Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.507
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150042, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525709

RESUMO

Although four major natural estrogens (i.e., estrone (E1), 17ß-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and 17α-estradiol (αE2)) have been commonly found in livestock urine, this study reports the occurrence of eight other less-studied natural estrogens in urine of swine and cattle, i.e. 2-hydroxyestone (2OHE1), 4-hydroxyestrone (4OHE1), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2OHE2), 4-hydroxyestradiol (4OHE2), 16-epiestriol (16epiE3), 16α-hydroxyestrone (16αE1), 16-ketoestradiol (16ketoE2), and 17epiestriol (17epiE3). Results showed that each estrogen was found in at least one urine sample, and 6 of 8 the less-studied estrogens were present at frequencies of ≥90% in boars, ≥70% in sows, and ≥50% in dairy cattle. Five of eight the less-studied estrogens were present at frequencies of ≥33.3% in four beef cattle and one bull. On a concentration basis, the 8 less-studied natural estrogens represented 73.2%, 85.2%, 39.9%, 47.7%, 26.9%, 56.0% and 44.1% of total concentrations of the twelve natural estrogens when combining data from all animals. Similar results were observed based on estrogen equivalence, which indicated these newly detected eight less-studied natural estrogens were not negligible. This work is the first to figure out the importance of these less-studied natural estrogens in livestock urine, and their potential environmental risks associated with discharge of livestock wastewater should be urgently assessed in a holistic manner.


Assuntos
Estrogênios , Estrona , Animais , Bovinos , Estradiol , Feminino , Gado , Masculino , Suínos , Águas Residuárias
2.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113766, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731965

RESUMO

Stocking rate and rangeland area are key variables to provide the livelihood of herders in different climatic zones. To evaluate the economic and ecological management of pastoral units, this study aims to determine the optimal economic size of pastoral units for livestock grazing use considering the ecological capacity of semi-arid rangelands in different climatic scenarios. Therefore, 12 pastoral units (an area of 47,355 ha) were selected in two climatic zones (summer and winter rangelands) in the Kalat region of Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. By measuring forage production, carrying capacity was calculated. Based on the results, the costs of traditional livestock management in winter rangelands are higher than those of summer rangelands. Moreover, the current size of the assigned rangeland, especially the summer rangeland, is lower than that of the economic justification. The results emphasize that rangeland-based livestock husbandry cannot create a good livelihood for herders in the region, and it is necessary to pay special attention to other services and aspects, despite the existing ecological and socio-economic complexities. In this regard, providing multi-purpose rangeland use and useable technologies to better manage these areas is necessary to increase per capita household income and reduce the stocking rate in the region's rangelands. Ultimately, both increasing the level of available rangelands and reducing costs by applying new technology are required, as is the economic consideration of pastoral units by using rangelands for multiple purposes.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Gado , Animais , Irã (Geográfico) , Estações do Ano
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150309, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562755

RESUMO

An optimized aerobic-based treatment method that effectively removes antibiotics and retains ammonia is urgently needed for the field-return-based management of livestock wastewater. Allylthiourea (ATU, used for BOD determination), and 2-chloro-6-trichloromethylpyridine (TCMP) and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) (commonly used as nitrogen fertilizer synergists) were separately added to sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), in order to investigate their effect on nitrification inhibition and pollutant removal for livestock wastewater treatment. The laboratory test shows that the daily addition of 43.8 mg/L ATU or 17.5 mg/L TCMP to SBRs effectively inhibited nitrification. Nitrification inhibition by DMPP seemed fluctuated and insufficient even various dosing strategies were attempted. The removal efficiency of antibiotics was reduced from 95% to 85% with the addition of ATU, while not significantly influenced by TCMP and DMPP. The COD removal efficiency was reduced by only 6%-10% with the addition of three inhibitors. The pilot study shows that nitrification inhibition efficiency reached 89% with the daily addition of 11.5 mg/L TCMP. The total removal efficiency of antibiotics remained over 93%. The laboratory and pilot studies consistently demonstrate that TCMP played a satisfactory nitrification inhibition role and had a negligible effect on antibiotic removal. The current work provides a novel insight for the proper field-return-based management of livestock wastewater, which achieves the dual goals of reducing the risk of antibiotic exposure and preserving its nutrient value as fertilizers.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Antibacterianos , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Gado , Nitrogênio , Projetos Piloto
4.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106178, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627757

