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1.
Wiad Lek ; 75(5 pt 2): 1342-1346, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To identify clinical and immunological features of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis occurring against the background of Epstein-Barr virus infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study involved examination of 56 children. Of them, 33 children (1 group) did not have a background infection and 23 patients (2 group) suffered from rotavirus infection on the background of the latent form of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Children in these groups were compared by gender, age, severity of the disease and other parameters. Quantitative data were presented as mean and standard deviation (M±SD). Differences at p <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Results: The data suggest that the presence of background Epstein-Barr virus in children with rotavirus infection leads to later hospitalization, lower temperature response rates, lower frequency of vomiting at the onset of the disease, and longer duration of fever and diarrhea. At the same time, in children infected with Epstein-Barr virus, the relative content of CD8+ T lymphocytes dominated both in the acute period of the disease and in the period of convalescence against the background of reduced relative content of CD16+, CD22+ T lymphocytes and IgM in the period of early convalescence. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The study allowed to reveal the influence of latent EBV infection on the clinical and immunological parameters of rotavirus gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Criança , Convalescença , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/complicações , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações
2.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2089007, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734810

RESUMO

Some serovars of Salmonella are not or rare found to cause salmonellosis in human. In our clinic-based surveillance, three rare Salmonella 4,5,12:a:- strains were recovered from three patients with diarrhea. To explore their genetic and epidemiological characteristics and pathogenesis, we conducted whole-genome sequencing, in vitro invasion assays in mammalian cells, and in vivo virulence assays in an animal model. The three isolates had indistinguishable molecular patterns and similar genome sequences, and clustered together with an isolate from edible fish traded among countries. The isolates had biochemical reactions identical with those of Salmonella subspecies enterica but belonged to subspecies salamae according to genome phylogeny, revealing a new serovar, S. enterica subsp. II serovar 4,5,12:a:-. The strains contained multiple virulence genes, elicited temporary bacteremia and enteritidis and caused cell damage in the mouse liver and cecum. This study provides evidence that this new Salmonella salamae serovar can infect humans and cause clusters of cases, and whole-genome sequencing detection and surveillance of Salmonella can help to accurately define Salmonella classification and clonality, improve diagnosis, facilitate outbreak detection and aid in the source tracing of salmonellosis epidemics.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella , Salmonelose Animal , Infecções por Salmonella , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Humanos , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Filogenia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Sorogrupo
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 906275, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711416

RESUMO

Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and no vaccine is currently available. The genetic and antigenic diversity of Norovirus presents challenges for providing broad immune protection, which calls for a multivalent vaccine application. In this study, we investigated the possibility of developing a virus-like particle (VLP)-based 6-valent Norovirus vaccine candidate (Hexa-VLPs) that covers GI.1, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17 genotypes. Hexa-VLPs (30 µg) adjuvanted with 500 µg of aluminum hydroxide (alum) were selected as the optimal immunization dose after a dose-escalation study. Potent and long-lasting blockade antibody responses were induced by 2-or 3-shot Hexa-VLPs, especially for the emerging GII.P16-GII.2 and GII.17 (Kawasaki 2014) genotypes. Hexa-VLPs plus alum elicited Th1/Th2 mixed yet Th2-skewed immune responses, characterized by an IgG1-biased subclass profile and significant IL-4+ T-cell activation. Notably, simultaneous immunization with a mixture of six VLPs revealed no immunological interference among the component antigens. These results demonstrate that Hexa-VLPs are promising broad-spectrum vaccines to provide immunoprotection against major GI/GII epidemic strains in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Camundongos , Norovirus/genética
4.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746763

