes a preliminary pilot focusing on the design of visual, auditory, and haptic cues, and testing the design methodologies to be used in further developments of the project. Considered research questions were: Which kinds of images, sounds, and vibrations mostly influence gait speed, stride length, and cadence? Which are the ones stressing the user the least? Which ones induce the most immediate reaction? Thus, in this starting part of the research project, different typologies of sensory cues were designed, tested, and evaluated considering quantitative and qualitative parameters to properly answer the research questions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha , Óculos Inteligentes , Humanos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Marcha , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Velocidade de Caminhada
3.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103597, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598078

RESUMO

Head Mounted Display (HMD) based Augmented Reality (AR) is being increasingly used in manufacturing and maintenance. However, limited research has been done to understand user interaction with AR interfaces, which may lead to poor usability, risk of occupational hazards, and low acceptance of AR systems. This paper uses a theoretically-driven approach to interaction design to investigate the impact of different AR modalities in terms of information mode (i.e. video vs. 3D animation) and interaction modality (i.e. hand-gesture vs. voice command) on user performance, workload, eye gaze behaviours, and usability during a maintenance assembly task. The results show that different information modes have distinct impacts compared to paper-based maintenance, in particular, 3D animation led to a 14% improvement over the video instructions in task completion time. Moreover, insights from eye gaze behaviours such as number of fixations and transition between Areas of Interest (AOIs) revealed the differences in attention switching and task comprehension difficulty with the choice of AR modalities. While, subjective user perceptions highlight some ergonomic issues such as misguidance and overreliance, which must be considered and addressed from the joint cognitive systems' (JCSs) perspective and in line with the predictions derived from the Multiple Resources Model.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Óculos Inteligentes , Cognição , Ergonomia , Fixação Ocular , Humanos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(23)2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502188

RESUMO

Head-mounted displays are virtual reality devices that may be equipped with sensors and cameras to measure a patient's heart rate through facial regions. Heart rate is an essential body signal that can be used to remotely monitor users in a variety of situations. There is currently no study that predicts heart rate using only highlighted facial regions; thus, an adaptation is required for beats per minute predictions. Likewise, there are no datasets containing only the eye and lower face regions, necessitating the development of a simulation mechanism. This work aims to remotely estimate heart rate from facial regions that can be captured by the cameras of a head-mounted display using state-of-the-art EVM-CNN and Meta-rPPG techniques. We developed a region of interest extractor to simulate a dataset from a head-mounted display device using stabilizer and video magnification techniques. Then, we combined support vector machine and FaceMash to determine the regions of interest and adapted photoplethysmography and beats per minute signal predictions to work with the other techniques. We observed an improvement of 188.88% for the EVM and 55.93% for the Meta-rPPG. In addition, both models were able to predict heart rate using only facial regions as input. Moreover, the adapted technique Meta-rPPG outperformed the original work, whereas the EVM adaptation produced comparable results for the photoplethysmography signal.


Assuntos
Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Frequência Cardíaca , Fotopletismografia/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina
5.
JASA Express Lett ; 2(10): 105202, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319214

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether head-mounted displays (HMDs) change the sidetone to an auditory perceivable extent. Impulse responses (IRs) were recorded using a dummy head wearing a HMD (IRtest) and compared to IRs measured without HMD (IRref). Ten naive listeners were tested on their ability to discriminate between the IRtest and IRref using convolved speech signals. The spectral analysis showed that the HMDs decreased the spectral energy of the sidetone around 2000-4500 Hz. Most listeners were able to discriminate between the IRs. It is concluded that HMDs change the sidetone to a small but perceivable extent.


Assuntos
Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Cabeça , Percepção
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366030

RESUMO

Recent years have witnessed an increasing interest in deploying state-of-the-art augmented reality (AR) head-mounted displays (HMDs) for agri-food applications. The benefits of AR HMDs to agri-food industry stakeholders (e.g., food suppliers, retail/food service) have received growing attention and recognition. AR HMDs enable users to make healthier dietary choices, experience novel changes in their perception of taste, enhance the cooking and food shopping experience, improve productivity at work and enhance the implementation of precision farming. Therefore, although development costs are still high, the case for integration of AR in food chains appears to be compelling. This review will present the most recent developments of AR HMDs for agri-food relevant applications. The summarized applications can be clustered into different themes: (1) dietary and food nutrition assessment; (2) food sensory science; (3) changing the eating environment; (4) retail food chain applications; (5) enhancing the cooking experience; (6) food-related training and learning; and (7) food production and precision farming. Limitations of current practices will be highlighted, along with some proposed applications.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Óculos Inteligentes , Atenção , Aprendizagem
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20235, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424434

