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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 130980, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628238

RESUMO

Low bioavailability currently limits the potential of curcumin as a health-promoting dietary compound. This study therefore explored the potential of excipient emulsions to improve curcumin bioavailability. Oil-in-water excipient emulsions were prepared using different types of oils: corn oil, olive oil, and medium chain triglycerides (MCT). The excipient emulsions increased the transportation rate of curcumin across the Caco-2 cell monolayer and showed ability to protect curcumin from metabolism in the enterocytes, with the olive oil-based systems exhibiting the highest efficacy. In addition, most of curcumin metabolites were present as hexahydro-curcumin (HHC) and its conjugates. Our results show that excipient emulsions can improve curcumin bioavailability by increasing its trans-enterocyte absorption and reducing cellular metabolism. Moreover, they show that these effects depend on the type of oil used to produce them. These findings have important implications for the rational design of lipid-based delivery systems to enhance the bioavailability of hydrophobic nutraceuticals like curcumin.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Excipientes , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Óleo de Milho , Curcumina/metabolismo , Emulsões/metabolismo , Excipientes/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 145-159, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807441

RESUMO

The chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has a complex, biodiverse microbial community of ~ 9 million bacterial genes plus archaea and fungi that links the host diet to its health. This microbial population contributes to host physiology through metabolite signaling while also providing local and systemic nutrients to multiple organ systems. In a homeostatic state, the host-microbial interaction is symbiotic; however, physiological issues are associated with dysregulated microbiota. Manipulating the microbiota is a therapeutic option, and the concept of adding beneficial bacteria to the intestine has led to probiotic and prebiotic development. The gut microbiome is readily changeable by diet, antibiotics, pathogenic infections, and host- and environmental-dependent events. The intestine performs key roles of nutrient absorption, tolerance of beneficial microbiota, yet responding to undesirable microbes or microbial products and preventing translocation to sterile body compartments. During homeostasis, the immune system is actively preventing or modulating the response to known or innocuous antigens. Manipulating the microbiota through nutrition, modulating host immunity, preventing pathogen colonization, or improving intestinal barrier function has led to novel methods to prevent disease, but also resulted in improved body weight, feed conversion, and carcass yield in poultry. This review highlights the importance of adding different feed additives to the diets of poultry in order to manipulate and enhance health and productivity of flocks.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal , Aves Domésticas , Prebióticos/análise
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 246-252, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460118

RESUMO

Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Several studies indicate that the digestive system can also be affected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, patients with digestive symptoms should have a capsule endoscopy (CE). COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms who underwent CE were recruited from March 2020 to April 2020. We collected patients' data and performed a prospective follow-up study for 6 months. All 11 COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms who underwent CE presented gastritis. Eight cases (72.7%) had intestinal mucosa inflammation. Among them, two cases showed intestinal ulcers or erosions. Moreover, two cases displayed colonic mucositis. One case was lost during follow-up. At 3-6 months after hospital discharge, five patients underwent CE again, presenting gastrointestinal lesions. Five of the 10 cases had GI symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, and others. Among these five cases, the GI symptoms of three patients disappeared at the last follow-up and two patients still presented diarrhea symptoms. Overall, we observed damaged digestive tract mucosa that could be caused by SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, after discharge, some patients still presented intestinal lesions and GI symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Endoscopia por Cápsula , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gastrite/complicações , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Food Chem ; 368: 130723, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500352

RESUMO

The effects of the fat crystal structure on lipid droplets digestion behaviors were investigated using an in vitro digestion model. The crystalline oil-in-water emulsions containing the same solid fat content (SFC) with different fat crystal sizes and polymorphic forms were fabricated by different storage protocols: constant-temperature and inconstant-temperature storage. Oral and gastric processing led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the d4,3 values of the two emulsions, and the two emulsions underwent partial coalescence and flocculation/aggregation. The free fatty acid (FFA) release profiles showed that the lipolysis extent decreased due to a larger crystal size. In addition, the two emulsions showed differences in beta polymorphism. This work further demonstrated that the FFA release could be modulated by the physical properties of the fat.


