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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243514, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278560

RESUMO

Abstract Allium sativum L. is an herb of the Alliaceae family with a specific taste and aroma and medicinal and nutraceutical properties that are widely marketed in several countries. Brazil is one of the largest importers of garlic in the world, despite of its production is restricted and limited to internal consumption. Thus, explore the genetic diversity of commercial garlic conserved at germplasm banks is essential to generate additional genetic information about its economically important crop. A suitable tool for this purpose is the cytogenetic characterisation of these accessions. This study aimed to characterise the cytogenetic diversity among seven accessions of garlic from a Germplasm Bank in Brazil. The karyotypes were obtained by conventional staining and with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorochromes. All accessions analysed showed chromosome number 2n = 16, karyotype formula 6M+2SM, symmetrical karyotypes, reticulate interphase nuclei, and chromosomes with uniform chromatin condensation from prophase to metaphase. The fluorochromes staining showed differences in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin along the chromosomes and between accessions studied. Based on the distribution pattern of these small polymorphisms, it was possible to separate the seven accessions into three groups. It was also possible to differentiate some of the accessions individually. One of the results obtained showed a heteromorphic distension of the nucleolar organiser region observed on the chromosome pairs 6 or 7 with peculiar characteristics. It was suggested for example, that the heteromorphic block of heterochromatin (CMA+++/DAPI-) on chromosome 6 of the "Branco Mineiro Piauí" accession can be used as a marker to identify this genotype or may be associated with some character of economic interest.


Resumo Allium sativum L. é uma erva da família Alliaceae com sabor e aroma específicos e propriedades medicinais e nutracêuticas amplamente comercializada em diversos países. O Brasil é um dos maiores importadores de alho do mundo, apesar da sua produção ser restrita e limitada ao consumo interno. Assim, explorar a diversidade genética do alho comercial conservado em bancos de germoplasma é essencial para fornecer informações genéticas adicionais acerca dessa cultura economicamente importante. Uma ferramenta adequada para esse fim é a caracterização citogenética desses acessos. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a diversidade citogenética entre sete acessos de alho de um Banco de Germoplasma no Brasil. Os cariótipos foram obtidos por coloração convencional e com os fluorocromos de cromomicina A3 (CMA) e 4,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol (DAPI). Todos os acessos analisados ​​apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 16, fórmula cariotípica 6M + 2SM, cariótipos simétricos, núcleos reticulados em intérfase e cromossomos com condensação uniforme da cromatina da prófase para a metáfase. A coloração com fluorocromos mostrou diferenças na quantidade e distribuição de heterocromatina ao longo dos cromossomos e entre os acessos estudados. Com base no padrão de distribuição desses pequenos polimorfismos, foi possível separar os sete acessos em três grupos. Também foi possível diferenciar individualmente alguns dos acessos. Um dos resultados obtidos mostrou distensão heteromórfica da região organizadora nucleolar observada nos pares dos cromossomos 6 ou 7 com características peculiares. Foi sugerido, por exemplo, que o bloco heteromórfico de heterocromatina (CMA +++ / DAPI-) no cromossomo 6 do acesso "Branco Mineiro Piauí" pode ser usado como um marcador para identificar esse genótipo ou pode estar associado a algum caráter de interesse econômico.


Assuntos
Alho , Brasil , Heterocromatina/genética , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244480, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278535

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of garlic as a growth promoter in larvae of angelfish Pterophyllum scalare and its benefits during transport of juveniles of this species. The experiment was conducted in recirculation aquaculture system, consisting of 20 tanks of 40 L equipped with independent water input and output. We used 1,400 larvae distributed among five treatments, with four repetitions, which totaled 20 experimental units. The treatments were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg of garlic extract per kilo of feed. The results showed that the inclusion of levels of garlic extract in the feed did not significantly effect the fish's development or their transport. Neither did the inclusion of levels of garlic extract affect the survival of the larvae during the trial period. New research with extracts of higher dosages should be performed to elucidate the effect of garlic extract as a growth promoter.