RESUMO

Human norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, driven by antigenic variants within the GII.4 genotype. Antibody responses to GII.4 vaccination in adults are shaped by immune memory. How children without extensive immune memory will respond to GII.4 vaccination has not been reported. Here, we characterized the GII.4 neutralizing antibody (nAb) landscape following natural infection using a surrogate assay and antigenic site chimera virus-like particles. We demonstrate that the nAb landscape changes with age and virus exposure. Among sites A, C, and G, nAbs from first infections are focused on sites A and C. As immunity develops with age/exposure, site A is supplemented with antibodies that bridge site A to sites C and G. Cross-site nAbs continue to develop into adulthood, accompanied by an increase in nAb to site G. Continued exposure to GII.4 2012 Sydney correlated with a shift to co-dominance of sites A and G. Furthermore, site G nAbs correlated with the broadening of nAb titer across antigenically divergent variants. These data describe fundamental steps in the development of immunity to GII.4 over a lifetime, and illustrate how the antigenicity of one pandemic variant could influence the pandemic potential of another variant through the redirection of immunodominant epitopes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Criança , Genótipo , Humanos , Norovirus/genética
5.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936407, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical syndrome characterized by elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin levels due to the breakdown of muscle fibers and is associated with symptoms such as myalgia, muscle swelling, and erythruria. Rhabdomyolysis has an array of potential causes, including Salmonella infection, although rare. We report 2 cases in which nontyphoidal salmonellae caused acute gastroenteritis complicated by rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute kidney injury (AKI). CASE REPORT Two male patients, aged 69 years and 62 years, presented to our hospital with sudden-onset fever, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea. At the time of admission, the patients had elevated serum CK levels (32 225 U/L and 10 590 U/L, respectively) and serum creatinine levels (4.8 mg/dL and 8.8 mg/dL, respectively). Both patients also had elevated serum myoglobin concentrations with significant myoglobinuria. They were administered fluid therapy and intravenous empirical antibiotics (cefotaxime and metronidazole for Case 1, ciprofloxacin for Case 2). The patient in Case 2 underwent 3 sessions of hemodialysis due to persistent oliguria and exacerbation of metabolic acidosis. Salmonella B (Case 1) and Salmonella C (Case 2) were isolated from blood cultures. After about 2 weeks of inpatient care, both patients showed improvement of clinical symptoms and were discharged. CONCLUSIONS Patients with acute gastroenteritis induced by Salmonella infection can develop rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric AKI in rare cases. Timely administration of appropriate antibiotics and fluids is expected to produce a favorable prognosis. Furthermore, early initiation of hemodialysis after onset of oliguric AKI can improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Gastroenterite , Rabdomiólise , Infecções por Salmonella , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Creatina Quinase , Gastroenterite/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Mioglobina , Rabdomiólise/complicações , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/terapia
6.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 100: 265-286, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659354

RESUMO

Foodborne diseases are one of the most serious concerns in public health. It is estimated that around 600 million cases of gastroenteritis occur worldwide each year. At present, more than 200 food-borne diseases are known, which can cause from mild gastroenteritis to syndromes with a fatal outcome, with the added possibility of chronic complications. One of the major etiological agents in foodborne diseases are the food and waterborne viruses, which are attracting a great deal of attention to researchers, food hygienists and policy makers. Several aspects differentiate these pathogens from foodborne pathogenic bacteria: their high capacity for infection and preservation in food environments, and their difficulty for a correct and sensitive detection. In recent years, different initiatives have been carried out to prioritize research in the area of viruses in food, prioritizing different aspects of their detection, epidemiology and control. There is clear evidence that the existing data on their prevalence may be underestimated due to the lack of robust methods for their sensitive detection. It is also necessary to know exactly what the incidence is in the different stages of the food production chain, and particularly in that which is dedicated to the transformation of products of animal origin. Finally, it is also necessary to calibrate the current disinfection procedures in the food industry in order to reliably establish a quantitative evaluation of the viral risk in food.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Gastroenterite , Vírus , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública
7.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 84, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the last 2 years, in the Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq, there were thousands of COVID-19 cases that have not been reported officially, but diagnosed and confirmed by private laboratories and private hospitals, or clinicians based on typical clinical signs, as well as few people using home self-test after appearing of some flu-like clinical symptoms. Thus, this study aims to assess the misdiagnosis and mismanagement of cases before COVID-19 confirmation. METHODS: This study enrolled 100 consecutive patients who visited an outpatient clinic of Shar Hospital that had symptoms highly suspicious of COVID-19 infection while misdiagnosed previously to have other types of disease. Detailed questionnaires were filled for all studied patients, including age, gender, main presenting symptoms, and duration of these symptoms with the following questions: who made the false diagnosis, depending on which diagnostic test the false diagnosis was made, which medication was used for the false diagnosis, who prescribed those medications, and how long those medications were used. They were investigated by RT-PCR on their nasopharyngeal swab for confirmation. RESULTS: Most of the false diagnoses were typhoid (63%), influenza (14%), pneumonia (9%), gastroenteritis (5%), common cold (4%), brucellosis (4%), and meningitis (1%). Regarding the false diagnosis of cases, 92% were made by non-physician healthcare workers, and only 8% were made by physicians. All false diagnoses with typhoid, gastroenteritis, and common cold were made by non-physician healthcare workers, together with about half of the diagnosis of pneumonia and brucellosis, with statistically significant results (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We realized that some patients had been misdiagnosed before the COVID-19 infection confirmation. Their health conditions improved drastically after correct diagnosis and treatment, and this research is considered the first research to be conducted in Iraq in this regard.