RESUMO

The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis is high in many livestock areas of Peru, where intermediate hosts such as sheep, cattle, and South American camelids can be infected. Several species of E. granulosus have been described in relation to its genetic diversity and distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the species of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) metacestodes collected from sheep, cattle, swine and camelids at different localities in the department of Puno, in the southern highlands of Peru. One hundred and fifty-two echinococcal cysts were collected from 10 different locations. E. granulosus s.l. species were determined by amplification of the Internal transcribed spacer 1 of the ribosomal DNA using a Nested PCR-RFLP technique. The cytochrome C oxidase 1 gene (450 bp) was also amplified and sequenced in samples with different RFLP patterns. Cysts samples were collected from sheep (39.5%), cattle (32.9%), pigs (15.8%) and alpacas/llamas (11.8%). E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype) was mainly identified in all animal hosts, while, the E. canadensis (G7) was only identified in cysts from pigs and alpacas. This is the first report of E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. canadensis in llamas and alpacas, respectively. Knowledge of species and molecular epidemiology of E. granulosus s.l. in endemic areas in Peru may help to evaluate preventive programs, understand disease transmission, as well as improve vaccine and chemotherapy effectiveness.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus , Animais , Bovinos , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Genótipo , Gado , Peru/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Suínos
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 279-297, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807447

RESUMO

Recombinant proteins are essential for the treatment and diagnosis of clinical human ailments. The availability and biological activity of recombinant proteins is heavily influenced by production platforms. Conventional production platforms such as yeast, bacteria, and mammalian cells have biological and economical challenges. Transgenic livestock species have been explored as an alternative production platform for recombinant proteins, predominantly through milk secretion; the strategy has been demonstrated to produce large quantities of biologically active proteins. The major limitation of utilizing livestock species as bioreactors has been efforts required to alter the genome of livestock. Advancements in the genome editing field have drastically improved the ability to genetically engineer livestock species. Specifically, genome editing tools such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system have lowered efforts required to generate genetically engineered livestock, thus minimizing restrictions on the type of genetic modification in livestock. In this review, we discuss characteristics of transgenic animal bioreactors and how the use of genome editing systems enhances design and availability of the animal models.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Edição de Genes , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Gado
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 315-333, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807449

RESUMO

Livestock have contributed significantly to advances in biomedicine and offer unique advantages over rodent models. The human is the ideal biomedical model; however, ethical reasons limit the testing of hypotheses and treatments in humans. Rodent models are frequently used as alternatives to humans due to size, low cost, and ease of genetic manipulation, and have contributed tremendously to our understanding of human health and disease. However, the use of rodents in translational research pose challenges for researchers due to physiological differences to humans. The use of livestock species as biomedical models can address these challenges as livestock have several similarities to human anatomy, physiology, genetics, and metabolism and their larger size permits collection of more frequent and often larger samples. Additionally, recent advances in genetics in livestock species allow for studies in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, which have the added benefit of applications to both humans in biomedical research and livestock in improving production. In this review, we provide an overview of scientific findings using livestock and benefits of each model to the livestock industry and to biomedical research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Gado , Animais , Genômica , Metabolômica , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 542, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762182