RESUMO

Virtual reality (VR) head mounted displays (HMDs) require both high spatial resolution and fast temporal response. However, methods to quantify the VR image quality in the spatiotemporal domain when motion exists are not yet standardized. In this study, we characterize the spatiotemporal capabilities of three VR devices: the HTC VIVE, VIVE Pro, and VIVE Pro 2 during smooth pursuit. A spatiotemporal model for VR HMDs is presented using measured spatial and temporal characteristics. Among the three evaluated headsets, the VIVE Pro 2 improves the display temporal performance using a fast 120 Hz refresh rate and pulsed emission with a small duty cycle of 5%. In combination with a high pixel resolution beyond 2 k [Formula: see text] 2 k per eye, the VIVE Pro 2 achieves an improved spatiotemporal performance compared to the VIVE and VIVE Pro in the high spatial frequency range above 8 cycles per degree during smooth pursuit. The result demonstrates that reducing the display emission duty cycle to less than 20% is beneficial to mitigate motion blur in VR HMDs. Frame rate reduction (e.g., to below 60 Hz) of the input signal compared to the display refresh rate of 120 Hz yields replicated shadow images that can affect the image quality under motion. This work supports the regulatory science research efforts in development of testing methods to characterize the spatiotemporal performance of VR devices for medical use.


Assuntos
Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Movimento (Física) , Povidona , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298254

RESUMO

Virtual reality (VR) is a well-established technology in medicine. Head-mounted displays (HMDs) have made VR more accessible in many branches of medical research. However, its application in balance evaluation has been vague, and comprehensive literature on possible applications of VR in posture measurement is scarce. The aim of this review is to conduct a literature search on the application of immersive VR delivered using a head-mounted display in posturographic measurements. A systematic search of two databases, PubMed and Scopus, using the keywords "virtual reality" and "posturography," was performed following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. Initial search results returned 89 non-duplicate records. Two reviewers independently screened the abstracts. Sixteen papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria and were selected for complete text retrieval. An additional 16 records were identified from citation searching. Ultimately, 21 studies were included in this review. virtual reality is often used as additional visual stimuli in static and dynamic posturography evaluation. Only one study has attempted to evaluate a VR environment in a head-mounted display as an independent method in the assessment of posture. Further research should be conducted to assess HMD VR as a standalone posturography replacement.


Assuntos
Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Postura
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Endotracheal intubation and central venous catheterization are essential procedures in clinical practice. Simulation-based technology such as smart glasses has been used to facilitate medical students' training on these procedures. We investigated medical students' self-assessed efficacy and satisfaction regarding the practice and training of these procedures with smart glasses in Taiwan. METHODS: This observational study enrolled 145 medical students in the 5th and 6th years participating in clerkships at Taipei Veterans General Hospital between October 2020 and December 2021. Students were divided into the smart glasses or the control group and received training at a workshop. The primary outcomes included students' pre- and post-intervention scores for self-assessed efficacy and satisfaction with the training tool, instructor's teaching, and the workshop. RESULTS: The pre-intervention scores for self-assessed efficacy of 5th- and 6th-year medical students in endotracheal intubation and central venous catheterization procedures showed no significant difference. The post-intervention score of self-assessed efficacy in the smart glasses group was better than that of the control group. Moreover, 6th-year medical students in the smart glasses group showed higher satisfaction with the training tool, instructor's teaching, and workshop than those in the control group. CONCLUSION: Smart glasses served as a suitable simulation tool for endotracheal intubation and central venous catheterization procedures training in medical students. Medical students practicing with smart glasses showed improved self-assessed efficacy and higher satisfaction with training, especially for procedural steps in a space-limited field. Simulation training on procedural skills with smart glasses in 5th-year medical students may be adjusted to improve their satisfaction.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central , Óculos Inteligentes , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Grupos Controle , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Satisfação Pessoal , Taiwan
10.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 28(11): 3759-3766, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048994