Assuntos
Brucelose , COVID-19 , Resfriado Comum , Gastroenterite , Febre Tifoide , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Erros de Diagnóstico , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e060173, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In August 2016, Campylobacter spp contaminated an untreated reticulated water supply resulting in a large-scale gastroenteritis outbreak affecting an estimated 8320 people. We aimed to determine the incidence of probable reactive arthritis (ReA) cases in individuals with culture-confirmed campylobacteriosis (CC), self-reported probable campylobacteriosis (PC) and those reporting no diarrhoea (ND). DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify incidence of probable ReA cases. We identified cases with new ReA symptoms using an adapted acute ReA (AReA) telephone questionnaire. Those reporting ≥1 symptom underwent a telephone interview with the study rheumatologist. Probable ReA was defined as spontaneous onset of pain suggestive of inflammatory arthritis in ≥1 previously asymptomatic joint for ≥3 days occurring ≤12 weeks after outbreak onset. SETTING: Population-based epidemiological study in Havelock North, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled notified CC cases with gastroenteritis symptom onsets 5 August 2016-6 September 2016 and conducted a telephone survey of households supplied by the contaminated water source to enrol PC and ND cases. RESULTS: One hundred and six (47.3%) CC, 47 (32.6%) PC and 113 (34.3%) ND cases completed the AReA telephone questionnaire. Of those reporting ≥1 new ReA symptom, 45 (75.0%) CC, 13 (68.4%) PC and 14 (82.4%) ND cases completed the rheumatologist telephone interview. Nineteen CC, 4 PC and 2 ND cases developed probable ReA, resulting in minimum incidences of 8.5%, 2.8% and 0.6% and maximum incidences of 23.9%, 12.4% and 2.15%. DISCUSSION: We describe high probable ReA incidences among gastroenteritis case types during a very large Campylobacter gastroenteritis outbreak using a resource-efficient method that is feasible to employ in future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Artrite Reativa , Infecções por Campylobacter , Gastroenterite , Infecções Intra-Abdominais , Artrite Reativa/epidemiologia , Artrite Reativa/etiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/complicações , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(6): 974-980, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725358

RESUMO

With characteristics of high infectivity, diverse transmission routes and high variation, norovirus is the main pathogen of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis, resulting in a serious disease burden. This paper summarizes the latest progress in epidemiological research of norovirus infection from aspects of disease burden caused by acute gastroenteritis, virus variation and predominant strains, prevention and control measures, and immunization and vaccine development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Humanos
10.
New Microbiol ; 45(2): 138-141, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699563