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades do alho como promotor de crescimento em larvas de acará bandeira Pterophyllum scalare e seus benefícios no transporte de juvenis da mesma espécie. O experimento foi conduzido em sistema de recirculação composto por 20 aquários de 40 L de volume útil, dotado de entrada e saída de água independentes e teve a duração de 40 dias. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, totalizando 20 unidades experimentais. Foram utilizadas 1.400 larvas de acará bandeira (Pterophyllum scalare) divididas entre os tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiram em: 0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mg de extrato de alho por quilo de ração. Os resultados mostraram que não houve efeito significativo dos níveis de inclusão do extrato do alho sobre os índices zootécnicos avaliados e posteriormente no transporte dos juvenis. Também não foi observado influência na sobrevivência das larvas durante o período experimental. Novas pesquisas com dosagens maiores de extratos devem ser realizados para melhor elucidação do efeito do extrato de alho como promotor de crescimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos , Alho , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aquicultura , Larva
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 295: 115403, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643209

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves, bark, and roots of Gallesia integrifolia are consumed in folk medicine through infusion, decoction, and topical preparation by crushing because of its pharmacological properties in several peripheral system disorders, including microbial infections. The presence of various molecules in different parts of the plant likely confers this species' fungicidal action, but scientific evidence is lacking. Vulvovaginal candidiasis mainly affects women of reproductive age. When left untreated, it can cause pregnancy complications. Currently available antifungals often cause undesirable side effects. New alternative therapeutic strategies based on medicinal plants have been proposed. AIM: To investigate the antifungal activity of G. integrifolia against vulvovaginal candidiasis secretion in pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antifungal activity was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), determined by broth microdilution method using Candida spp (NEWP1210), C. albicans (CCCD-CC001), C. tropicalis (CCCD-CC002) standard and clinical isolates from pregnant women with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Nystatin and fluconazole were used as positive controls. The chemical composition of essential oils that were extracted from leaves, flowers, and fruits of G. integrifolia was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Reverse docking was used to suggest a possible target in Candida. Conventional docking was used to identify the most probable compound that inhibits fungal growth. RESULTS: A total of 24 compounds were identified, accounting for ∼99% of volatile constituents in the essential oils. Leaves of G. integrifolia contained 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (40.93%), flowers contained methionine ethyl ester (46.78%), and fruits contained 2,8-dithianonane (54.01%) as the most abundant compounds. The MICs of essential oils of leaves, flowers, and fruits of G. integrifolia against standard strains of Candida spp, C. albicans, and C. tropicalis ranged from 13.01 to 625.00 µg/mL. The essential oil of flowers more effectively inhibited Candida spp. Essential oils of leaves and flowers were similar to fluconazole against C. albicans. Essential oils of flowers and fruits were similar to fluconazole against C. tropocalis. In Candida yeast species that were isolated from vaginal secretion samples from pregnant patients, the MICs of leaves and flowers ranged from 52.08 to 5000.00 µg/mL. The essential oil of leaves (277.77 µg/mL) was the most active against C. albicans. No significant differences were found between the essential oils of leaves and flowers against C. glabrata. Docking simulations suggested that phytol in leaves and flowers was responsible for the antimicrobial effect. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest the potential therapeutic use of G. integrifolia, especially its leaves and flowers, against Candida and vulvovaginal candidiasis.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal , Alho , Óleos Voláteis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida , Candida albicans , Candida glabrata , Candida tropicalis , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Feminino , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Gestantes
4.
Carbohydr Res ; 518: 108599, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671643

RESUMO

Garlic has been considered as a source of highly promising functional food and traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years. Garlic polysaccharides is one of the important effective components of garlic, which has various bioactivities, including immune-enhancing, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant. Garlic polysaccharides is mainly composed of monosaccharides, such as Fru, Glc, and Gal, having a (2 â†’ 1)-linked ß-D-Fruf backbone with (2 â†’ 6)-linked ß-D-Fruf side chains. With great marketing potential and development prospects, garlic polysaccharides has drawn much attention from researchers worldwide. Therefore, this review aimed at providing systematic and current information on the extraction, isolation, structural characteristics, and bioactivities of garlic polysaccharides to support their further application as therapeutic agents and functional foods.


