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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032890

RESUMO

Nicotine is classified as a stimulant, and its use is banned in horse racing and equestrian sports by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities and the Fédération Équestre Internationale, respectively. Because nicotine is a major alkaloid of tobacco leaves, there is a potential risk that doping control samples may be contaminated by tobacco cigarettes or smoke during sample collection. In order to differentiate the genuine doping and sample contamination with tobacco leaves, it is necessary to monitor unique metabolites as biomarkers for nicotine administration and intake. However, little is known about the metabolic fate of nicotine in horses. This is the first report of comprehensive metabolism study of nicotine in horses. Using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified a total of 17 metabolites, including one novel horse-specific metabolite (i.e., 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)-N-methylbutanamide), in post-administration urine samples after nasoesophageal administration of nicotine to three thoroughbred mares; eight of these compounds were confirmed based on reference standards. Among these metabolites, N-hydroxymethylnorcotinine was the major urinary metabolite in equine, but it could only be tentatively identified by mass spectral interpretation due to the lack of reference material. In addition, we developed simultaneous quantification methods for the eight target analytes in plasma and urine, and applied them to post-administration samples to establish elimination profiles of nicotine and its metabolites. The quantification results revealed that trans-3'-hydroxycotinine could be quantified for the longest period in both plasma (72 h post-administration) and urine (96 h post-administration). Therefore, this metabolite is the most appropriate monitoring target for nicotine exposure for the purpose of doping control due to its long detection times and the availability of its reference material. Further, we identified trans-3'-hydroxycotinine as a unique biomarker allowing differentiation between nicotine administration and sample contamination with tobacco leaves.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Doping nos Esportes/métodos , Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos/urina , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Nicotina/sangue , Nicotina/urina , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Estimulantes Ganglionares/sangue , Estimulantes Ganglionares/urina , Limite de Detecção
2.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(3)2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059736

RESUMO

Nicotine is one of the primary components in cigarettes, which is responsible for addiction. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of nicotine on pulmonary disease. The health of epithelial cells is important in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Accumulating evidence has suggested that epithelial cell death may initiate or contribute to the progression of a number of lung diseases via airway remodeling. Pyroptosis is a unique form of inflammatory cell death mediated by the activation of caspase­1 and the NOD­like receptor protein­3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. The present study aimed to evaluate whether pyroptosis of epithelial cells was involved in the progression of COPD. The normal human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE was treated with 0.1 or 1 µM nicotine. Then the proliferation ability of 16HBE cells was detected by CCK­8. Cell death was detected by flow cytometry analysis and TUNEL assay. Subsequently, the levels of pro­caspase 1, caspase 1, IL­1ß, IL­18, NLRP3, ASC and cleaved GSDMD were examined by western blotting. It was revealed that nicotine treatment significantly induced cell death and suppressed proliferation of 16HBE cells. Furthermore, nicotine exposure increased the expression levels of caspase­1, IL­1ß, IL­18, NLRP3, apoptosis­associated speck­like protein and gasdermin D in 16HBE cells. Therefore, the present study concluded that nicotine treatment induced pyroptosis in 16HBE cells, which may be associated with the progression of COPD.


Assuntos
Brônquios/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Caspase 1/genética , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-18/genética , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
3.
Behav Pharmacol ; 32(4): 321-334, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660662

