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1.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 86(1): 129-144, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914021

RESUMO

Reptiles and amphibians are exceptional hosts for different ectoparasites, including mites and ticks. In this study, we investigated tick infestations on reptiles and amphibians trapped in Central Amazonia, and also assessed the presence of rickettsial infections in the collected ticks. From September 2016 to September 2019, 385 reptiles (350 lizards, 20 snakes, 12 tortoises, and three caimans) and 120 amphibians (119 anurans and one caecilian) were captured and examined for ectoparasites. Overall, 35 (10%) lizards, three (25%) tortoises and one (0.8%) toad were parasitized by ticks (124 larvae, 32 nymphs, and 22 adults). In lizards, tick infestation varied significantly according to landscape category and age group. Based on combined morphological and molecular analyses, these ticks were identified as Amblyomma humerale (14 larvae, 12 nymphs, 19 males, and one female), Amblyomma nodosum (three larvae, one nymph, and one female), and Amblyomma rotundatum (four larvae, three nymphs, and one female), and Amblyomma spp. (103 larvae and 16 nymphs). Our study presents the first records of A. nodosum in the Amazonas state and suggests that teiid lizards are important hosts for larvae and nymphs of A. humerale in Central Amazonia. Moreover, a nymph of A. humerale collected from a common tegu (Tupinambis teguixin) was found positive for Rickettsia amblyommatis, which agrees with previous reports, suggesting that the A. humerale-R. amblyommatis relationship may be more common than currently recognized.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Infestações por Carrapato , Carrapatos , Animais , Brasil , Bufonidae , Feminino , Masculino , Ninfa , Répteis , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2411: 253-267, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816410

RESUMO

Ticks are increasingly a global public health and veterinary concern. They transmit numerous pathogens that are of veterinary and public health importance. Acaricides, livestock breeding for tick resistance, tick handpicking, pasture spelling, and anti-tick vaccines (ATVs) are in use for the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs); acaricides and ATVs being the most and least used TTBD control methods respectively. The overuse and misuse of acaricides has inadvertently selected for tick strains that are resistant to acaricides. Furthermore, vaccines are rare and not commercially available in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It doesn't help that many of the other methods are labor-intensive and found impractical especially for larger farm operations. The success of TTBD control is therefore dependent on integrating all the currently available methods. Vaccines have been shown to be cheap and effective. However, their large-scale deployment for TTBD control in SSA is hindered by commercial unavailability of efficacious anti-tick vaccines against sub-Saharan African tick strains. Thanks to advances in genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics technologies, many promising anti-tick vaccine antigens (ATVA) have been identified. However, few of them have been investigated for their potential as ATV candidates. Reverse vaccinology (RV) can be leveraged to accelerate ATV discovery. It is cheap and shortens the lead time from ATVA discovery to vaccine production. This chapter provides a brief overview of recent advances in ATV development, ATVs, ATV effector mechanisms, and anti-tick RV. Additionally, it provides a detailed outline of vaccine antigen selection and analysis using computational methods.


Assuntos
Infestações por Carrapato , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Vacinas , Acaricidas , Animais , Antígenos , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/prevenção & controle
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2411: 287-305, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816412

RESUMO

Vaccines are the most effective preventive intervention to reduce the impact of infectious diseases worldwide. In particular, tick-borne diseases represent a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide and vaccines are the most effective and environmentally sound approach for the control of vector infestations and pathogen transmission. However, the development of effective vaccines for the control of tick-borne diseases with combined vector-derived and pathogen-derived antigens is one of the limitations for the development of effective vaccine formulations. Quantum biology arise from findings suggesting that living cells operate under non-trivial features of quantum mechanics, which has been proposed to be involved in DNA mutation biological process. Then, the electronic structure of the molecular interactions behind peptide immunogenicity led to quantum immunology and based on the definition of the photon as a quantum of light, the immune protective epitopes were proposed as the immunological quantum. Recently, a quantum vaccinomics approach was proposed based on the characterization of the immunological quantum to further advance the design of more effective and safe vaccines. In this chapter, we describe methods of the quantum vaccinomics approach based on proteins with key functions in cell interactome and regulome of vector-host-pathogen interactions for the identification by yeast two-hybrid screen and the characterization by in vitro protein-protein interactions and musical scores of protein interacting domains, and the characterization of conserved protective epitopes in protein interacting domains. These results can then be used for the design and production of chimeric protective antigens.