Assuntos
Alho , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Alho/química , Monossacarídeos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química
5.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt E): 113559, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660407

RESUMO

The revolutionary growth in the usage of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) in different areas have ultimately directed their discharge in the environment and further augmented the exposure of agricultural crops to these released particles. Therefore, the aim of current study is to evaluate the uptake, translocation and phytotoxicity of blue emissive CQDs on Allium sativum plant. The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assessment of CQDs towards Allium sativum roots was estimated as function of three different concentrations. Considering the role of CQDs in promoting seed germination at 50 ppm concentration, a greenhouse experiment was performed to evaluate their effect on plant growth. Systematic investigations have shown the translocation of CQDs and their physiological response in terms of increased shoot length wherein P-CQDs exhibited more accumulation into Allium sativum parts. Our investigations unfold the opportunity to utilize Aegle marmelos fruit derived CQDs as a growth regulator in variety of other food plants.


Assuntos
Alho , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono/toxicidade , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35628468

RESUMO

H2S has acquired great attention in plant research because it has signaling functions under physiological and stress conditions. However, the direct detection of endogenous H2S and its potential emission is still a challenge in higher plants. In order to achieve a comparative analysis of the content of H2S among different plants with agronomical and nutritional interest including pepper fruits, broccoli, ginger, and different members of the genus Allium such as garlic, leek, Welsh and purple onion, the endogenous H2S and its emission was determined using an ion-selective microelectrode and a specific gas detector, respectively. The data show that endogenous H2S content range from pmol to µmol H2S · g-1 fresh weight whereas the H2S emission of fresh-cut vegetables was only detected in the different species of the genus Allium with a maximum of 9 ppm in garlic cloves. Additionally, the activity and isozymes of the L-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) were analyzed, which is one of the main enzymatic sources of H2S, where the different species of the genus Allium showed the highest activities. Using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, the data indicated the presence of up to nine different LCD isozymes from one in ginger to four in onion, leek, and broccoli. In summary, the data indicate a correlation between higher LCD activity with the endogenous H2S content and its emission in the analyzed horticultural species. Furthermore, the high content of endogenous H2S in the Allium species supports the recognized benefits for human health, which are associated with its consumption.


Assuntos
Brassica , Alho , Gengibre , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Cebolas , Brassica/química , Cistationina gama-Liase , Alho/química , Gengibre/química , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Isoenzimas , Cebolas/química
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 210: 639-653, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513099

RESUMO

For many years, garlic has been used as a condiment in food and traditional medicine. However, the garlic skin, which accounts for 25% of the garlic bulk, is considered agricultural waste. In this study, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and garlic extract (GE) from garlic skin were isolated and used as fillers to manufacture biocomposite films. The films were characterized in terms of UV barrier, thermal, mechanical, biodegradability, and antimicrobial activity. The chitosan-containing films and CNCs have significantly improved the films' tensile strength, Young's modulus, and elongation but decreased the film transparency compared to chitosan films. The combination of the CNCs and GE, on the other hand, slightly reduced the mechanical properties. The addition of CNCs slightly decreased the film transparency, while the addition of GE significantly improved the UV barrier properties. Thermal studies revealed that the incorporation of CNC and GE had minimal effect on the thermal stability of the chitosan films. The degradability rate of the chitosan composite films was found to be higher than that of the neat chitosan films. The antimicrobial properties of films were studied against Escherichia coli, Streptomyces griseorubens, Streptomyces alboviridis, and Staphylococcus aureus, observing that their growth was considerably inhibited by the addition of GE in composite films. Films incorporating both CNCs and GE from garlic skin hold more promise for active food packaging applications due to a combination of enhanced physical characteristics and antibacterial activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Alho , Nanopartículas , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Celulose/química , Quitosana/química , Escherichia coli , Embalagem de Alimentos , Nanopartículas/química
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564518