RESUMO

Use of alcohol (EtOH) and nicotine (Nic) typically begins during adolescence. Smoking and drinking often occur together and lead to a higher consumption of alcohol. Although we have shown that Nic+EtOH is reinforcing in self-administration tests in adolescent male rats, whether Nic+EtOH affects other behaviors or neuronal activity in an age-dependent manner is unknown. To address this, adolescent and adult male rats were given intravenous injections of Nic (30 µg/kg)+EtOH (4 mg/kg) and evaluated for locomotor and anxiety-like behaviors. Regional neuronal activity, assessed by cFos mRNA expression, was measured and used to evaluate functional connectivity in limbic regions associated with anxiety and motivation. Nic+EtOH increased locomotor activity and was anxiolytic in adolescents, but not adults. The posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA), a critical regulator of drug reward, was selectively activated by Nic+EtOH in adults, while activity in its target region, the NAc-shell, was decreased. Drug-induced alterations in functional connectivity were more extensive in adults than adolescents and may act to inhibit behavioral responses to Nic+EtOH that are seen in adolescence. Overall, our findings suggest that brief, low-dose exposure to Nic+EtOH produces marked, age-dependent changes in brain and behavior and that there may be an ongoing maturation of the pVTA during adolescence that allows increased sensitivity to Nic+EtOH's reinforcing, hyperlocomotor, and anxiolytic effects. Furthermore, this work provides a potential mechanism for high rates of co-use of nicotine and alcohol by teenagers: this drug combination is anxiolytic and recruits functional networks that are unique from protective, inhibitory networks recruited in the mature and adult brain.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Etanol , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Área Tegmentar Ventral , Fatores Etários , Animais , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/farmacologia , Estimulantes Ganglionares/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/farmacologia , Ratos , Área Tegmentar Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos , Área Tegmentar Ventral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia
4.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686433

RESUMO

Animals use olfaction to detect developmentally significant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their local environment. As part of a wider study aiming to demonstrate that the olfactory responses of animals to VOCs can be modified through the creation of a drug-addicted status and association with a selected VOC, we investigated nicotine and tobacco smoke particulate (TSP) extract as possible addictive compounds for male German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (Linnaeus). In feeding experiments using an artificial food stimulus, food treated with TSP extract was preferred over untreated food. Surprisingly, nicotine, which was expected to be the most important addictive tobacco component, did not induce noticeable effects on cockroach behavior. Both TSP extract and nicotine were shown to be phagostimulants. Olfactometry assays that measured odor-mediated insect behavior demonstrated that male B. germanica did not choose TSP-extract-treated food even when attempts were made specifically to train them via this modality. These results support a hypothesis that B. germanica needs to consume TSP-containing food to show a clear preference for this stimulus and that gustatory mechanisms are involved due to compounds present in the TSP extract.


Assuntos
Blattellidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Nicotina/farmacologia , Olfato , Tabagismo , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Olfatometria
5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 7627-7643, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626512