RESUMO

Stereoscopic AR and VR headsets have displays and lenses that are either fixed or adjustable to match a limited range of user inter-pupillary distances (IPDs). Projective geometry predicts a misperception of depth when either the displays or virtual cameras used to render images are misaligned with the eyes. However, misalignment between the eyes and lenses might also affect binocular convergence, which could further distort perceived depth. This possibility has been largely ignored in previous studies. Here, we evaluated this phenomenon in a VR headset in which the inter-lens and inter-axial camera separations are coupled and adjustable. In a baseline condition, both were matched to observers' IPDs. In two other conditions, the inter-lens and inter-axial camera separations were set to the maximum and minimum allowed by the headset. In each condition, observers were instructed to adjust a fold created by two intersecting, textured surfaces until it appeared to have an angle of 90°. The task was performed at three randomly interleaved viewing distances, monocularly and binocularly. In the monocular condition, observers underestimated the fold angle and there was no effect of viewing distance on their settings. In the binocular conditions, we found that when the lens and camera separation were less than the viewer's IPD, they exhibited compression of perceived slant relative to baseline. The reverse pattern was seen when the lens and camera separation were larger than the viewer's IPD. These results were well explained by a geometric model that considers shifts in convergence due to lens and display misalignment with the eyes, as well as the relative contribution of monocular cues.


Assuntos
Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Percepção de Profundidade , Gráficos por Computador , Pupila
11.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 28(11): 3651-3661, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048995

RESUMO

Networks are an important means for the representation and analysis of data in a variety of research and application areas. While there are many efficient methods to create layouts for networks to support their visual analysis, approaches for the comparison of networks are still underexplored. Especially when it comes to the comparison of weighted networks, which is an important task in several areas, such as biology and biomedicine, there is a lack of efficient visualization approaches. With the availability of affordable high-quality virtual reality (VR) devices, such as head-mounted displays (HMDs), the research field of immersive analytics emerged and showed great potential for using the new technology for visual data exploration. However, the use of immersive technology for the comparison of networks is still underexplored. With this work, we explore how weighted networks can be visually compared in an immersive VR environment and investigate how visual representations can benefit from the extended 3D design space. For this purpose, we develop different encodings for 3D node-link diagrams supporting the visualization of two networks within a single representation and evaluate them in a pilot user study. We incorporate the results into a more extensive user study comparing node-link representations with matrix representations encoding two networks simultaneously. The data and tasks designed for our experiments are similar to those occurring in real-world scenarios. Our evaluation shows significantly better results for the node-link representations, which is contrary to comparable 2D experiments and indicates a high potential for using VR for the visual comparison of networks.


Assuntos
Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Gráficos por Computador , Projetos Piloto
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15729, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131126

RESUMO

Smart glasses for augmented reality are digital technology under investigation in the agricultural sector. The potential of augmented reality was underlined, in some scientific contributions, as a support tool for farmers' activities and for the decision-making process. One of the most practical applications studied for augmented reality was in maintenance operations, where the use of smart glasses showed high capability. This work focuses on the evaluation of the performance and applicability of smart glasses with a video see-through display system and testing the device's available functions in agricultural frameworks. In addition, an augmented assistance scenario describing the main steps involved in the functioning of the maintenance operation was developed for milking machine inspection. The audio-video quality, battery life, detection capabilities of markers, and voice control interaction system were evaluated. The results showed the capabilities of smart glasses to reach augmented information from a long distance in a short time interval and to transmit audio and video with a high level of detail, allowing discrimination of small objects during remote assistance with reduced delay. The built maintenance scenario represents an example of augmented reality digital assistance application in the inspection and maintenance of the milking machine. The device performance and the proposed maintenance scenario underline the potential that augmented reality could have in the agricultural sector to assist and guide both farmers and technicians to timely problem solving. This solution fits into the agriculture 4.0 perspective, which is increasingly focused on digital transformation to improve farms' efficiency and sustainability.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Óculos Inteligentes , Óculos
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 2556-2559, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086474

RESUMO

In our aging world, the need to measure and evaluate motor and cognitive functions and to automate physical and occupational therapy will increase in the future. Many studies on VR-based rehabilitation systems are already underway. However, there are some issues such as the risk of falling or crashing due to the complete blockage of visual information, VR sickness, and lack of reality. The purpose of this research is to develop a system that simultaneously measures and evaluates multiple abilities and functions, such as motor function, cognitive function, and prediction ability, by using mixed reality (MR) smartglasses technology that enables interaction with spatially arranged objects while maintaining real-world information. In this study, we focused on the motor function of the upper limbs and cognitive function, and measured finger and gaze movements during a reaching task. In addition, we developed a game-based task for occupational therapy in a MR environment and reported the results.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Óculos Inteligentes , Cognição , Extremidade Superior , Interface Usuário-Computador
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(16)2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36015929