RESUMO

Garlic-related misinformation is prevalent whenever a virus outbreak occurs. With the outbreak of COVID-19, garlic-related misinformation is spreading through social media, including Twitter. Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) can be used to classify misinformation from a vast number of tweets. This study aimed to apply the BERT model for classifying misinformation on garlic and COVID-19 on Twitter, using 5929 original tweets mentioning garlic and COVID-19 (4151 for fine-tuning, 1778 for test). Tweets were manually labeled as 'misinformation' and 'other.' We fine-tuned five BERT models (BERTBASE, BERTLARGE, BERTweet-base, BERTweet-COVID-19, and BERTweet-large) using a general COVID-19 rumor dataset or a garlic-specific dataset. Accuracy and F1 score were calculated to evaluate the performance of the models. The BERT models fine-tuned with the COVID-19 rumor dataset showed poor performance, with maximum accuracy of 0.647. BERT models fine-tuned with the garlic-specific dataset showed better performance. BERTweet models achieved accuracy of 0.897-0.911, while BERTBASE and BERTLARGE achieved accuracy of 0.887-0.897. BERTweet-large showed the best performance with maximum accuracy of 0.911 and an F1 score of 0.894. Thus, BERT models showed good performance in classifying misinformation. The results of our study will help detect misinformation related to garlic and COVID-19 on Twitter.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Alho , Mídias Sociais , Comunicação , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268516, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580085

RESUMO

Brazil presents large yield gaps in garlic crops partly due to nutrient mismanagement at local scale. Machine learning (ML) provides powerful tools to handle numerous combinations of yield-impacting factors that help reducing the number of assumptions about nutrient management. The aim of the current study is to customize fertilizer recommendations to reach high garlic marketable yield at local scale in a pilot study. Thus, collected 15 nitrogen (N), 24 phosphorus (P), and 27 potassium (K) field experiments conducted during the 2015 to 2017 period in Santa Catarina state, Brazil. In addition, 61 growers' observational data were collected in the same region in 2018 and 2019. The data set was split into 979 experimental and observational data for model calibration and into 45 experimental data (2016) to test ML models and compare the results to state recommendations. Random Forest (RF) was the most accurate ML to predict marketable yield after cropping system (cultivar, preceding crops), climatic indices, soil test and fertilization were included features as predictor (R2 = 0.886). Random Forest remained the most accurate ML model (R2 = 0.882) after excluding cultivar and climatic features from the prediction-making process. The model suggested the application of 200 kg N ha-1 to reach maximum marketable yield in a test site in comparison to the 300 kg N ha-1 set as state recommendation. P and K fertilization also seemed to be excessive, and it highlights the great potential to reduce production costs and environmental footprint without agronomic loss. Garlic root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi likely contributed to P and K uptake. Well-documented data sets and machine learning models could support technology transfer, reduce costs with fertilizers and yield gaps, and sustain the Brazilian garlic production.


Assuntos
Alho , Produtos Agrícolas , Fertilizantes/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Projetos Piloto , Solo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(19): 5829-5837, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522133

RESUMO

A number of reports of the effects of garlic on gut microbiota revealed that the active garlic organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are destabilized by the action of alliinase during garlic preparation. In this study, garlic alliinase was deactivated to obtain stable garlic OSCs. Experiments with C57BL/6J mice fed with lipid and glucose metabolic disorder-inducing Western diet (WD) revealed that stable garlic OSCs prevented the disorder by increasing the relative abundance of gut Bacteroides acidifaciens. Molecular analysis indicated that garlic OSCs inhibited dyslipidemia and fatty liver by increasing taurine and subsequently promoting hepatic fatty acid ß-oxidation. In parallel, garlic OSCs could meliorate glucose homeostasis by inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and hepatic gluconeogenesis. In vitro bacterial culture experiments revealed that garlic OSCs directly increased the growth of gut Bacteroides acidifaciens. The results of this study demonstrate that the molecular mechanism of the preventive effect of garlic OSCs on the WD-induced metabolic disorder is attributed to the enhanced growth of Bacteroides acidifaciens and the consequent increase in taurine.