Assuntos
Infestações por Carrapato , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Vacinas , Animais , Antígenos , Epitopos , Humanos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2411: 307-330, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816413

RESUMO

Over the years, RNA interference (RNAi) has evolved as a valuable tool to study the tick gene function, screening and preliminary characterization of tick-protective antigens in a relatively short time, with a minimal use of laboratory animals before conducting expensive vaccine trials for the development of improved vaccine composition. In this process, a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of gene of interest is introduced into the tick system which specifically suppresses expression of a target gene. The results of RNAi-based gene silencing were interpreted by reduction in targeted gene transcript, changes in phenotypic data and anatomical/ biochemical changes in ticks; thereby, providing a clue to the probable role played by the gene in the tick biological system. Across the globe, various tick research groups applied RNAi technique for characterization and identification of new anti-tick vaccine targets. Herein, we used the RNAi tool in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks for identification and characterization of vaccine candidates.


Assuntos
Interferência de RNA , Carrapatos , Vacinas , Animais , Antígenos/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Tecnologia
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2411: 331-341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816414

RESUMO

Ticks are classified as hematophagous arthropods and transfer a variety of pathogens-such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoans-to vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. These transmitted pathogens cause infectious diseases that continue to affect both humans and animals worldwide. Chemical acaricides are commonly used for tick control to prevent infectious diseases. However, the continuous use of acaricides leads to the emergence of acaricide-resistant tick species; thus, alternative methods for tick control are necessary. Vaccination of vertebrate hosts with tick-derived molecules is considered to be a better alternative against ticks than chemical acaricides because ticks feed on host blood for several days and also concentrate the host blood with antibodies. On the other hand, the host's immune responses against pathogens mainly take two pathways-Th1 (cell-mediated immunity) and Th2 (humoral immunity) pathways. Thus, the vaccine can suggest which immune pathway is more important for vaccination. This chapter describes the procedures of immunizing laboratory animals-mice-with a recombinant tick protein for the preliminary evaluation of its potential as an anti-tick vaccine candidate. In addition, the method of evaluating the antigen-specific antibody production in the host using ELISA is described, as is the subsequent tick-infestation challenge for determining the effectiveness of vaccination.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Carrapatos , Vacinas , Animais , Antígenos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunização , Camundongos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Vacinação
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2411: 343-358, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816415

RESUMO

Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that infect domestic animals, humans, and wildlife. Ticks can transmit a wide range of pathogens (viruses, rickettsia, bacteria, parasites, etc.), and some of those are of zoonotic importance. Tick-borne diseases have a negative economic impact in several tropical and subtropical countries. With climate change, tick distribution and tick-associated pathogens have increased. Currently, tick control procedures have more environmental drawbacks and there are pitfalls in vaccination process. Since vaccinations have helped to prevent several diseases and infections, several vaccination trials are ongoing to control ticks and tick-borne pathogens. However, autoimmune reactions to vaccinations are reported as an adverse reaction since vaccines were used to protect against disease in humans and animals. The antibodies against the vaccine antigen might harm similar antigen in the host. Therefore, in this chapter, we attempt to shed light on the importance of raising awareness of possible adverse events associated with vaccinations and the methods that should be used to address this problem. In silico and lab work should be performed ahead of the vaccination process to evaluate the vaccine candidates and avoid the vaccination opposing consequences.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Vacinas , Animais , Autoimunidade , Humanos , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 423-429, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914061

RESUMO

The obligately Gram-negative intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia that resides in mononuclear phagocytes is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME). HME is an emerging and often life-threatening, tick-transmitted infectious disease in the USA. Currently, three different Ehrlichia species can cause ehrlichiosis in humans in the USA-Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Ehrlichia muris subspecies eauclairensis. Ehrlichia also causes diseases in companion animals and domesticated ruminants. Ehrlichia are vector-borne diseases and transmitted by tick bites. As yet there are no commercially available vaccines to protect against these pathogens. Previously we developed structure-based vaccines and subunit vaccines to protect against ehrlichiosis in animal models. Though the vaccines are efficient in inducing protection, there is a delay in clearing the pathogens in challenge studies. In this chapter we demonstrate the development of a SONIX vaccine that is more potent than conventional vaccines. The vaccination strategy may be useful in Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) scenarios during public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Ehrlichiose , Carrapatos , Animais , Ehrlichia/imunologia , Ehrlichiose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vacinação , Vacinas de Subunidades
8.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(3): 523-529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953128