RESUMO

A variety of enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. To understand the evolution of gastroenteritis in Albania, in terms of distribution of aetiological pathogens, a one-year observational study was repeated in 2017, ten years after the first study performed in 2007. The data still show a clear circulation of viruses that cause gastroenteritis. Compared to the previous study in 2007, the data from the 2017 study showed the incidence of Norovirus and Adenovirus were significantly higher (p value <0.05), while Rotavirus was verified at a similar incidence rate.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Vírus , Albânia/epidemiologia , Antígenos Virais , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1161, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of acute diarrhea in Thai children under five years of age has increased over the last three decades. Even though mortality has significantly declined, the burden and cost of medical treatment are still high. Our objectives are to describe the burden and pattern of acute diarrhea cases that required admissions by Thai children under five years of age from 2015 to 2019. METHODS: Data regarding the admission of acute diarrhea cases of Thai children with Thailand National Health Coverage (NHC) under five years of age from 2015 to 2019, recorded as International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, tenth Revision, Thai Modification (ICD-10-TM), were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence trend of yearly acute diarrhea in children 0-5 years of age slightly increased from 33.36 cases per 1,000 population in 2010 to an average of 33.79 cases per 1,000 population/ year from 2015 to 2019 or approximately 0.43 cases per 1,000 population over the last decade while diarrhea-related mortality had a low, constant rate of 0.71 to 1.16 per 100,000 population per year. Two thirds of the mortality rate was observed in children under 1 year of age or 4.1 cases per 100,000 person-years in 5-year period (P < 0.01). The high cost of performing the medical treatment of approximately four hundred million baht per year. Seasonal variations demonstrated consistency with similar patterns during the cold and rainy seasons throughout the 5-year period. Regional distribution of the causative agent was also observed in Cholera, Typhoid, and Amoebiasis cases. A08: viral and other specified intestinal infections and A09: other gastroenteritis and colitis of infectious and unspecified origin were the two most common causes of diarrheal diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of acute diarrhea in Thai children under five years of age was higher while the mortality rate of acute diarrhea was lower than those in the past decade. A similar seasonal outbreak of acute diarrhea was seen during each examined year. The causative agent was not significant and was mainly unspecific. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Number TCTR20220117002, date of registration: 17/01/2022, site: Thai Clinical Trials Registry, URL http://www.thaiclinicaltrials.org/show/TCTR20220117002.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Gastroenterite , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Gastroenterite/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Tailândia/epidemiologia
12.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 04 06.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499510

RESUMO

Recently, the Netherlands Health Council (HC) issued an updated advice on rotavirus vaccination. Rotavirus gastro-enteritis primarily affects young children, of whom, in the Netherlands, annually ~2700 end up in the hospital and 5-7 die. In 2017, the HC judged positively on rotavirus vaccination of young children, but also concluded that the cost-effectiveness of general vaccination was unfavorable. Yet, the HC recommended to at least vaccinate vulnerable children in specific risk-groups. Because of the corona crisis, this, however, has not materialized. Meanwhile, the Dutch Risk-group Infant Vaccination Against Rotavirus study has demonstrated that rotavirus vaccination of children in risk-groups is less effective than previously thought. Therefore, the HC now recommends rotavirus vaccination of all children. General vaccination within the Dutch NIP is expected to result in herd-immunity, such that all children, including those in risk-groups, are protected. Nonetheless, the Dutch Ministry of Health has decided to postpone implementation of rotavirus vaccination.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
13.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 03 02.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499602