Assuntos
Alho , Animais , Bacteroides , Glucose , Lipídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Compostos de Enxofre , Taurina
11.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 6573754, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514610

RESUMO

Allium species including garlic and leek exhibits a broad range of medicinal and nutritional properties. Therefore, this study investigates the physicochemical and biological activities of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and leek (A. ampeloprasum L. var. Porrum) oil extracts. The result indicated that physicochemical properties indicated that significantly higher oil yield (21.25%), ACV (2.66 mg/g), FFA (1.34%), and PV (4.10 meq/kg) and also antioxidant activities with respect to 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH (27.60 ± 1.55%), hydrogen peroxide (12.35 ± 0.92%) free radical scavenging activities, and ascorbic acid content (25.30 ± 3.25%) were obtained for leek leaf oil extract. Stronger antibacterial activity with a maximum zone of inhibition (16.00 mm), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (0.20 µg/ml), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) (0.40 µg/ml) was recorded for leek oil extract against S. pyogenes. However, garlic oil has presented stronger antifungal activity with a maximum zone of inhibition (13.50 mm), MIC (0.40 µg/ml), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) (0.75 µg/ml) against Candida albicans. It is concluded from the results of this investigation that oils extracts of garlic bulb and leek leaves demonstrated significant biological activities that can be used as sources for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients.


Assuntos
Allium , Produtos Biológicos , Alho , Allium/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Alho/química , Óleos/análise , Cebolas/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
12.
J Anim Sci ; 100(5)2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426435

RESUMO

One hundred and forty-four Angus × Simmental steers were allotted by body weight (BW; 363 kg), breed composition, and farm origin to a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of six treatments (4 pens per treatment) to determine the effect of Mootral (garlic + citrus extract; 0.25% of the diet dry matter [DM] vs. 0.0%) on methane (CH4) emissions, growth, and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. During the first 84 d, cattle were fed three different forage concentrations in the diet (15%, 41.5%, or 68% corn silage) with or without Mootral. From day 85 to slaughter, corn silage was included at 15% of the diet DM with or without Mootral. CH4 emissions were measured on day 42 to 46 and day 203 to 207. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Mootral did not affect CH4 emissions on days 42 to 46 (P ≥ 0.47), but there was a forage effect, where steers fed the 68% corn silage emitted more CH4 on a g/d (P = 0.05) and a g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI; P = 0.007) basis and tended (P = 0.07) to produce more CH4 on g/kg BW basis compared to steers fed the 15% corn silage diet. On day 203 to 207, steers fed Mootral emitted less (P ≤ 0.03) CH4 on a g/d, g/kg DMI, and g/kg BW basis compared to steers not fed Mootral. There was an interaction (P = 0.03) between forage concentration and Mootral for DMI from day 0 to 84, where Mootral decreased DMI of steers fed 15% corn silage but did not affect DMI of steers fed 41.5% or 68% corn silage. There were no effects (P ≥ 0.22) of forage concentration or Mootral on BW or average daily gain at any time, or on DMI from day 84 to slaughter and overall. However, overall calculated net energy for maintenance (NEm) and net energy for gain (NEg) tended to be greater for steers fed Mootral (P ≤ 0.10). Intake from day 0 to 84 was lower and gain:feed from day 0 to 84 and overall was greater (P = 0.04) for steers fed 68% compared to steers fed 41.5% corn silage. Calculated NEm and NEg from day 0 to 84 and overall were greater for steers fed 68% corn silage compared to steers fed 41.5% corn silage (P ≤ 0.03). Mootral tended to decrease (P ≤ 0.09) fat thickness and yield grade. In conclusion, increasing forage concentration increased CH4 emissions and Mootral decreased CH4 production in 15% corn silage diets and tended to improve carcass leanness.