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that nicotine intake promotes atherosclerosis. We enrolled 100 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and found that plaque burden, TXNIP expression, and inflammatory chemokine levels were higher in smokers than non-smokers. Additionally, patients with higher TXNIP expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) had a higher Gensini Scores and higher plasma IL-1ß and IL-18 levels. Treating bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) with nicotine in vitro led to enhanced lipid phagocytosis, chemotaxis, and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which activated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and promoted pyroptosis, as evidenced by caspase-1 cleavage and increased production of IL-1ß, IL-18, and gasdermin D. Nicotine intake by ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet recapitulated those phenotypes. The effects of nicotine on pyroptotic signaling were reversed by N-acetyl-cysteine, a ROS scavenger. Silencing TXNIP in vivo reversed the effects of nicotine on macrophage invasion and vascular injury. Nicotine also induced pyroptotic macrophages that contributed to the apoptotic death of endothelial cells. These findings suggest that nicotine accelerates atherosclerosis in part by promoting macrophage pyroptosis and endothelial damage. Therefore, targeting the TXNIP/NLRP3-mediated pyroptotic pathway in macrophages may ameliorate nicotine-induced endothelial damage.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Animais , Quimiotaxia , Feminino , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Child Neurol ; 36(5): 371-377, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genetic variants of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) cause autosomal dominant sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy. Approximately 30% of autosomal dominant sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy patients are medically intractable. In preclinical models, pathogenic nAChR variants cause a gain of function mutation with sensitivity to acetylcholine antagonists and agonists. Nicotine modifies the activity of nAChRs and can be used as targeted therapy. METHODS: We reviewed next-generation sequencing epilepsy panels from a single laboratory (GeneDx) from patients at Children's Medical Center Dallas between 2011 and 2015 and identified patients with nAChR variants. Retrospective review of records included variant details, medical history, neuroimaging findings, and treatment history. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were identified. Four patients were prescribed nicotine patches for intractable seizures. Three of 4 patients had a clinical response, with >50% seizure reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a nicotine patch can be an effective therapy in epilepsy patients with nAChR gene variants. We propose consideration of transdermal nicotine treatment in intractable epilepsy with known nAChR variants as an experimental therapy. Further clinical trials are needed to fully define therapeutic effects.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Nicotina/uso terapêutico , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estimulantes Ganglionares/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes Ganglionares/uso terapêutico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 21(1): 83, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is a quaternary ammonium compound that is both a base corrosive and a cholinergic agonist, and it is widely used in the photoelectric and semiconductor industries. It causes corrosive skin injuries and systemic cholinergic toxicity with death primarily resulting from respiratory failure without efficacious early decontamination. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed of all cases of TMAH exposure reported to the Taiwan Poison Control Center between July 2010 and October 2017. Retrieved medical records were independently reviewed by two trained clinical toxicologists. RESULTS: Despite immediate (< 5 min) skin decontamination with copious amounts of tap water, one patient exposed to 25% TMAH involving ≥5% of total body surface area (TBSA) developed significant systemic toxicity. Patients exposed to 25% TMAH involving ≤1% TBSA developed first-degree chemical skin injuries but no systemic toxicity. Among patients exposed to lower concentrations (≤2.38%) of TMAH, the majority only experienced first-degree chemical skin injuries without systemic signs. Patients exposed to 0.5% TMAH involving nearly their entire TBSA developed no chemical skin injuries or systemic toxicity. All patients who had only first-degree chemical skin injuries did not develop systemic toxicity after exposure to either 2.38% or 25% TMAH. CONCLUSIONS: TMAH acts as an alkaline corrosive and cholinergic agonist. Systemic signs attributable to TMA+ can rapidly lead to respiratory failure and death after dermal exposure. We have demonstrated that an amphoteric solution may be efficacious for skin decontamination on-site immediately to prevent or ameliorate such toxicity. This practice especially carries a valuable potential in managing victims (patients) who have been exposed to those chemicals with immediate life-threatening toxicity (e.g. TMAH), suggesting that its early utilization deserves further study.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/toxicidade , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Feminino , Estimulantes Ganglionares/metabolismo , Estimulantes Ganglionares/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Compostos Orgânicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Cutânea/fisiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108382, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343976

RESUMO

Nicotine is a psychoactive alkaloid of tobacco, which is ingested during cigarettes or electronic cigarette smoking. Extensive consumption of nicotine induced oxidative stress. Accordingly, it is implicated in many pathophysiology brain disorders and triggers neurodegeneration. In this study, we investigated the protective role of Spirulina platensis-lipopolysaccharides (S.LPS) and the low dose-ionizing radiation (LD-IR) against the induced neurotoxicity in the rats' brain due to the prolonged administration of high nicotine levels. Rats treated with nicotine for two months showed alterations in the oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG)), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat), glutathione enzymes (GPx and GST)) as well as several pro-inflammatory markers (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-17 (IL-17), and Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB)), and induced apoptosis through Caspase-3 activity. Nicotine also upregulated the mRNA gene expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP2B1 and CYP2E1), Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4), and phospho-Tau (p-Tau) protein expression. Besides, it downregulated the alpha-7 nicotinic receptor (α7nAChR) mRNA gene expression accompanied by a decline in the calcium (Ca2+) level. S.LPS exhibited antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective activities, which counteracting the detrimental effects of chronic nicotine administration. LD-IR demonstrated comparable effects to S.LPS. Exposure of rats to LD-IR enhanced the neuroprotective effects of S.LPS against nicotine toxicity. The light microscopic examination of the brain tissues was in agreement with the biochemical investigations. These findings display that S.LPS and LD-IR mitigated the oxidative stress and the impairment of rats' brain induced by nicotine, due to regulation of the mRNA gene expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP2B1 and CYP2E1) and the signaling pathway of Tau protein phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes Ganglionares/efeitos adversos , Lipopolissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Spirulina , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Radioterapia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/efeitos adversos , Spirulina/química
9.
Addict Biol ; 25(1): e12721, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779271