RESUMO

At several out-of-hours services primary care, a single dose of ondansetron was compared with standard care (oral rehydration solution (ORS)) in young children with gastroenteritis and persistent vomiting. Although vomiting decreased more often in the ondansetron group compared to the control group in the first hours, ondansetron had no effect on ORS use and did not lead to fewer referrals to the hospital. Unfortunately, the outcome measure diarrhoea was missing as a possible adverse effect of ondansetron. Diarrhoea was reported around 2-3 times more often with ondansetron compared to placebo in four of five other studies in children with gastroenteritis and vomiting. It is therefore questionable whether the limited clinical benefit of ondansetron in children with vomiting due to gastroenteritis outweighs the possible (as yet insufficiently investigated) side effect diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Antieméticos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Gastroenterite , Administração Oral , Antieméticos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia , Método Duplo-Cego , Hidratação , Gastroenterite/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ondansetron/efeitos adversos , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 160, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, Campylobacter jejuni has not been found to be pathogenic to peafowl. The available publications show that out of a total of 44 samples tested from peafowl, this bacterium was isolated only in two cases. Eimeria pavonina infestations in the peafowl have been described, but no fatal cases have been reported yet. CASE PRESENTATION: The four-year-old peacock was presented with chronic diarrhea, emaciation and weakness. Post mortem examination revealed enlarged and pale kidneys, small intestinal mucosal necrosis and thickening of intestinal wall, and pericardial effusion. The histopathological examination revealed necrotic enteritis with marked mononuclear cells infiltration associated with the presence of coccidia, additionally there was histological evidence of septicemia in liver and kidneys. Bacteria identification was based on light microscopy of the small intestine sample, culture, and biochemical tests. Further identification was based on PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile was created by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for 6 antimicrobial agents from 5 different classes. PCR assays were performed to detect virulence factors genes responsible for motility, cytolethal distending toxin production, adhesion and internalization. Bacteriology of the small intestine sample showed abundant growth almost exclusively of Campylobacter jejuni, resistant to ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and ampicillin. Bacteria was sensitive to Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, tetracycline, and erythromycin. All tested virulence factors genes have been detected. The parasitological examination was performed by microscopic examination of fresh faeces and intestinal content, and revealed the moderate number of Eimeria pavonina, Histomonas meleagridis, single Capillaria spp. eggs as well Heterakis spp. like parasites. CONCLUSION: The above case shows that a virulent isolate of Campylobacter jejuni in combination with a parasitic invasion may cause chronic enteritis in peafowl, which most likely led to extreme exhaustion of the host organism and death.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Enterite , Enterocolite Necrosante , Gastroenterite , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Enterite/veterinária , Enterocolite Necrosante/veterinária , Gastroenterite/veterinária , Fatores de Virulência
16.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 119(5): 459-465, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545545

RESUMO

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a fairly uncommon condition. It has been suggested that allergic reactions may have played a role in the development of this illness. The case of a 66-year-old woman who had a total hysterectomy due to a right ovarian tumor is described here. At this operation, a sodium hyaluronate carboxymethylcellulose bioresorbable membrane (Seprafilm®) was used. She was admitted to our hospital 47 days after the operation with abdominal pain. Laboratory data indicated elevated WBC (29450/µl) and eosinophilia (69.2%), and CT scan showed thickening of intestinal wall and ascites around there. Ascites cytology showed a significant increase of eosinophils (94.0%). She began taking oral steroids after being diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and her symptoms improved quickly. Despite the fact that Seprafilm® was thought to be a reliable and safe tool, it was suggested that a foreign body reaction to Seprafilm® could lead to eosinophilic gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia , Gastroenterite , Idoso , Ascite , Enterite , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Feminino , Gastrite , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Gastroenterite/patologia , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico
17.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 125, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this article is to describe the courses of vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and clinical deterioration, in children with uncomplicated gastroenteritis at presentation. This study was performed as a 7-day prospective follow-up study in an out-of-hours primary care service. The course of vomiting, diarrhea, and fever was analyzed by generalized linear mixed modeling. Because young children (≤ 12 months) and children with severe vomiting are at increased risk of dehydration, the potentially more complicated courses of these groups are described separately. The day(s) most frequently associated with deterioration and the symptoms present in children who deteriorated during follow-up were also described. RESULTS: In total, 359 children presented with uncomplicated acute gastroenteritis to the out-of-hours primary care service. Of these, 31 (8.6%) developed a complicated illness and needed referral or hospitalization. All symptoms decreased within 5 days in most children (> 90%). Vomiting and fever decreased rapidly, but diarrhea decreased at a somewhat slower pace, especially among children aged 6-12 months. Children who deteriorated during follow-up had a higher frequency of vomiting at presentation and higher frequencies of vomiting and fever during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of vomiting, not its duration, appears to be the more important predictor of deterioration. When advising parents, it is important to explain the typical symptom duration and to focus on alarm symptoms. Clinicians should be vigilant for children with higher vomiting frequencies at presentation and during follow-up because these children are more likely to deteriorate.