RESUMO

Proper implementation of biosecurity is currently the only control measure of African swine fever (ASF) in the absence of an effective vaccine or drug against the disease. Despite the efforts that Uganda's local and central governments have invested to reduce livestock diseases, ASF outbreaks still persist in the country. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of community-led initiatives in the control of ASF in Mukono District, central Uganda. In Mukono district, a community-led pilot program was initiated where stakeholders in the pig value chain organized themselves into an ASF control task force to enforce on-farm and pig value chain activities intended to limit the spread of ASF. Semi-structured interviews with pig famers (n = 211) were conducted in two areas with contrasting practices: one with active community-initiated and monitored ASF control initiatives since 2016 (Kasawo and Namuganga) and the other without such initiative as the control (Mpunge and Ntenjeru). A significant decline (Wilcoxon ranked sign test: Z = - 5.412, p = 0.000) in the annual frequency of ASF outbreaks in both Kasawo and Namuganga sub-counties was observed after the implementation of community-led initiatives. The level of practice of most ASF control measures was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in sub-counties that instituted community-led ASF control initiatives than in the control sub-counties. The results of this study demonstrate the power of community-led initiatives in reducing ASF disease outbreaks in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Doenças dos Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Gado , Suínos , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 812, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786612

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate steroid hormone residues from livestock farms and assess their risks to the surface water of Phayao Lake. These steroid hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which can be found in natural and synthetic forms. This research focused on examining the residues of seven steroid hormones (five estrogens and two androgens-estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2), 17ß-estradiol (ßE2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), testosterone (T), and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT)) from four types of livestock farms around Phayao Lake, Thailand. The samples collected from the livestock farms included feces, soil, and wastewater and were extracted by the solid phase extraction (SPE) technique and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The risks from the residual steroid hormones were also characterized by estradiol equivalents (EEQs), testosterone equivalents (TEQs), and risk quotients (RQs). The results indicated that most hormone contamination from the farms' livestock was due to the estrogen hormones E1 (1.38-97.10 ng/g), ßE2 (10.08-1366 ng/g), and EE2 (1.50-99.92 ng/g), which originate from the natural excretion and admixture of steroids in feedstock or medicines. Steroid hormones were not detected in the wastewater from cleaning processes on farms with wastewater treatment plants, whereas farms without wastewater treatment plants showed high values of estrogen hormone contamination, with EEQs of 128.8-472.9 ng/L and RQs of 208.3-294.3. However, the analysis of steroid hormone residues in Phayao Lake demonstrated that the residues did not severely affect aquatic organisms (with RQs of 0.002-144.5), and no estrogen or androgen residues were observed in the water treatment plant or tap water.


Assuntos
Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Androgênios , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estrogênios/análise , Estrona/análise , Fazendas , Gado , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tailândia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 772, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739583

RESUMO

We use binomial kriging to model the spatial distribution of myiasis by three species namely Chrysomya bezziana, Wohlfahrtia magnifica and Lucilia cuprina in the livestock of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Traditional species distribution models are usually based on assumption of independence of observations. Species data often come in presence-only form for which background points are generated based on some covariates using statistical and machine learning techniques such as MaxEnt. We assume a symmetric binomial distribution based on the principle of maximum entropy in order to decide the number of pseudo-absences. Our results showed that the spatial models fitted very well and prediction distributions were estimated with excellent accuracy. Moreover kriging maps were more accurate as most of the non-spatial variation has been picked up by external drift with higher values of the sensitivity focusing partial AUC for all the three species. Land-use-land-cover was a common factor significantly affecting spatial distribution of all the three species suggesting that for established species anthropogenic factors such as land use become a strong determinant of their spatial distribution. Our results also revealed that for invading species like W. magnifica elevation acts as a barrier to species dispersal and therefore is more limiting to distribution. Furthermore the higher overall prediction accuracy demonstrated that our models performed well in predicting the distributions of the three species, which would lead to better understanding and management of the larval infestation.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Gado/parasitologia , Miíase , Animais , Dípteros/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Larva , Miíase/veterinária , Paquistão
10.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(5): 168-174, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732644