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have shown that people who begin experimenting drugs of abuse during adolescence are more likely to develop substance use disorders, and the earliest is the beginning of their use, the greatest is the likelihood to become dependent. Understanding the neurobiological changes increasing adolescent vulnerability to drug use is becoming imperative. Although all neurotransmitter systems undergo relevant developmental changes, dopamine system is of particular interest, given its role in a variety of functions related to reward, motivation, and decision making. Thus, in the present study, we investigated differences in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine transmission between adolescent (5, 6, 7 weeks of age) and adult rats (10-12 weeks of age), in basal conditions and following drug challenge, by using in vivo brain microdialysis. Although no significant difference between adolescents and adults was observed in dopamine basal levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)shell and core, reduced DA levels were found in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of early and mid-adolescent rats. Adolescent rats showed greater increase of dopamine in the NAc shell following nicotine (0.4 mg/kg), THC (1.0 mg/kg), and morphine (1.0 mg/kg), in the NAc core following nicotine and morphine, and in the DLS following THC, morphine, and cocaine (10 mg/kg). These results, while adding new insight in the development and functionality of the dopamine system during different stages of adolescence, might provide a neurochemical basis for the greater vulnerability of adolescents to drugs of abuse and for the postulated gateway effect of nicotine and THC toward abuse of other illicit substances.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cocaína/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Morfina/farmacologia , Nicotina/farmacologia , Fatores Etários , Analgésicos Opioides/metabolismo , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cocaína/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/metabolismo , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Dronabinol/metabolismo , Estimulantes Ganglionares/metabolismo , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Masculino , Microdiálise , Morfina/metabolismo , Nicotina/metabolismo , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Psicotrópicos/metabolismo , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia , Ratos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Lasers Surg Med ; 52(5): 449-455, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy with 830 nm wavelength or 660 wavelength to compare the effects with parameters of 30 mW, 0.028 cm2 , 9.34 seconds, and 3.64 J on the total integration of total skin grafts in rats submitted to nicotine. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were divided in six groups: Sham-skin-grafting surgery; 830 nm-skin-grafting followed by 830 nm irradiation; 660 nm-skin grafting followed by 660 nm irradiation; Nicotine-subjected to subcutaneous nicotine injection (2 mg/kg twice a day for 4 weeks), followed by skin grafting; Group Nicotine/830 nm-similar to Group Nicotine, followed by 830 nm irradiation; Group Nicotine/660 nm-similar to Group Nicotine, followed by 660 nm irradiation. The percentage contraction of the grafting tissue was evaluated through ImageJ®. The thickness of the epidermis, inflammatory infiltrates, and the space between the implanted tissue and receptor bed were determined by histology; and the expression of vascular growth factor and blood vessel density (factor VIII) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The PBM at both wavelengths promoted a facilitating effect on the integration of the skin graft under nicotine and had a more significant effect on the thickness of the epidermis and expression of angiogenesis without nicotine at a wavelength of 830 nm. Different wavelengths influence responses related to the viability of cutaneous grafts in rats submitted to nicotine. CONCLUSIONS: The PBM with 830 nm and 660 nm promoted beneficial results in skin grafts submitted to the deleterious action of nicotine. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos da radiação , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Nicotina/farmacologia , Transplante de Pele , Cicatrização/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20243, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882881

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients, the pathogenesis of which involves the ability to form biofilms and produce various virulence factors. Tobacco smoke, another risk factor of CRS, facilitates S. aureus biofilm formation; however, the mechanisms involved are unclear. Here, we studied the effect of nicotine on S. aureus biofilm formation and the expression of virulence-related genes. S. aureus strains isolated from CRS patients and a USA300 strain were treated with nicotine or were untreated (control). Nicotine-treated S. aureus strains showed dose-dependent increases in biofilm formation, lower virulence, enhanced initial attachment, increased extracellular DNA release, and a higher autolysis rate, involving dysregulation of the accessory gene regulator (Agr) quorum-sensing system. Consequently, the expression of autolysis-related genes lytN and atlA, and the percentage of dead cells in biofilms was increased. However, the expression of virulence-related genes, including hla, hlb, pvl, nuc, ssp, spa, sigB, coa, and crtN was downregulated and there was reduced bacterial invasion of A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. The results of this study indicate that nicotine treatment enhances S. aureus biofilm formation by promoting initial attachment and extracellular DNA release but inhibits the virulence of this bacterium.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Nicotina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Humanos , Doenças Nasais/diagnóstico , Doenças Nasais/microbiologia , Sinusite/diagnóstico , Sinusite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
12.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(6): 1053-1062, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679596