Assuntos
Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , Água
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2173-2182, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724885

RESUMO

The continuing emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants calls for regular assessment to identify differences in viral replication, shedding and associated disease. In this study, we compared African green monkeys infected intranasally with either the UK B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant or its contemporary D614G progenitor. Both variants caused mild respiratory disease with no significant differences in clinical presentation. Significantly higher levels of viral RNA and infectious virus were found in upper and lower respiratory tract samples and tissues from B.1.1.7 infected animals. Interestingly, D614G infected animals showed significantly higher levels of viral RNA and infectious virus in rectal swabs and gastrointestinal tissues. Our results indicate that B.1.1.7 infection in African green monkeys is associated with increased respiratory replication and shedding but no disease enhancement similar to human B.1.1.7 cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Replicação Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Administração Intranasal , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Reto/virologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Células Vero , Carga Viral
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(39): 6590-6600, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754154

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) seems to employ two routes of entrance to the host cell; via membrane fusion (with the cells expressing both angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane peptidase/serine subfamily member 2/4 (TMPRSS2/4)) or via receptor-mediated endocytosis (to the target cells expressing only ACE2). The second mode is associated with cysteine cathepsins (probably cathepsin L) involvement in the virus spike protein (S protein) proteolytic activation. Also furin might activate the virus S protein enabling it to enter cells. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection is evident in a subset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients exhibiting GIT symptoms, such as diarrhea, and presenting viral-shedding in feces. Considering the abundance and co-localization of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the lower GIT (especially brush-border enterocytes), these two receptors seem to be mainly involved in SARS-CoV-2 invasion of the digestive tract. Additionally, in vitro studies have demonstrated the virions capability of infection and replication in the human epithelial cells lining GIT. However, also furin and cysteine cathepsins (cathepsin L) might participate in the activation of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contributing to the virus invasiveness within GIT. Moreover, cathepsin L (due to its involvement in extracellular matrix components degradation and remodeling, the processes enhanced during SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation) might be responsible for the dysregulation of absorption/ digestion functions of GIT, thus adding to the observed in some COVID-19 patients symptoms such as diarrhea.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Catepsina L , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Internalização do Vírus
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(40): 7000-7004, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790020

RESUMO

Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread worldwide, there is still limited knowledge about this condition and its natural history. Children have been relatively spared during COVID-19 pandemic but a novel syndrome known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) has emerged, following a SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents. This syndrome can lead to shock and multiple organ failure requiring intensive care. Although COVID-19 clinical research focuses on respiratory symptoms, extrapulmonary involvement such as gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic manifestations should also be considered. In fact, GI and hepatic involvement play an important role among the most common presenting symptoms of both pediatric and adult COVID-19 and MIS-C. This involvement can not only be one of the most common presenting clinical features but also one of the sequelae of these syndromes. Abdominal ultrasonography monitoring could be very useful to identify a potential involvement of the GI tract and liver. Moreover, long-term follow-up is needed and would be essential to define the long-term outcomes of these patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , COVID-19/complicações , Criança , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684585