RESUMO

In this study, we developed an analytical method for simultaneous determination of 14 quinolones and 4 tetracyclines in livestock and fishery products using LC-MS/MS. The analytes were extracted from food samples with citrate buffer (containing EDTA)-methanol-acetonitrile (3 : 1 : 1, v/v/v) in the presence of n-hexane, and the extract was purified with an Oasis PRiME HLB cartridge column. It was suggested that this analytical method can also extract analytes from solid samples containing fat by using n-hexane. In addition, using methanol-acetonitrile (3 : 7, v/v) containing 0.1 vol% formic acid as an eluent from the cartridge column, the purification effect could be improved, while minimizing the impairment of the recovery rate. As a result of the validation using six types of food samples, trueness (accuracy) was 70.6%-113.8%, the RSD of repeatability was 9.0% or less, and the RSD of within-laboratory reproducibility was 15.5% or less. Using this approach, the standard values mentioned in the Japanese guideline were successfully met.


Assuntos
Quinolonas , Tetraciclinas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Pesqueiros , Gado , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2199-2201, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749583

RESUMO

We report pilot studies to evaluate the susceptibility of common domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, alpaca, rabbit, and horse) to intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2. None of the infected animals shed infectious virus via nasal, oral, or faecal routes, although viral RNA was detected in several animals. Further, neutralizing antibody titres were low or non-existent one month following infection. These results suggest that domestic livestock are unlikely to contribute to SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Gado/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Bovinos/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/imunologia , Humanos , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Coelhos/virologia , Reto/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos/virologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Células Vero , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Vísceras/virologia
12.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 89, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding whether genomic selection has been effective in livestock and when the results of genomic selection became visible are essential questions which we have addressed in this paper. Three criteria were used to identify practices of breeding programs over time: (1) the point of divergence of estimated genetic trends based on pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) versus single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP), (2) the point of divergence of realized Mendelian sampling (RMS) trends based on BLUP and ssGBLUP, and (3) the partition of genetic trends into that contributed by genotyped and non-genotyped individuals and by males and females. METHODS: We used data on 282,035 animals from a commercial maternal line of pigs, of which 32,856 were genotyped for 36,612 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after quality control. Phenotypic data included 228,427, 101,225, and 11,444 records for birth weight, average daily gain in the nursery, and feed intake, respectively. Breeding values were predicted in a multiple-trait framework using BLUP and ssGBLUP. RESULTS: The points of divergence of the genetic and RMS trends estimated by BLUP and ssGBLUP indicated that genomic selection effectively started in 2019. Partitioning the overall genetic trends into that for genotyped and non-genotyped individuals revealed that the contribution of genotyped animals to the overall genetic trend increased rapidly from ~ 74% in 2016 to 90% in 2019. The contribution of the female pathway to the genetic trend also increased since genomic selection was implemented in this pig population, which reflects the changes in the genotyping strategy in recent years. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that an assessment of breeding program practices can be done based on the point of divergence of genetic and RMS trends between BLUP and ssGBLUP and based on the partitioning of the genetic trend into contributions from different selection pathways. However, it should be noted that genetic trends can diverge before the onset of genomic selection if superior animals are genotyped retroactively. For the pig population example, the results showed that genomic selection was effective in this population.


Assuntos
Gado , Modelos Genéticos , Animais , Feminino , Genoma , Genótipo , Gado/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Suínos/genética
13.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(3): 640-653, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593587