RESUMO

Amblyomma tigrinum is a tick species widely distributed in South America. In Argentina, it has been recorded to occur in nearly all phytogeographic regions, exhibiting its plasticity to different types of environments. This tick is of medical and veterinary importance because its adult stages have been recorded primarily in mammals, including humans. Specifically in San Juan province, records of A. tigrinum are almost non-existent, with only two mentions, but which have no indication of host or specific place of collection. For this reason, the goal of this study is to report the first case of A. tigrinum in Argentina, as well as two new parasite-host associations of the adult tick in other carnivores in San Juan. We analyzed two individuals, one puma and one fox, which arrived at the Wildlife Rehabilitation, Environmental Education and Responsible Recreation Center (Parque Faunistico). Moreover, we analyzed one canid specimen obtained during a field sampling event. Our results indicated new records for San Juan province of A. tigrinum parasitizing Canis familiaris and Lycalopex gymnocercus, in addition to the first record for Argentina of this tick parasitizing a Puma concolor individual. The present study affords novel information about natural associations for carnivore hosts in San Juan province, and the first record of this tick on a puma for Argentina. Thus, we are contributing to the knowledge of parasite-host relationships on the group of carnivores in Argentina.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Puma , Infestações por Carrapato , Carrapatos , Amblyomma , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
9.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(12): 589-592, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34908374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to identify and to describe cases of pediatric tick paralysis presenting to an emergency department in southern Louisiana during an 11-year period. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0 to 18 years with a diagnostic code of toxic effect of venom, tick-borne viral encephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, acute infective polyneuritis, or abnormality of gait from July 2005 to June 2016. Data were collected on visit month, patient age, race and sex, tick's attachment site, location of tick removal, symptoms and length of symptoms, initial diagnosis, time to appropriate diagnosis, and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: Nine patients aged 2 to 10 years presented with lower limb weakness and varying degrees of upper extremity ataxia or paralysis, areflexia, dysarthria, diplopia, or petechia. Five cases were accurately and rapidly diagnosed; 4 cases involved a delay in accurate diagnosis. Treatment of the misdiagnosed cases ranged from septic workup to neurologic workup, including magnetic resonance imaging. The tick was discovered by the patients' relative in 4 cases, by a primary care or emergency care physician at another facility in 3 cases, and by 1 of our emergency care physicians in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of tick paralysis in southern Louisiana is unknown. However, our case series indicates that it is likely higher than expected. Although most cases in our facility were quickly diagnosed and treated through tick removal, delayed diagnosis results in unnecessary tests, procedures, and medical costs. All of our cases fully recovered after tick removal.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Paralisia por Carrapato , Carrapatos , Animais , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Paralisia por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Paralisia por Carrapato/epidemiologia
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 769542, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746035