RESUMO

Adipokines and gastrointestinal tract hormones are important metabolic parameters, and both epigenetic factors and differential gene expression patterns may be associated with the alterations in their concentrations in children. The function of the FTO gene (FTO alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase) in the regulation of the global metabolic rate is well described, whereas the influence of protooncogene PLAG1 (PLAG1 zinc finger) is still not fully understood. A cross-sectional study on a group of 26 children with various BMI values (15.3-41.7; median 28) was carried out. The aim was to evaluate the dependencies between the level of methylation and expression of aforementioned genes with the concentration of selected gastrointestinal tract hormones and adipokines in children. Expression and methylation were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear DNA by a microarray technique and a restriction enzyme method, respectively. All peptide concentrations were determined using the enzyme immunoassay method. The expression level of both FTO and PLAG1 genes was statistically significantly related to the concentration of adipokines: negatively for apelin and leptin receptor, and positively for leptin. Furthermore, both FTO methylation and expression negatively correlated with the concentration of resistin and visfatin. Cholecystokinin was negatively correlated, whereas fibroblast growth factor 21 positively correlated with methylation and expression of the FTO gene, while FTO and PLAG1 expression was negatively associated with the level of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1. The PLAG1 gene expression predicts an increase in leptin and decrease in ghrelin levels. Our results indicate that the FTO gene correlates with the concentration of hormones produced by the adipose tissue and gastrointestinal tract, and PLAG1 gene may be involved in adiposity pathogenesis. However, the exact molecular mechanisms still need to be clarified.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Criança , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
11.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 185: 107672, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597621

RESUMO

Nosema ceranae is an intracellular microsporidian pathogen that lives in the midgut ventricular cells of all known honey bee Apis species. We suspect that N. ceranae may also cause energetic stress in the giant honey bee because this parasite is known to disrupt nutrient absorption resulting in energetic stress in the honey bee species Apis mellifera. To understand how N. ceranae impacts the energetic stress of the giant honey bee, A. dorsata, we measured the hemolymph trehalose levels of experimentally infected giant honey bees on days three, five, seven, and fourteen post infection (p.i.). We also measured the hypopharyngeal gland protein content, the total midgut proteolytic enzyme activity, honey bee survival, infection ratio, and spore loads comparing infected and uninfected honey bees across the same time frame. Nosema ceranae-infected honey bees had significantly lowered survival, trehalose levels, hypopharyngeal gland protein content, and midgut proteolytic enzyme activity. We found an increasing level of parasitic loads and infection ratio of N. ceranae-infected bees after inoculation. Collectively, our results suggest that the giant honey bee suffers from energetic stress and limited nutrient absorption from a N. ceranae infection, which results in lowered survival in comparison to uninfected honey bees. Our findings highlight that other honey bee species besides A. mellifera are susceptible to microsporidian pathogens that they harbor, which results in negative effects on health and survival. Therefore, these pathogens might be transmitted at a community level, in the natural environment, resulting in negative health effects of multiple honey bee species.


Assuntos
Abelhas/microbiologia , Hemolinfa/microbiologia , Nosema/fisiologia , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Absorção Fisiológica , Aminoácidos/fisiologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/enzimologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Longevidade , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258341, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634091

RESUMO

The human pelvic canal (true pelvis) functions to support the abdominopelvic organs and serves as a passageway for reproduction (females). Previous research suggests that these two functions work against each other with the expectation that the supportive role results in a narrower pelvic midplane, while fetal passage necessitates a larger opening. In this research, we examine how gut size relates to the size and shape of the true pelvis, which may have implications on how gut size can influence pelvic floor integrity. Pelves and in vivo gut volumes were measured from CT scans of 92 adults (48 female, 44 male). The true pelvis was measured at three obstetrical planes (inlet, midplane, outlet) using 11 3D landmarks. CT volumetry was used to obtain an individual's gut size. Gut volume was compared to the pelvic planes using multiple regression to evaluate the relationship between gut size and the true pelvis. We find that, in males, larger gut sizes are associated with increased mediolateral canal dimensions at the inlet and midplane. In females, we find that larger gut sizes are associated with more medially-projecting ischial spines and an anteroposteriorly longer outlet. We hypothesize that the association of larger guts with increased canal width in males and increased outlet length in females are adaptations to create adequate space for the gut, while more medially projecting ischial spines reduce the risk of pelvic floor disorders in females, despite its possible spatial consequences for fetal passage.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Pelve/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
13.
Blood Adv ; 5(22): 4578-4589, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619767