RESUMO

Animal source foods (ASFs), including cow's milk, contain essential nutrients and contribute to a healthy diet, but frequency of intake is low among children in low- and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that an ASF social and behavior change communication (SBCC) intervention implemented by community health workers (CHWs) would increase child milk consumption and dietary diversity in households that received a cow from the Government of Rwanda's Girinka livestock transfer program. We tested the 9-month SBCC intervention among children aged 12-29 months at baseline in administrative cells randomly assigned to the intervention or control. Most mothers in the intervention group were exposed to CHWs' home visits (90.7%) or community-level activities (82.8%). At endline, more mothers in the intervention group compared with the control group knew that cow's milk was an ASF (90.1% vs. 81.7%, P=.03) and could be introduced to children at 12 months (41.7% vs. 18.7%, P<.001). More mothers in the intervention group compared with the control group knew they should feed their children ASFs (76.2% vs. 62.1%, P=.01) and give them 1 cup of cow's milk per day (20.6% vs. 7.8%, P<.001). Children's consumption of fresh cow's milk 2 or more times per week increased in the intervention group, although not significantly (8.0 percentage points, P=.17); minimum dietary diversity was unchanged. Children in the intervention group had increased odds of consuming cow's milk 2 or more times per week if their mothers recalled hearing that children should drink 1 cup of cow's milk per day during a CHW's home visit [odds ratio (OR) 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.1, 3.9)] or a community activity [OR 2.0, 95% CI (1.2, 3.5)]. Approximately half of the children had no milk during the past week because their households produced too little or sold what was produced. In poor households receiving a livestock transfer, strategies to further tailor SBCC and increase cow's milk production may be needed to achieve larger increases in children's frequency of milk consumption.


Assuntos
Dieta , Gado , Animais , Bovinos , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leite , Ruanda
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682517

RESUMO

Pakistan is an agrarian nation that is among the most vulnerable countries to climatic variations. Around 20% of its GDP is produced by agriculture, and livestock-related production contributes more than half of this value. However, few empirical studies have been conducted to determine the vulnerability and knowledge of livestock herders, and particularly the smaller herders. Comprehending individual perceptions of and vulnerabilities to climate change (CC) will enable effective formulation of CC mitigation strategies. This study intended to explore individual perceptions of and vulnerabilities to CC based on a primary dataset of 405 small livestock herders from three agro-ecological zones of Punjab. The results showed that livestock herders' perceptions about temperature and rainfall variations/patterns coincide with the meteorological information of the study locations. The vulnerability indicators show that Dera Ghazi Khan district is more vulnerable than the other two zones because of high exposure and sensitivity to CC, and lower adaptive capacity. However, all zones experience regular livelihood risks due to livestock diseases and deaths resulting from extreme climatic conditions, lower economic status, and constrained institutional and human resource capabilities, thus leading to increased vulnerability. The results indicate that low-cost local approaches are needed, such as provision of improved veterinary services, increased availability of basic equipment, small-scale infrastructure projects, and reinforcement of informal social safety nets. These measures would support cost-effective and sustainable decisions to enable subsistence livestock herders to adopt climate smart practices.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Gado , Agricultura , Animais , Humanos , Paquistão , Percepção
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682559

RESUMO

Antibiotics used for the treatment of humans and livestock are released into the environment, whereby they pose a grave threat to biota (including humans) as they can cause the emergence of various strains of resistant bacteria. An improved understanding of antibiotics in the environment is thus vital for appropriate management and mitigation. Herein, surface water and groundwater samples containing antibiotics were analyzed in an urban-rural complex watershed (Cheongmi Stream) comprising intensive livestock farms by collecting samples across different time points and locations. The spatiotemporal trends of the residual antibiotics were analyzed, and ecological and antibiotic resistance-based risk assessments were performed considering their concentrations. The results showed that the concentrations and detection frequencies of the residual antibiotics in the surface water were affected by various factors such as agricultural activities and point sources, and were higher than those found in groundwater; however, frequent detection of antibiotics in groundwater showed that residual antibiotics were influenced by factors such as usage pattern and sewage runoff. Furthermore, few antibiotics posed ecological risks. The risk assessment methods adopted in this study can be applied elsewhere, and the results can be considered in the environmental management of residual antibiotics in the Cheongmi Stream watershed.