RESUMO

Chemokines are structurally related proteins that activate leucocyte migration in response to injury or infection. Tick saliva contains chemokine-binding proteins or evasins which likely neutralize host chemokine function and inflammation. Biochemical characterisation of 50 evasins from Ixodes, Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus shows that they fall into two functional classes, A and B, with exclusive binding to either CC- or CXC- chemokines, respectively. Class A evasins, EVA1 and EVA4 have a four-disulfide-bonded core, whereas the class B evasin EVA3 has a three-disulfide-bonded "knottin" structure. All 29 class B evasins have six cysteine residues conserved with EVA3, arrangement of which defines a Cys6-motif. Nineteen of 21 class A evasins have eight cysteine residues conserved with EVA1/EVA4, the arrangement of which defines a Cys8-motif. Two class A evasins from Ixodes (IRI01, IHO01) have less than eight cysteines. Many evasin-like proteins have been identified in tick salivary transcriptomes, but their phylogenetic relationship with respect to biochemically characterized evasins is not clear. Here, using BLAST searches of tick transcriptomes with biochemically characterized evasins, we identify 292 class A and 157 class B evasins and evasin-like proteins from Prostriate (Ixodes), and Metastriate (Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus) ticks. Phylogenetic analysis shows that class A evasins/evasin-like proteins segregate into two classes, A1 and A2. Class A1 members are exclusive to Metastriate ticks and typically have a Cys8-motif and include EVA1 and EVA4. Class A2 members are exclusive to Prostriate ticks, lack the Cys8-motif, and include IHO01 and IRI01. Class B evasins/evasin-like proteins are present in both Prostriate and Metastriate lineages, typically have a Cys6-motif, and include EVA3. Most evasins/evasin-like proteins in Metastriate ticks belong to class A1, whereas in Prostriate species they are predominantly class B. In keeping with this, the majority of biochemically characterized Metastriate evasins bind CC-chemokines, whereas the majority of Prostriate evasins bind CXC-chemokines. While the origin of the structurally dissimilar classes A1 and A2 is yet unresolved, these results suggest that class B evasin-like proteins arose before the divergence of Prostriate and Metastriate lineages and likely functioned to neutralize CXC-chemokines and support blood feeding.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Carrapatos , Animais , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Ixodidae/genética , Ixodidae/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Carrapatos/metabolismo
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 769574, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722347

RESUMO

To feed successfully, ticks must bypass or suppress the host's defense mechanisms, particularly the immune system. To accomplish this, ticks secrete specialized immunomodulatory proteins into their saliva, just like many other blood-sucking parasites. However, the strategy of ticks is rather unique compared to their counterparts. Ticks' tendency for gene duplication has led to a diverse arsenal of dozens of closely related proteins from several classes to modulate the immune system's response. Among these are chemokine-binding proteins, complement pathways inhibitors, ion channels modulators, and numerous poorly characterized proteins whose functions are yet to be uncovered. Studying tick immunomodulatory proteins would not only help to elucidate tick-host relationships but would also provide a rich pool of potential candidates for the development of immunomodulatory intervention drugs and potentially new vaccines. In the present review, we will attempt to summarize novel findings on the salivary immunomodulatory proteins of ticks, focusing on biomolecular targets, structure-activity relationships, and the perspective of their development into therapeutics.


Assuntos
Carrapatos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes , Imunomodulação , Saliva , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares
12.
Korean J Parasitol ; 59(5): 489-496, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724768

RESUMO

Ticks can transmit pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, and viruses to humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the microbiomes of Haemaphysalis longicornis according to sex and life stages. The Shannon index was significantly higher for nymphs than adult ticks. Principal coordinates analysis showed that the microbiome composition of female adult and male adult ticks were different. Notably, Coxiella-like bacterium (AB001519), known as a tick symbiont, was found in all nymphs and female adult ticks, but only one out of 4 male adult ticks had Coxiella-like bacterium (AB001519). In addition, Rickettsia rickettsii, Coxiella burnetii, and Anaplasma bovis were detected in this study.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Microbiota , Rickettsia , Carrapatos , Anaplasma , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 120(12): 4067-4072, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725733

RESUMO

Hepatozoon and Hemolivia are members of the haemogregarines and are reported in reptiles and reptile-associated ticks. However, no studies have reported on Hepatozoon and Hemolivia in Japanese reptile-associated ticks. This study aimed to molecularly identify and to characterize Hepatozoon and Hemolivia in Japanese reptile-associated ticks, Amblyomma geoemydae (Cantor, 1847) and Amblyomma nitidum (Hirst & Hirst, 1910). A total of 41 and 75 DNA samples from A. geoemydae and A. nitidum ticks, respectively, were used for screening of Hepatozoon and Hemolivia with polymerase chain reaction targeting 18S rDNA. As a result, Hemolivia and Hepatozoon were detected in two A. geoemydae and one A. nitidum, respectively. The sequences of Hemolivia spp. showed a 99.5% (1,050/1,055 bp) identity with Hemolivia parvula (KR069083), and the Hemolivia spp. were located in the same clade as H. parvula in the phylogenetic tree. The sequences of Hepatozoon sp. showed a 98.4% (1,521/1,545 bp) identity with Hepatozoon colubri (MN723844), and the Hepatozoon sp. was distinct from validated Hepatozoon species in the tree. Our findings highlight the first molecular record of Hemolivia in Japan and present the first detection of Hepatozoon in A. nitidum. Further investigations on these tick-borne protozoa are required to understand their life cycle and pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Carrapatos , Animais , Japão , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Répteis
14.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(11): 570-575, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731875