RESUMO

Rates of certain tobacco products have decreased over the past decade, but nicotine use disorder is still prevalent among adolescents. New trends in tobacco use, such as in the use of electronic cigarettes, are creating alarm. This article reviews nicotine addiction and measurement in adolescents, along with potential health risks and comorbidities. Various psychosocial and pharmacologic interventions are reviewed along with novel interventions that show promise for reducing tobacco use in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estimulantes Ganglionares/efeitos adversos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Vaping , Adolescente , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/etiologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Tabagismo/terapia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Vaping/psicologia , Vaping/terapia
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4037, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492869

RESUMO

Increased body weight is a major factor that interferes with smoking cessation. Nicotine, the main bioactive compound in tobacco, has been demonstrated to have an impact on energy balance, since it affects both feeding and energy expenditure at the central level. Among the central actions of nicotine on body weight, much attention has been focused on its effect on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, though its effect on browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is unclear. Here, we show that nicotine induces the browning of WAT through a central mechanism and that this effect is dependent on the κ opioid receptor (KOR), specifically in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Consistent with these findings, smokers show higher levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in WAT, which correlates with smoking status. These data demonstrate that central nicotine-induced modulation of WAT browning may be a target against human obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Estimulantes Ganglionares/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Opioides kappa/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(9): 1134-1145, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170808

RESUMO

Rationale: Electronic cigarette (e-cig) use has been widely adopted under the perception of safety. However, possibly adverse effects of e-cig vapor in never-smokers are not well understood.Objectives: To test the effects of nicotine-containing e-cig vapors on airway mucociliary function in differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from never-smokers and in the airways of a novel, ovine large animal model.Methods: Mucociliary parameters were measured in human bronchial epithelial cells and in sheep. Systemic nicotine delivery to sheep was quantified using plasma cotinine levels, measured by ELISA.Measurements and Main Results: In vitro, exposure to e-cig vapor reduced airway surface liquid hydration and increased mucus viscosity of human bronchial epithelial cells in a nicotine-dependent manner. Acute nicotine exposure increased intracellular calcium levels, an effect primarily dependent on TRPA1 (transient receptor potential ankyrin 1). TRPA1 inhibition with A967079 restored nicotine-mediated impairment of mucociliary parameters including mucus transport in vitro. Sheep tracheal mucus velocity, an in vivo measure of mucociliary clearance, was also reduced by e-cig vapor. Nebulized e-cig liquid containing nicotine also reduced tracheal mucus velocity in a dose-dependent manner and elevated plasma cotinine levels. Importantly, nebulized A967079 reversed the effects of e-cig liquid on sheep tracheal mucus velocity.Conclusions: Our findings show that inhalation of e-cig vapor causes airway mucociliary dysfunction in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they suggest that the main nicotine effect on mucociliary function is mediated by TRPA1 and not nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.