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in using virtual reality (VR) to (re)create different scenarios and environments with interactive and immersive experiences. Although VR has been popular in the tourism sector to reconfigure tourists' relationships with places and overcome mobility restrictions, its usage in senior cyclotourism has been understudied. VR is suggested to positively impact tourism promotion, cycling simulation, and active and healthy ageing due to physical and mental rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to assess the senior citizens' perceived experience and attitudes toward a designed 360° VR cyclotouristic experiment, using a head-mounted display (HMD) setting within a laboratory context. A total of 76 participants aged between 50 and 97 years old were involved in convergent parallel mixed-method research, and data were collected using a questionnaire based on the technology acceptance model, as well as the researchers' field notes. Findings suggest that 360° VR with HMD can be an effective assistive technology to foster senior cyclotourism by promoting tourism sites, simulating the cycling pedaling effect, and improving senior citizens' general wellbeing and independence with physical and mental rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Assistiva , Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turismo
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(16)2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36015973

RESUMO

Head-mounted display (HMD) virtual reality devices can facilitate positive experiences such as co-presence and deep immersion; however, motion sickness (MS) due to these experiences hinders the development of the VR industry. This paper proposes a method for assessing MS caused by watching VR content on an HMD using cardiac features. Twenty-eight undergraduate volunteers participated in the experiment by watching VR content on a 2D screen and HMD for 12 min each, and their electrocardiogram signals were measured. Cardiac features were statistically analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The proposed model for classifying MS was implemented in various classifiers using significant cardiac features. The results of ANCOVA reveal a significant difference between 2D and VR viewing conditions, and the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings and cardiac features have significant results in the range of -0.377 to -0.711 (for SDNN, pNN50, and ln HF) and 0.653 to 0.677 (for ln VLF and ln VLF/ln HF ratio). Among the MS classification models, the linear support vector machine achieves the highest average accuracy of 91.1% (10-fold cross validation) and has a significant permutation test outcome. The proposed method can contribute to quantifying MS and establishing viewer-friendly VR by determining its qualities.


Assuntos
Enjoo devido ao Movimento , Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Humanos
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(15)2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35957348

RESUMO

Over the last decade, virtual reality (VR) has become an increasingly accessible commodity. Head-mounted display (HMD) immersive technologies allow researchers to simulate experimental scenarios that would be unfeasible or risky in real life. An example is extreme heights exposure simulations, which can be utilized in research on stress system mobilization. Until recently, electroencephalography (EEG)-related research was focused on mental stress prompted by social or mathematical challenges, with only a few studies employing HMD VR techniques to induce stress. In this study, we combine a state-of-the-art EEG wearable device and an electrocardiography (ECG) sensor with a VR headset to provoke stress in a high-altitude scenarios while monitoring EEG and ECG biomarkers in real time. A robust pipeline for signal clearing is implemented to preprocess the noise-infiltrated (due to movement) EEG data. Statistical and correlation analysis is employed to explore the relationship between these biomarkers with stress. The participant pool is divided into two groups based on their heart rate increase, where statistically important EEG biomarker differences emerged between them. Finally, the occipital-region band power changes and occipital asymmetry alterations were found to be associated with height-related stress and brain activation in beta and gamma bands, which correlates with the results of the self-reported Perceived Stress Scale questionnaire.


Assuntos
Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Altitude , Eletrocardiografia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954820

RESUMO

Improving the mental health of urban residents is a global public health priority. This study builds on existing work that demonstrates the ability of virtual exposure to restorative environments to improve population mental health. It compares the restorative effects of green, blue and historic environments delivered by both flat screen and immersive virtual reality technology, and triangulates data from psychological, physiological and qualitative sources. Results from the subjective measure analyses showed that exposures to all the experimental videos were associated with self-reported reduced anxiety and improved mood, although the historic environment was associated with a smaller reduction of anxiety (p < 0.01). These results were supported by the qualitative accounts. For two of the electroencephalography (EEG) frequency bands, higher levels of activity were observed for historic environments. In relation to the mode of delivery, the subjective measures did not suggest any effect, while for the EEG analyses there was evidence of a significant effect of technology across three out of four frequency bands. In conclusion, this study adds to the evidence that the benefits of restorative environments can be delivered through virtual exposure and suggests that virtual reality may provide greater levels of immersion than flat screen viewing.