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: There are many tick-borne infections that affect children and adolescents in the United States. These illnesses often begin with non-specific flulike symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, and myalgia, so obtaining a good travel history is important. Most people do not even realize that they were bitten by a tick, so identification of the specific tick is not necessary. Often, treatment should commence before formal illness identification, as delays may cause more severe disease, and rapid laboratory confirmation is difficult. One of the most important issues is prevention of tick bites with insect repellents, accompanied by thorough tick checks after being outdoors in a tick-infested region.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Picadas de Carrapatos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Febre , Humanos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1187, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of tick-borne pathogens are being discovered, including those that infect humans. However, reports on co-infections caused by two or more tick-borne pathogens are scarce. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old male farmer was bitten by a hard tick, presented with fever (37.7 °C), severe headache and ejection vomiting. Lumbar puncture was performed in the lateral decubitus. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was clear, and analysis showed severe increased pressure (320 mm H2O), mild leukocytosis (126.0 × 106/L, mononuclear cells accounting for 73%) and elevated total protein concentration (0.92 g/L). Bacterial cultures of CSF and blood were negative. The diagnosis of Rickettsia raoultii and Tacheng tick virus 1 (TcTV-1) co-infection was confirmed by amplifying four rickettsial genetic markers and the partial small (S) RNA segment of TcTV-1 from the patient's blood. The patient gradually recovered after treatment with levofloxacin and ribavirin. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported co-infection case with fever and meningitis caused by R. raoultii and TcTV-1. It is vital to screen for multiple pathogens in tick-bitten patients, especially in those with severe complex symptoms.


Assuntos
Meningite , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Picadas de Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Rickettsia/genética , Infecções por Rickettsia/complicações , Infecções por Rickettsia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rickettsia/tratamento farmacológico , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 498, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611774

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of various factors on the host resistance of cattle against tick infestation in Kerala State, South India. The number of naturally infested semi-engorged female ticks present on the cattle was counted on a sample cattle population across the four regions of Kerala. Then, the animals were grouped based on the tick count. The chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used to identify the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on tick burden in cattle. It was found that the Holstein Friesian crossbred and Jersey crossbred cattle had a significantly higher level of tick infestation than the indigenous Vechur breed (Bos indicus). No tick infestation was observed in indigenous Kasaragod Dwarf cattle (B. indicus). Tick infestation was more in heifers and dry animals than lactating animals. However, the sex of the animal and the stage of lactation did not influence the tick load. Tick infestation was also influenced by parity, grazing, and region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Infestações por Carrapato , Carrapatos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Lactação , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(4): e007021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669762

RESUMO

The present study attempted to evaluate the practical experience and methods employed by Brazilian veterinary practitioners for control of parasites. Twenty-one questions were asked of 403 veterinary practitioners based in different climatic zones with reference to parasite epidemiology from the country. Administration of a combination of drugs at three-month intervals was the most common regime recommended for prophylaxis against gastrointestinal helminths, with a single treatment repeated after 15 days. Routine prophylaxis against dog ectoparasites was recommended by 82.4% veterinary practitioners, and 46.6% changed the drug compound used. Monthly prophylaxic treatments for ectoparasites, using systemic, topical and/or collar-impregnated drugs, was recommended by 21.5% veterinary practitioners. Side-effects of ectoparasiticide-impregnated collars were suspected by 58% of the veterinary practitioners. Isoxazolines were the most frequently used chemical group to treat ectoparasites in dogs. Poor efficacy of fipronil in controlling ticks was suspected by 79.5% of the veterinary practitioners. The isoxazolines and combination of anthelmintic compounds are the most common drugs to prevent or treat ectoparasites and gastrointestinal nematodes, respectively. The suspect of the inefficacy of antiparasitic drugs is shared among the veterinary practitioners from part of Brazil. Guidelines are needed, specifically for the control of gastrointestinal helminths and ectoparasites in Brazilian dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Inseticidas , Nematoides , Parasitos , Carrapatos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães
18.
Geospat Health ; 16(2)2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672184