Methane (CH4) production from enteric fermentation in ruminant animals is a contributor to global CH4, which is a greenhouse gas. Mootral (Mootral SA, Rolle, Switzerland) is a feed supplement that contains garlic and bitter orange extracts that are known to inhibit methanogenic bacteria. The objective of the current study was to quantify CH4 production and determine growth, intake, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed Mootral in diets with a low, medium, and high forage concentration. Our findings demonstrate that increasing forage concentration increased CH4 emissions and that Mootral decreased CH4 production in 15% corn silage diets and improved carcass leanness. Mootral could be used in commercial feedlots and other grain-feeding scenarios as an effective method to decrease CH4 emissions.


Assuntos
Citrus , Alho , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Metano , Melhoramento Vegetal , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
13.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 2998190, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35370482

RESUMO

Dormancy of freshly harvested garlic cloves does not allow early emergence, and preplanting garlic clove treatment is critical for more than one cycle of production in a year. This field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of treating cloves on emergence, growth, and yield of "Tseday" variety during the main cropping season of 2014/2015 and off-season of 2015/16 at Haramaya University. The experiment was arranged in a factorial combination of four (cold stored at 7°C for the duration of 10, 20, and 30 days and stored at room temperature 21°C for 30 days as control), two (whole and topped clove), and four GA3 treatment at concentration of 0, 125, 250, and 375 mg/l and distilled water treatment as second control laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The three main factors (clove type, cold storage duration, and GA3) and growing season showed significant influence on phenology, growth, bulb yield and yield components, and all size categories of cloves, while GA3 showed nonsignificant effect on days to emergence of cloves. Clove type interacted with cold storage duration and GA3, and cold storage duration interacted with GA3 significantly to influence all characters of the variety. In addition, the growing season also interacted with clove type and GA3 to influence all categories of clove size, bulb diameter, average bulb weight, and total bulb yield. The three main factors (clove type × cold storage duration × GA3) interaction significantly influenced all characteristics of the variety. However, 30 days of cold-stored and topped cloves reduced dormancy period and days to maturity by 18.84 and 19.50 days, respectively, and increased total bulb yield by 70.32% as compared to the control treatment. In addition, this treatment combination significantly increased most of the growth and bulb yield components, while the number and weight of small-sized cloves were decreased. Hence, it can be concluded that 30 days of cold storage and topping of cloves without soaking under GA3 could be recommended to enhance early emergence, good vegetative growth, and total bulb yield of the garlic variety both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions.


Assuntos
Alho , Syzygium , Temperatura Baixa , Giberelinas , Humanos , Temperatura
14.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 276: 121197, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381439

RESUMO

Biowaste based nanoadsorbents have gained much attention in the recent times for wastewater decolourization owing to their low cost, high surface area and high adsorption capacities. In the present research, garlic peel based nanoparticles (GCNP) were synthesized at different temperatures by a one step pyrolytic green approach for the effective removal of cationic dye, malachite green from the aqueous medium. The surface properties of Garlic nanoparticles were elucidated by N2 adsorption- desorption and all the GCNP samples were found to exhibit Type IV(a) isotherm indicating the presence of mesopores in carbon matrix. Using BET calculations, highest surface area (380 m2/g) was obtained for GCNP synthesized at 1000 ◦C. Characterization of nanoparticles was done by XRD, EDAX, SEM and FTIR studies before and after the dye treatment. Adsorption studies conducted using different parameters like contact time, concentration and pH and dosage of adsorbent showed removal efficiency above 90% for the contact time of 70 min. Best adsorption experimental results were obtained for GCNP synthesized at 1000 °C ascribable to its high surface area, higher total pore volume (0.26 cm2/g) and higher carbon content. Four adsorption isotherm models were used to validate batch equillibrium studies and the results showed data in good agreement with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms with maximum Langmuir adsorbtion capactiy to be 373.7 mg/g. Kinetic modelling of the data showed best fit with the Pseudo second order model with rate constant value of 48.726 g mg-1 min-1. Regenerative studies were conducted conducted upto 6 cycles. Also the GC nanoparticles were tested for their compatibility in membrane form wherein, removal efficiency results were obtained for GCNP anchored in polyvinyl difluoride (PVDF) and polysulfone (PSF) membrane matrix for dye adsorption.