Assuntos
Vapor do Cigarro Eletrônico/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Depuração Mucociliar/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Cotinina , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Ovinos , Vaping
15.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(6): 1284-1295, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicotine and alcohol use are highly comorbid. Modulation of drug-paired extrinsic and intrinsic cues likely plays a role in this interaction, as cues can acquire motivational properties and augment drug seeking. The motivational properties of cues can be measured through Pavlovian conditioning paradigms, in which cues either elicit approach following pairing with the reinforcing properties of alcohol or elicit avoidance following pairing with the aversive consequences of alcohol. The present experiments tested whether nicotine would enhance the incentive properties of an appetitive ethanol (EtOH) cue and diminish the avoidance of an aversive EtOH cue in Pavlovian paradigms. METHODS: In experiment 1, male Long-Evans rats with or without prior chronic intermittent access to EtOH were administered nicotine or saline injections prior to Pavlovian conditioned approach (PavCA) sessions, during which conditioned approach to the cue ("sign-tracking") or the EtOH delivery location ("goal-tracking") was measured. In experiment 2, male Long-Evans rats were administered nicotine or saline injections prior to pairing a flavor cue with increasing doses of EtOH (i.p.) in an adaptation of the conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) paradigm. RESULTS: Results from PavCA indicate that, regardless of EtOH exposure, nicotine enhanced responding elicited by EtOH-paired cues with no effect on a similar cue not explicitly paired with EtOH. Furthermore, nicotine reduced sensitivity to EtOH-induced CTA, as indicated by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve of passively administered EtOH. The ED50 , or the dose of EtOH that produced a 50% reduction in intake relative to baseline, was significantly higher in nicotine-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that nicotine increases the approach and diminishes the avoidance elicited by Pavlovian cues paired, respectively, with the reinforcing and aversive properties of EtOH consumption in male rats. As such, nicotine may enhance alcoholism liability by engendering an attentional bias toward cues that predict the reinforcing outcomes of drinking.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comportamento Apetitivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Nicotina/farmacologia , Animais , Condicionamento Psicológico , Etanol , Masculino , Ratos Long-Evans
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 445, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679632

RESUMO

Exposure to nicotine during pregnancy through maternal smoking or nicotine replacement therapy is associated with adverse birth outcomes as well as several cognitive and neurobehavioral deficits. Several studies have shown that nicotine produces long-lasting effects on gene expression within many brain regions, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is the origin of dopaminergic neurons and the dopamine reward pathway. Using a well-established rat model for perinatal nicotine exposure, we sought to investigate altered biological pathways using mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of dopaminergic (DA) and non-dopaminergic (non-DA) neurons in this highly-valuable area. Putative miRNA-gene target interactions were assessed as well as miRNA-pathway interactions. Our results indicate that extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor interactions were significantly altered in DA and non-DA neurons due to chronic nicotine exposure during pregnancy. They also show that the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was enriched in DA neurons with multiple significant miRNA-gene targets, but the same changes were not seen in non-DA neurons. We speculate that nicotine exposure during pregnancy could differentially affect the gene expression of DA and non-DA neurons in the VTA.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Nicotina/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Estimulantes Ganglionares/toxicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , MicroRNAs/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/embriologia
17.
Addict Biol ; 24(3): 317-334, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29480575

RESUMO

Tobacco use leads to 6 million deaths every year due to severe long-lasting diseases. The main component of tobacco, nicotine, is recognized as one of the most addictive drugs, making smoking cessation difficult, even when 70 percent of smokers wish to do so. Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated consistently that nicotine seeking is a complex behavior involving various psychopharmacological mechanisms. Evidence supports that the population of smokers is heterogeneous, particularly as regards the breadth of motives that determine the urge to smoke. Here, we review converging psychological, genetic and neurobiological data from clinical and preclinical studies supporting that the mechanisms controlling nicotine seeking may vary from individual to individual. It appears timely that basic neuroscience integrates this heterogeneity to refine our understanding of the neurobiology of nicotine seeking, as tremendous progress has been made in modeling the various psychopharmacological mechanisms driving nicotine seeking in rodents. For a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive nicotine seeking, we emphasize the need for individual-based research strategies in which nicotine seeking, and eventually treatment efficacy, are determined while taking into account individual variations in the mechanisms of nicotine seeking.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Procura de Droga/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Individualidade , Receptores Colinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/genética , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Tabagismo/genética
18.
Addict Biol ; 24(3): 355-363, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29292565