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), mediated by the recognition of host major histocompatibility complex/peptide polymorphisms by donor T cells, remains a significant complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). aGVHD most commonly involves the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and skin; symptomatic aGVHD is treated with corticosteroids. Steroid-nonresponsive aGVHD is a significant problem for patients undergoing allo-HSCT, with <15% of these patients alive 1 year after diagnosis. Previously, we found that the infusion of donor innate lymphoid type 2 (ILC2) cells could prevent and treat aGVHD of the lower gastrointestinal tract with no effect on the graft-versus-leukemia response. This approach for clinical translation is cumbersome, as it would require the generation of donor-derived ILC2 cells for each recipient. Thus, the ability to use third-party ILC2 cells would provide an "off-the-shelf" reagent that could be used to treat and/or prevent aGVHD. Here, we show that third-party ILC2 cells enhance the survival of allo-HSCT recipients. Treatment required at least 4 weekly infusions of ILC2 cells. Mechanistically, we show that ILC2 cell function was completely lost if the cells could not express both interleukin-13 (IL-13) and amphiregulin. Finally, we show that the activity of IL-13 has a greater dependence on the expression of the IL-13R on host rather than donor bone marrow cells. The ability to generate third-party ILC2 cells offers a new avenue for the prevention of aGVHD.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Trato Gastrointestinal , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Linfócitos
14.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684436

RESUMO

Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease is a major cause of chronic pathologies, of which maternal obesity is a frequent risk factor. Gut wall and microbiota, visceral fat, and liver form a pre-systemic network for substrates and pro-inflammatory factors entering the body, undergoing accelerated maturation in early-life when the weaning reaction, i.e., a transitory inflammatory condition, affects lifelong health. We aimed to characterize organ metabolism in the above network, in relation to weaning reaction and maternal obesity. Weaning or 6-months-old offspring of high-fat-diet and normal-diet fed dams underwent in vivo imaging of pre-/post-systemic glucose uptake and tissue radiodensity in the liver, visceral fat, and intestine, a liver histology, and microbiota and metabolic pathway analyses. Weaning mice showed the dominance of gut Clostridia and Bacteroidia members, overexpressing pathways of tissue replication and inflammation; adulthood increased proneness to steatohepatitis, and Desulfovibrio and RF39 bacteria, and lipopolysaccharide, bile acid, glycosaminoglycan, and sphingolipid metabolic pathways. In vivo imaging could track organ maturation, liver inflammation, and protective responses. A maternal high-fat diet amplified the weaning reaction, elevating liver glucose uptake, triglyceride levels, and steatohepatitis susceptibility along the lifespan. The visceral network establishes a balance between metabolism and inflammation, with clear imaging biomarkers, and crucial modulation in the weaning time window.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Desmame , Fatores Etários , Animais , Biomarcadores , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Imuno-Histoquímica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Gravidez
16.
J Anim Sci ; 99(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598273