Assuntos
Alho , Nanosferas , Carbono , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Corantes de Rosanilina , Água/química
15.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408576

RESUMO

Biofilm control by essential oil (EO) application has recently increased to preclude biofilm production on foods and environmental surfaces. In this work, the anti-biofilm effects of garlic and thyme essential oils using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against Salmonella typhimurium recovered from different abattoir samples were investigated along with the virulence genes (InvA, SdiA and Stn genes), and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of S. typhimurium as well. The obtained results revealed that S. typhimurium contaminated abattoir samples to varying degrees. The InvA gene was investigated in all isolates, whereas the SdiA and Stn genes were observed in four and three isolates, respectively. Utilizing the disc diffusion method, S. typhimurium isolates demonstrated substantial resistance to most of the examined antibiotics with a high multiple antibiotic resistance index. S. typhimurium isolates demonstrated biofilm formation abilities to various degrees at varied temperatures levels (4 °C and 37 °C). In conclusion, the obtained samples from the research area are regarded as a potential S. typhimurium contamination source. Furthermore, garlic essential oil (GEO) has more potential to inhibit S. typhimurium biofilm at different sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations as compared to thyme essential oil (TEO). Therefore, these EOs are considered as potential natural antibacterial options that could be applied in food industry.


Assuntos
Alho , Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética
16.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 86(6): 792-799, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388878

RESUMO

S-Allyl-l-cysteine (SAC) has received much interest due to its beneficial effects on human health. To satisfy the increasing demand for SAC, this study aims to develop a valuable culturing method for microbial screening synthesizing SAC from readily available materials. Although tryptophan synthase is a promising enzyme for SAC synthesis, its expression in microorganisms is strictly regulated by environmental l-tryptophan. Thus, we constructed a semisynthetic medium lacking l-tryptophan using casamino acids. This medium successfully enhanced the SAC-synthesizing activity of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris NBRC 100676. In addition, microorganisms with high SAC-synthesizing activity were screened by the same medium. Food-related Klebsiella pneumoniae K-15 and Pantoea agglomerans P-3 were found to have a significantly increased SAC-synthesizing activity. The SAC-producing process established in this study is shorter in duration than the conventional garlic aging method. Furthermore, this study proposes a promising alternative strategy for producing food-grade SAC by microorganisms.


Assuntos
Cisteína , Alho , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cisteína/química , Alho/química , Humanos , Triptofano/metabolismo
17.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111047, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400432

RESUMO

Protein is one of the main nutrients in garlic with multiple functions and healthy effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of greening process on the functional and structural properties of garlic protein, and proteomic strategy was applied to analyze the changes of protein compositions as well as their activities. Results showed that the manufacturing process led to a smaller isoelectric point (pI) and larger particle size of garlic protein (Laba garlic protein, LP) compared to the unprocessed one (untreated white garlic protein, WP). Circular dichroism (CD) and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra showed that the dominant α-helix structure was lost and became random coil in LP. The surface hydrophobicity was also decreased after processing. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed that molecular weight distributions of WP varied from 10 to 80 kDa but those of LP were in 10 to 25 kDa. In the functional property analysis, greening process resulted in poor emulsifying ability for WP at pH 7.2, but led to an increase in water holding capacity (WHC). The proteomic analysis indicated that WP had numerous kinds of proteins and the vital alliinase in WP was lost in LP, and only 6 types of proteins were reserved. The proteins in WP were presumably degraded into peptides in LP. This study firstly applied proteomic analysis to investigate the protein differences in garlic processing, and based on the significant properties difference, WP might be a promising agent for additives in food industry, while LP might be a potential source for bioactive peptides extraction and separation.