Assuntos
Gado , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agricultura , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696405

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are widespread and highly diversified in wildlife and domestic mammals and can emerge as zoonotic or epizootic pathogens and consequently host shift from these reservoirs, highlighting the importance of veterinary surveillance. All genera can be found in mammals, with α and ß showing the highest frequency and diversification. The aims of this study were to review the literature for features of CoV surveillance in animals, to test widely used molecular protocols, and to identify the most effective one in terms of spectrum and sensitivity. We combined a literature review with analyses in silico and in vitro using viral strains and archive field samples. We found that most protocols defined as pan-coronavirus are strongly biased towards α- and ß-CoVs and show medium-low sensitivity. The best results were observed using our new protocol, showing LoD 100 PFU/mL for SARS-CoV-2, 50 TCID50/mL for CaCoV, 0.39 TCID50/mL for BoCoV, and 9 ± 1 log2 ×10-5 HA for IBV. The protocol successfully confirmed the positivity for a broad range of CoVs in 30/30 field samples. Our study points out that pan-CoV surveillance in mammals could be strongly improved in sensitivity and spectrum and propose the application of a new RT-PCR assay, which is able to detect CoVs from all four genera, with an optimal sensitivity for α-, ß-, and γ-.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Deltacoronavirus/genética , Gammacoronavirus/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19/veterinária , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Gado/virologia , Roedores/virologia
17.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696406

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses and can cause deadly diseases in animals and humans. Cell entry is the first and essential step of successful virus infection and can be divided into two ongoing steps: cell binding and membrane fusion. Over the past two decades, stimulated by the global outbreak of SARS-CoV and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, numerous efforts have been made in the CoV research. As a result, significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of the cell entry process. Here, we review the current knowledge of this essential process, including the viral and host components involved in cell binding and membrane fusion, molecular mechanisms of their interactions, and the sites of virus entry. We highlight the recent findings of host restriction factors that inhibit CoVs entry. This knowledge not only enhances our understanding of the cell entry process, pathogenesis, tissue tropism, host range, and interspecies-transmission of CoVs but also provides a theoretical basis to design effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to control CoVs infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ligação Viral , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , Gatos/virologia , Bovinos/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Cães/virologia , Gado/virologia , Fusão de Membrana/fisiologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Suínos/virologia , Tropismo Viral/fisiologia
18.
Water Res ; 206: 117754, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678701

RESUMO

Extensive livestock farming has highly threatened groundwater quality, thereby necessitating a rapid and effective method to identify groundwater quality in such areas. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been recognized as an interpretable method for tracking anthropogenic influences on water quality, but its applicability in identifying the groundwater pollution from livestock farming remains unknown. In this study, the fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwater from a typical livestock farming area were investigated by using fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM)-parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) coupled with multivariate statistical methods. The results showed that livestock farming significantly altered the content and composition of DOM in groundwater, and these effects were mainly observed in shallow groundwater in the study area. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on fluorescence parameters divided the groundwater samples into three clusters with significantly different pollution degrees: Cluster A, unpolluted; Cluster B, highly polluted; Cluster C, moderately polluted. In particular, the intensity of tryptophan-like fluorescence was high in the polluted groundwater but was almost undetectable in the unpolluted groundwater, suggesting that it is a potential indicator of groundwater quality. Principal component analysis based on the fluorescence parameters explained 91.5% of the variance with the first two principal components, and revealed that the degree of pollution dominated the fluorescence characteristics of groundwater in the study area. In addition, NO3- was abundant in Clusters B and C, while it was low in Cluster A, validating the analysis results of fluorescence spectroscopy. These findings indicated that DOM fluorescence was sensitive to livestock farming pollution and could be applied to identify, monitor, and assess groundwater pollution from livestock farming.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Gado , Agricultura , Animais , Análise Fatorial , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
19.
Adv Parasitol ; 114: 167-244, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696843