RESUMO

It is hypothesized that heat processing may increase P digestibility in different protein sources fed to growing pigs. A study was conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in soybean expeller (SBE) produced from oil extraction using dry extrusion and expelling and to investigate the effects of heat treatment on the ATTD and STTD of P in SBE, canola meal (CM), and canola expeller (CE) fed to growing pigs. Thirty-six growing barrows with an initial body weight of 19.0 ± 1.0 kg (mean ± SD) were assigned to 1 of 6 experimental diets in a completely randomized design to give 6 replicates per diet. The experimental design was a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement including three oilseed meals with or without heat treatment. The diets were formulated to contain non-autoclaved or autoclaved (at 121 °C for 60 min) SBE, CM, and CE as the sole source of P. Limestone was included in diets to maintain a Ca:total P ratio of 1.3:1 across diets. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 12 d, including 7 d for adaptation and 5 d for total collection of feces. Pigs were offered their daily ration at 2.8 times their maintenance energy requirement. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED of SAS. Heat treatment increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD and STTD of P. Pigs fed the SBE diets had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD and STTD of P than pigs fed CM and CE diets. For the autoclaved ingredients, the values of STTD of P were 49.4%, 23.2%, and 25.8% for SBE, CM, and CE, respectively, whereas STTD of P in non-autoclaved SBE, CM, and CE were 48.5%, 20.2%, and 22.5%. Heat treatment increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD of Ca. In conclusion, heat treatment increased ATTD and STTD of P and ATTD of Ca in SBE, CM, and CE fed to growing pigs. The ATTD and STTD of P in SBE determined in the current study were 41.0% and 48.5%, respectively.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fósforo na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal , Temperatura Alta , Refeições , Fósforo , Soja , Suínos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) is one of the dietary fibers that may have a beneficial effect on cholesterol and/or glucose metabolism, but its efficacy and mode of action remain unclear. METHODS: In the present study, we examined the anti-hyperglycemic effect of α-CD after oral loading of glucose and liquid meal in mice. RESULTS: Administration of 2 g/kg α-CD suppressed hyperglycemia after glucose loading, which was associated with increased glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion and enhanced hepatic glucose sequestration. By contrast, 1 g/kg α-CD similarly suppressed hyperglycemia, but without increasing secretions of GLP-1 and insulin. Furthermore, oral α-CD administration disrupts lipid micelle formation through its inclusion of lecithin in the gut luminal fluid. Importantly, prior inclusion of α-CD with lecithin in vitro nullified the anti-hyperglycemic effect of α-CD in vivo, which was associated with increased intestinal mRNA expressions of SREBP2-target genes (Ldlr, Hmgcr, Pcsk9, and Srebp2). CONCLUSIONS: α-CD elicits its anti-hyperglycemic effect after glucose loading by inducing lecithin inclusion in the gut lumen and activating SREBP2, which is known to induce cholecystokinin secretion to suppress hepatic glucose production via a gut/brain/liver axis.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Lecitinas/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/fisiologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo , alfa-Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112228, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649354

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is a respiratory illness associated with high mortality, has been classified as a pandemic. The major obstacles for the clinicians to contain the disease are limited information availability, difficulty in disease diagnosis, predicting disease prognosis, and lack of disease monitoring tools. Additionally, the lack of valid therapies has further contributed to the difficulties in containing the pandemic. Recent studies have reported that the dysregulation of the immune system leads to an ineffective antiviral response and promotes pathological immune response, which manifests as ARDS, myocarditis, and hepatitis. In this study, a novel platform has been described for disseminating information to physicians for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with COVID-19. An adjuvant approach using compounds that can potentiate antiviral immune response and mitigate COVID-19-induced immune-mediated target organ damage has been presented. A prolonged beneficial effect is achieved by implementing algorithm-based individualized variability measures in the treatment regimen.


Assuntos
Antivirais/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Informática Médica/métodos , Algoritmos , COVID-19/imunologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638577

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder that affects the gastrointestinal tract. Details regarding the pathogenesis of IBS remain largely unknown, though the dysfunction of the brain-gut-microbiome (BGM) axis is a major etiological factor, in which neurotransmitters serve as a key communication tool between enteric microbiota and the brain. One of the most important neurotransmitters in the pathology of IBS is serotonin (5-HT), as it influences gastrointestinal motility, pain sensation, mucosal inflammation, immune responses, and brain activity, all of which shape IBS features. Genome-wide association studies discovered susceptible genes for IBS in serotonergic signaling pathways. In clinical practice, treatment strategies targeting 5-HT were effective for a certain portion of IBS cases. The synthesis of 5-HT in intestinal enterochromaffin cells and host serotonergic signaling is regulated by enteric resident microbiota. Dysbiosis can trigger IBS development, potentially through aberrant 5-HT signaling in the BGM axis; thus, the manipulation of the gut microbiota may be an alternative treatment strategy. However, precise information regarding the mechanisms underlying the microbiota-mediated intestinal serotonergic pathway related to the pathogenesis of IBS remains unclear. The present review summarizes current knowledge and recent progress in understanding microbiome-serotonin interaction in IBS cases.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/patologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos
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