Assuntos
Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Saúde Mental
18.
Neurosurg Focus ; 52(6): E4, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Telemedicine technology has been developed to allow surgeons in countries with limited resources to access expert technical guidance during surgical procedures. The authors report their initial experience using state-of-the-art wearable smart glasses with wireless capability to transmit intraoperative video content during spine surgery from sub-Saharan Africa to experts in the US. METHODS: A novel smart glasses system with integrated camera and microphone was worn by a spine surgeon in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, during 3 scoliosis correction surgeries. The images were transmitted wirelessly through a compatible software system to a computer viewed by a group of fellowship-trained spine surgeons in New York City. Visual clarity was determined using a modified Snellen chart, and a percentage score was determined on the smallest line that could be read from the 8-line chart on white and black backgrounds. A 1- to 5-point scale (from 1 = unrecognizable to 5 = optimal clarity) was used to score other visual metrics assessed using a color test card including hue, contrast, and brightness. The same scoring system was used by the group to reach a consensus on visual quality of 3 intraoperative points including instruments, radiographs (ability to see pedicle screws relative to bony anatomy), and intraoperative surgical field (ability to identify bony landmarks such as transverse processes, pedicle screw starting point, laminar edge). RESULTS: All surgeries accomplished the defined goals safely with no intraoperative complications. The average download and upload connection speeds achieved in Dar es Salaam were 45.21 and 58.89 Mbps, respectively. Visual clarity with the modified white and black Snellen chart was 70.8% and 62.5%, respectively. The average scores for hue, contrast, and brightness were 2.67, 3.33, and 2.67, respectively. Visualization quality of instruments, radiographs, and intraoperative surgical field were 3.67, 1, and 1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Application of smart glasses for telemedicine offers a promising tool for surgical education and remote training, especially in low- and middle-income countries. However, this study highlights some limitations of this technology, including optical resolution, intraoperative lighting, and internet connection challenges. With continued collaboration between clinicians and industry, future iterations of smart glasses technology will need to address these issues to stimulate robust clinical utilization.


Assuntos
Óculos Inteligentes , Países em Desenvolvimento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Tanzânia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886402

RESUMO

Blink rate, a major physiological response in humans, directly affects ocular diseases such as keratitis and dry eye. The blink rate in normal eyes appears at a constant frequency of 6-30 times per minute and is constant for each individual. In a previous study, the blink rate decreased when viewing content with high intensity and realism. Therefore, we tried to investigate the change in blink rate when viewing the content in VR HMD (virtual reality head-mounted display) and AR (augmented reality) glasses environments. We compared and analyzed the blink rate in four environments: natural state, viewing monitor, viewing VR HMD, and viewing AR glasses. Twenty-one participants (age, 26.87 ± 3.31 years) viewed the content for 1 min in four environments. One-way repeated ANOVA was used to analyze the blink rate changes. The study showed that the blink rate was decreased in the monitor, VR HMD, and AR glasses environments compared to that in the natural environment. Comparing the VR HMD environment with the AR glasses environment showed that the blink rate decreased in the VR HMD environment. The results of this study can be used for content use safety recommendations (guidelines for safe use of contents due to decreased blink rate) in the VR HMD and AR glasses environments, which are currently attracting attention in the metaverse.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Atenção , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 579, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of head mounted display (HMD)-based immersive virtual reality (VR) coaching systems (HMD-VRC) is expected to be effective for skill acquisition in radiography. The usefulness of HMD-VRC has been reported in many previous studies. However, previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of HMD-VRC only through questionnaires. HMD-VRC has difficulties in palpation and patient interaction compared to real-world training. It is expected that these issues will have an impact on proficiency. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of VR constraints in HMD-VRC, especially palpation and patient interaction, on radiographic skills proficiency in a real-world setting. METHODS: First-year students (n = 30) at a training school for radiology technologists in Japan were randomly divided into two groups, one using HMD-VRC (HMD-VRC group) and the other practicing with conventional physical equipment (RP group) and trained for approximately one hour. The teachers then evaluated the students for proficiency using a rubric method. RESULTS: In this study, it was found that some skills in the HMD-VRC group were equivalent to those of the RP group and some were significantly lower than those of the RP group. There was a significant decrease in proficiency in skills related to palpation and patient interaction. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that HMD-VRC can be less effective than real-world training in radiographic techniques, which require palpation and patient interaction. For effective training, it is important to objectively evaluate proficiency in the real world, even for HMD-VRC with new technologies, such as haptic presentation and VR patient interaction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was conducted with the approval of the Ethics Committee of International University of Health and Welfare (Approval No.21-Im-035, Registration date: September 28, 2021).


Assuntos
Radiografia , Radiologia , Realidade Virtual , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Radiologia/educação , Óculos Inteligentes
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