Assuntos
Plantão Médico , Gastroenterite , Doença Aguda , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Febre/complicações , Seguimentos , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Vômito/etiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580017

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive coccus was isolated from the blood of a paediatric patient suffering from gastroenteritis. The taxonomic position of this catalase-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming facultative anaerobe designated as strain MKL-02T was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Colonies grown on tryptic soy agar with 10 % sheep blood were circular, creamy yellow, and convex. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome sequences revealed that this strain was most closely related to Arsenicicoccus bolidensis CCUG 47306T within the cluster of the genus Arsenicicoccus. Average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain MKL-02T and A. bolidensis DSM 15745T, A. dermatophillus DSM 25571T and A. piscis DSM 22760T were 89.5 and 37.0 %, 79.6 and 22.4 %, and 75.9 and 21.0 %, respectively. The genomic size of strain MKL-02T was 3 423 857 bp with a 72.7 mol% G+C content. Growth was observed at 10-45 °C (optimum, 37-40 °C) and pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0), in the presence of 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5 %). Cells of strain MKL-02T were non-motile cocci and 0.50-0.60 µm long, as determined by transmission electron microscopy. The strain was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. The major fatty acid type (>10 % of total) was C15 : 0. The polar lipid profile consisted of two unidentified phospholipids, three unidentified lipids and an unidentified aminophospholipid. The strain contained MK-8 (H4) as the predominant menaquinone. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic considerations, it is proposed that strain MKL-02T be classified as a new species, named Arsenicicoccus cauae sp. nov. The type strain is MKL-02T (=NCCP 16967T=JCM 34624T).


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinomycetales , Actinomycetales , Gastroenterite , Actinomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Actinomycetales/sangue , Infecções por Actinomycetales/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Catalase/genética , Criança , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Gastroenterite/sangue , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8116, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581271

RESUMO

Norovirus is the most important cause of acute gastroenteritis, yet there are still no antivirals, vaccines, or treatments available. Several studies have shown that norovirus-specific monoclonal antibodies, Nanobodies, and natural extracts might function as inhibitors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the antiviral potential of additional natural extracts, honeys, and propolis samples. Norovirus GII.4 and GII.10 virus-like particles (VLPs) were treated with different natural samples and analyzed for their ability to block VLP binding to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are important norovirus co-factors. Of the 21 natural samples screened, date syrup and one propolis sample showed promising blocking potential. Dynamic light scattering indicated that VLPs treated with the date syrup and propolis caused particle aggregation, which was confirmed using electron microscopy. Several honey samples also showed weaker HBGA blocking potential. Taken together, our results found that natural samples might function as norovirus inhibitors.


Assuntos
Mel , Norovirus , Extratos Vegetais , Própole , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Própole/farmacologia
20.
An Pediatr (Engl Ed) ; 96(6): 523-535, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35624005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The efficacy and safety of the Rapid Intravenous Rehydration (RIR) guidelines in children affected by dehydration secondary to acute gastroenteritis is supported by current scientific evidence, but there is also great variability in its use in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To prepare a document with evidence-based recommendations about RIR in paediatric population. METHODS: The project was developed based on GRADE methodology, according to the following work schedule: Working Group training; creation of a catalogue of questions about research and definition of "relevant outcomes"; score and selection criteria for each item; bibliographic review; scientific evidence evaluation and synthesis (GRADE); review, discussion and creation of recommendations. 10 clinical questions and 15 relevant outcomes were created (7 about efficacy and 8 about security). RESULTS: 16 recommendations were set up, from which we can highlight as the main ones: 1) RIR is safe for children affected by mild-moderate dehydration secondary to acute gastroenteritis, unless expressly contraindicated or acute severe comorbidity (strong recommendation, moderate evidence). 2) Its use is recommended in this situation when oral rehydration has failed or due to contraindication (strong, high). 3) Isotonic fluids are recommended (strong, high), suggesting saline fluid as the first option (light, low), supplemented by glucose (2.5%) in those patients showing normoglycemia and ketosis (strong, moderate). 4) A rhythm of 20cc/kg/h is recommended (strong, high) during 1-4 h (strong, moderate). CONCLUSIONS: This document establishes consensus recommendations, based on the available scientific evidence, which could contribute to the standardisation of the use of RIR in our setting.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Gastroenterite , Criança , Desidratação/complicações , Desidratação/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/terapia , Glucose , Humanos
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