RESUMO

There is a vast amount of geo-referenced data in many fields of study including ecological studies. Geo-referencing is usually by point referencing; that is, latitudes and longitudes or by areal referencing, which includes districts, counties, states, provinces and other administrative units. The availability of large geo-referenced datasets for modelling has necessitated the development and application of spatial statistical methods. However, spatial varying coefficients models exploring the abundance of tick counts remain limited. In this study we used data that was collected and prepared by researchers in the Department of Biological Sciences from the Old Dominion University, Virginia, USA. We modelled tick life-stage counts and abundance variability from 12 sampling locations, with 5 different habitats (numbered 1-5), three habitat types; namely: woods, edges and grass; collected monthly from May 2009 through December 2018. Spatio-temporal Poisson and spatio-temporal negative binomial (NB) count data models were fitted to the data and compared using the deviance information criteria (DIC). The NB model outperformed the Poisson models with all its DIC values being smaller than those of the Poisson model. Results showed that the covariates varied spatially across counties. There was a decreasing time (in years) effect over the study period. However, even though the time effect was decreasing over the study period, space-time interaction effects were seen to be increasing over time in York County.


Assuntos
Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1001-1013, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1345278

RESUMO

The goal of this research was to compare the effect of the following products on dairy cattle, parasitized by Rhipicephalus microplus: organosynthetics - Clorfenvinfós and Ivermectina (OG); phytotherapics - Eucalyptus oil (EG) and Neem cake (NG); Homeopathy (HG); The control group (CG) received no treatment. Infestation was by R. microplus (MIC) and weight gain (GP) were evaluated. The study included 60 animals (5 groups) from ­ Dutch / Zebu, aged between 25-44 months and initial weight between 211-477kg. EG and NG showed MIC 84.9% and 14.0% greater than CG, respectively (P <0.05; P = 0). HG and OG had MIC less than CG 24.4% and 16.9%, respectively (P<0.05; P <0.05). EG, NG and OG obtained GP lower than CG in 7.9%, 8.9% and 8.06% (P <0.05) respectively. The HG GP was 4.9% higher (P <0.05) than CG. This was the first research to prove parasitism control by R. microplus in a field test, using homeopathy. The methodology for choosing Homeopathy for the control of enzooties, developed and tested for the first time in this study, proved to be adequate and efficient, opening the possibility for establishing a new methodology for strategic control of parasitism by R. microplus.(AU)


O objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar o efeito dos seguintes produtos sobre bovinos leiteiros, parasitados por Rhipicephalus microplus: organossintéticos - clorfenvinfós e ivermectina (OG); fitoterápicos - óleo de eucalipto (EG) e torta de Neem (NG) e homeopatia (HG). O grupo controle (CG) não recebeu tratamento. Foram avaliados infestação por R. microplus (MIC) e ganho de peso/grupo (GP) em 60 animais (5 grupos), a partir de ­ holandês/zebu, com idade entre 25 e 44 meses e peso inicial entre 211 e 477kg. EG e NG apresentaram MIC 84,9% e 14,0% maior que CG, respectivamente (P<0,05; P=0). HG e OG apresentaram MIC menor que CG 24,4% e 16,9%, respectivamente (P<0,05; P<0,05). EG, NG e OG obtiveram GP menor que CG em 7,9%, 8,9% e 8,06% (P<0,05), respectivamente. O GP do HG foi 4,9% maior (P<0,05) que o CG. Esta foi a primeira pesquisa a comprovar controle do parasitismo por R. microplus em teste a campo, usando homeopatia. A metodologia para escolha de medicamentos homeopáticos para controle de enzootias, desenvolvida e testada pela primeira vez neste estudo, mostrou-se adequada e eficiente, abrindo a possibilidade para estabelecimento de nova metodologia para controle estratégico do parasitismo por R. microplus.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Carrapatos , Medicamento Homeopático , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Acaricidas
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