Assuntos
Alho , Antioxidantes , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Alho/química , Peptídeos , Proteínas , Proteômica
18.
Food Chem ; 388: 132945, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472626

RESUMO

In order to lower the nitrite content in prepared vegetable dishes (PVDs) within a week, microcapsules loaded with garlic essential oils (GEO) were prepared using modified chitosan (CS) with different mass ratios of gallic acid (GA) to CS, and their physicochemical properties were determined. The effects of GEO alone and of microcapsules made using native CS and GA-CS (GA-grafted CS) with the highest conjugation degree on the nitrite content in PVDS were measured quantitatively. Also, the reasons for the differences were identified. The results showed that the microcapsules prepared using GA-CS (at a mass ratio of 0.5:1) presented the best physicochemical properties, including antioxidant activity, encapsulation efficiency, sustained release, etc. GA-CS microcapsules enhanced growth inhibition of bacteria producing nitrites, thus showing its excellent ability to inhibit nitrites, compared to GEO alone and microcapsules made using native CS. GA-CS encapsulation is a new option to lower the nitrite content in PVDs.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Alho , Óleos Voláteis , Antioxidantes/química , Cápsulas/química , Quitosana/química , Ácido Gálico/química , Nitritos , Verduras
19.
Biomolecules ; 12(4)2022 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454169

RESUMO

After the discovery of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the central nervous system by Abe and Kimura in 1996, the physiopathological role of H2S has been widely investigated in several systems such as the cardiovascular. In particular, H2S plays a pivotal role in the control of vascular tone, exhibiting mechanisms of action able to induce vasodilation: for instance, activation of potassium channels (KATP and Kv7) and inhibition of 5-phosphodiesterase (5-PDE). These findings paved the way for the research of natural and synthetic exogenous H2S-donors (i.e., molecules able to release H2S) in order to have new tools for the management of hypertension. In this scenario, some natural molecules derived from Alliaceae (i.e., garlic) and Brassicaceae (i.e., rocket or broccoli) botanical families show the profile of slow H2S-donors able to mimic the endogenous production of this gasotransmitter and therefore can be viewed as interesting potential tools for management of hypertension or pre-hypertension. In this article, the preclinical and clinical impacts of these natural H2S-donors on hypertension and vascular integrity have been reviewed in order to give a complete panorama of their potential use for the management of hypertension and related vascular diseases.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Sistema Cardiovascular , Alho , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Hipertensão , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatação
20.
J Environ Manage ; 312: 114919, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358846

RESUMO

The development of cost-effective and applied catalysts for organic pollutants degradation is the cornerstone for the future valorizations of these hazardous wastes. Garlic peel was employed as solid support for the assembly of cobalt nanoparticles and was further applied for the catalytic degradation of 4-nitrophenol, bromophenol blue, and a mixture of both. A Cobalt@garlic peel nanocomposite with the morphology of semi-spherical and randomly distributed nanoparticles was prepared without the aid of any hazardous chemicals. The functional groups facilitated the adsorption of cobalt ions onto the surface of garlic peel through van der Waals forces and/or hydrogen bonds. The catalytic experiments were carried out under different operational parameters including pollutant concentration, catalytic dosage, and pH value to identify the optimal conditions for the model solutions. The results showed that the optimal pH for 4-nitrophenol degradation was around 9 and the maximum rate constant 4.56 × 10-3 sec-1. The most prominent feature of the proposed catalyst is the easy/efficient recovery and recycling of the nanoparticles from the reacting medium. This work provided a simple method for designing other similar biomass-stabilized nanocatalysts which might sharply reduce the catalytic treatment costs and broaden the scope of applications.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Alho , Nanocompostos , Adsorção , Catálise , Cobalto/química , Poluentes Ambientais/química
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