RESUMO

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system modulates several phenomena related to addictive behaviors, and drug-induced changes in eCB signaling have been postulated to be important mediators of physiological and pathological reward-related synaptic plasticity. Here, we studied eCB-mediated long-term depression (eCB-LTD) in the dorsolateral striatum, a brain region critical for acquisition of habitual and automatic behavior. We report that nicotine differentially affects ex vivo eCB signaling depending on previous exposure in vivo. In the nicotine-naïve brain, nicotine facilitates eCB-signaling and LTD, whereas tolerance develops to this facilitating effect after subchronic exposure in vivo. In the end, a progressive impairment of eCB-induced LTD is established after protracted withdrawal from nicotine. Endocannabinoid-LTD is reinstated 6 months after the last drug injection, but a brief period of nicotine re-exposure is sufficient to yet again impair eCB-signaling. LTD induced by the cannabinoid 1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 is not affected, suggesting that nicotine modulates eCB production or release. Nicotine-induced facilitation of eCB-LTD is occluded by the dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole, and by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine. In addition, the same compounds restore eCB-LTD during protracted withdrawal. Nicotine may thus modulate eCB-signaling by affecting dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in a long-lasting manner. Overall, the data presented here suggest that nicotine facilitates eCB-LTD in the initial phase, which putatively could promote neurophysiological and behavioral adaptations to the drug. Protracted withdrawal, however, impairs eCB-LTD, which may influence or affect the ability to maintain cessation.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Dopamina D2/efeitos dos fármacos , Reforço Psicológico
19.
J Orthop Res ; 37(1): 94-103, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345583

RESUMO

Nicotine is harmful to many bodily systems; however, the effects of nicotine on intra-substance tendon healing remain largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine the functional, structural, and biomechanical effects of nicotine on the healing of Achilles tendons in rats after an acute full-thickness injury. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were enrolled in this study. Half were exposed to 0.9% saline and half to 61 ng/mL of nicotine for 3 months via subcutaneous osmotic pumps. At 3 months, all rats underwent blunt full thickness transection of the left Achilles tendon and were immobilized for one week in plantarflexion. In-vivo assays were conducted prior to injury, at 21 days, and at 42 days post-injury and included the following: Functional limb assessment, passive joint mechanics, and vascular evaluation. Rats were sacrificed at 21 and 42 days for biomechanical testing and histologic evaluation. Rats exposed to nicotine demonstrated decreased vascularity, greater alteration in gait mechanics, and increased passive ROM of the ankle joint. Biomechanically, the nicotine tendons failed at lower maximum loads, were less stiff, had smaller cross-sectional areas and had altered viscoelastic properties. Histologically, nicotine tendons demonstrated decreased vessel density at the injury site. This study demonstrates that nicotine leads to worse functional outcomes and biomechanical properties in tendons. The decreased vascularity in the nicotine group may suggest an underlying mechanism for inferior tendon healing. Patients should be counseled that using nicotine products increase their risk of poor tendon healing and may predispose them to tendon re-rupture. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes Ganglionares/efeitos adversos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos dos Tendões , Tendão do Calcâneo/lesões , Tendão do Calcâneo/patologia , Animais , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Invert Neurosci ; 18(4): 14, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406344

RESUMO

Caenorhabditis elegans is an informative model to study the neural basis of feeding. A useful paradigm is one in which adult nematodes feed on a bacterial lawn which has been pre-loaded with pharmacological agents and the effect on pharyngeal pumping rate scored. A crucial aspect of this assay is the availability of good quality bacteria to stimulate pumping to maximal levels. A potential confound is the possibility that the pharmacological agent impacts bacterial viability and indirectly influences feeding rate. Here, the actions of nicotine on pharyngeal pumping of C. elegans and on the Escherichia coli bacterial food source were investigated. Nicotine caused an immediate and concentration-dependent inhibition of C. elegans pharyngeal pumping, IC50 4 mM (95% CI = 3.4 mM to 4.8 mM). At concentrations between 5 and 25 mM, nicotine also affected the growth and viability of E. coli lawns. To test whether this food depletion by nicotine caused the reduced pumping, we modified the experimental paradigm. We investigated pharyngeal pumping stimulated by 10 mM 5-HT, a food 'mimic', before testing if nicotine still inhibited this behaviour. The IC50 for nicotine in these assays was 2.9 mM (95% CI = 3.1 mM to 5.1 mM) indicating the depletion of food lawn does not underpin the potency of nicotine at inhibiting feeding. These studies show that the inhibitory effect of nicotine on C. elegans pharyngeal pumping is mediated by a direct effect rather than by its poorly reported bactericidal actions.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes Ganglionares/farmacologia , Nicotina/farmacologia , Animais , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos
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