RESUMO

Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) substantially affect the health and production of ruminants, particularly in resource-poor, small-scale farming systems worldwide. However, to date, there has been no critical appraisal of the current state of knowledge of TTBDs in such farming systems. In this article, we systematically reviewed the situation in Pakistan-as an example of a country that is highly reliant on agriculture to sustain its economy, particularly smallholder livestock farms, which are continually faced with challenges associated with TTBDs. The main aims of this review were to gain improved insights into the current status of TTBDs in small-scale farming systems, and to identify knowledge gaps, through the systematic evaluation of published literature on this topic from Pakistan, and to recommend future research directions. We searched publicly available literature from three databases (i.e. Web of Science, Google Scholar, and PubMed) on bovine TTBDs in Pakistan. Of 11,224 published studies identified, 185 were eligible for inclusion; these studies were published between August 1947 and June 2021. A critical analysis of these 185 studies revealed that the diagnosis of ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in Pakistan has been based largely on the use of traditional methods (i.e. 'morpho-taxonomy'). At least 54 species of tick have been recorded, most of which belong to the genera Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus. The prevalence of ticks was higher, particularly in young, exotic and crossbred female cattle, during the summer season. Major TBPs include species of Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria, with prevalences being higher in cattle than buffaloes. Additionally, pathogens of zoonotic potential, including species of Anaplasma, Borrelia, the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Coxiella, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia, have been recorded in both tick and bovine populations. Information on risk factors, spatial-temporal distribution, genetic diversity, and control of ticks and TBPs is limited, the vector potential of ticks and the distribution patterns of ticks and TBPs in relation to climate remains largely unexplored. Future research should focus on addressing these knowledge gaps and the key challenges of poverty, food security and disease outbreaks in a small-scale livestock farming context in order to provide sustainable, environment-friendly control measures for TTBDs.


Assuntos
Rhipicephalus , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Bovinos , Ehrlichia , Feminino , Gado , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 342, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We implemented a longitudinal study to determine the incidence of Brucella infection in cattle, camels, sheep and goats that were being raised in a pastoral area in Isiolo County, Kenya. An initial cross-sectional survey was implemented to identify unexposed animals for follow up; that survey used 141 camels, 216 cattle, 208 sheep and 161 goats. Sera from these animals were screened for Brucella spp. using the Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT), a modified RBPT, and an indirect multispecies Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA). Results of RBPT and iELISA were interpreted in parallel to determine seroprevalence. A total of 30 camels, 31 cattle, 22 sheep and 32 goats that were seronegative by all the above tests were recruited in a subsequent longitudinal study for follow up. These animals were followed for 12 months and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies using iELISA. Seroconversion among these animals was defined by a positive iELISA test following a negative iELISA result in the previous sampling period. All seropositive samples were further tested using real-time PCR-based assays to identify Brucella species. These analyses targeted the alkB and BMEI1162 genes for B. abortus, and B. melitensis, respectively. Data from the longitudinal study were analysed using Cox proportional hazards model that accounted for within-herds clustering of Brucella infections. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of Brucella infection was 0.024 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.014-0.037) cases per animal-months at risk. Brucella infection incidence in camels, cattle, goats and sheep were 0.053 (0.022-0.104), 0.028 (0.010-0.061), 0.013 (0.003-0.036) and 0.006 (0.0002-0.034) cases per animal-month at risk, respectively. The incidence rate of Brucella infection among females and males were 0.020 (0.009-0.036) and 0.016 (0.004-0.091), respectively. Real-time PCR analyses showed that B. abortus was more prevalent than B. melitensis in the area. Results of multivariable Cox regression analysis identified species (camels and cattle) as an important predictor of Brucella spp. exposure in animals. CONCLUSIONS: This study estimated an overall brucellosis incidence of 0.024 cases per animal-months at risk with camels and cattle having higher incidence than sheep and goats. These results will inform surveillance studies in the area.


Assuntos
Brucella/imunologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Camelus/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Incidência , Quênia/epidemiologia , Gado , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...