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1.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 23(1): 118-130, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951485

RESUMO

Natural history collections worldwide contain a plethora of mollusc shells. Recent studies have detailed the sequencing of DNA extracted from shells up to thousands of years old and from various taphonomic and preservational contexts. However, previous approaches have largely addressed methodological rather than evolutionary research questions. Here, we report the generation of DNA sequence data from mollusc shells using such techniques, applied to Haliotis virginea Gmelin, 1791, a New Zealand abalone, in which morphological variation has led to the recognition of several forms and subspecies. We successfully recovered near-complete mitogenomes from 22 specimens including 12 dry-preserved shells up to 60 years old. We used a combination of palaeogenetic techniques that have not previously been applied to shell, including DNA extraction optimized for ultra-short fragments and hybridization-capture of single-stranded DNA libraries. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three major, well-supported clades comprising samples from: (1) The Three Kings Islands; (2) the Auckland, Chatham and Antipodes Islands; and (3) mainland New Zealand and Campbell Island. This phylogeographic structure does not correspond to the currently recognized forms. Critically, our nonreliance on freshly collected or ethanol-preserved samples enabled inclusion of topotypes of all recognized subspecies as well as additional difficult-to-sample populations. Broader application of these comparatively cost-effective and reliable methods to modern, historical, archaeological and palaeontological shell samples has the potential to revolutionize invertebrate genetic research.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Animais , Filogenia , Nova Zelândia , Filogeografia , Gastrópodes/genética , Moluscos/genética , DNA
2.
Food Chem ; 405(Pt B): 134981, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435112

RESUMO

The digestion stability of allergen pairs, tropomyosin, TM (fish and seafood allergen), and myosin light chain, MLC (chicken meat allergen) is compared among vertebrates and invertebrates in raw and cooked food matrix under standardized simulated in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. SDS-PAGE followed by multiple TM and MLC-specific antibodies in semidry WB revealed pepsin resistance of invertebrate TMs (abalone, oyster, shrimp) under diet-relevant conditions (raw, cooked). Vertebrate TMs (chicken, pork, beef) were less stable to digestion except that the raw chicken TM was observed pepsin resistant (not diet-relevant). Vertebrate (chicken) MLC was thermally stable. A new 28 kDa protein bound to anti-MLC antibody in cooked chicken and pork; could be the aggregates of MLC. Raw shrimp MLC showed pepsin resistance among invertebrates. A good correlation was observed between combined resistance of TM and MLC to GI digestion following the diet-relevant thermal treatment and reported protein allergenicity among vertebrates and invertebrates.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Gastrópodes , Bovinos , Animais , Pepsina A , Vertebrados , Alimentos Marinhos , Galinhas , Digestão
3.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134514, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270227

RESUMO

Differences in texture and digestive properties of different parts in 80 °C-boiled abalone muscle (adductor and transition part) after different processing time were investigated. With the extension of boiling time, the shear force and hardness of adductor increased first (6 min) and then decreased (30 min and 240 min), while the two indexes of transition part dramatically decreased after boiling for 6 min and then maintained until 240 min. Meanwhile, for adductor, the degree of protein hydrolysis, protein digestibility, and peptide transport levels declined with the extension of boiling time; While for transition part, those protein digestion and transport indexes significantly decreased first (6 min and 30 min) and then increased (240 min). By contrast, the adductor contained higher myofibrillar proteins content but lower collagen content than the transition part, which contributed to the differences in texture and digestive properties of the boiled samples.


Assuntos
Digestão , Gastrópodes , Animais , Alimentos Marinhos , Músculos , Dureza
4.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114334, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162475

RESUMO

Temperature can be considered as pro-oxidant factor that favor the generation of ROS on the species with lower antioxidant efficiency may leads to affect the level of tolerance. So the basic antioxidant enzyme activity (LPO, CAT, SOD, GPx and GST) of gastropod Nerita oryzarum was evaluated at six stations which located between the thermal effluent discharges points from Tarapur Atomic Power Station, India. The antioxidant enzyme activity was shown that all enzyme at discharge point (SII station) where the maximum temperature of heated effluent released. The average maximum values of enzyme activity recorded for LPO, CAT, SOD, GPx and GST were 1.88 ± 0.12, 1.52 ± 0.14, 22.57 ± 0.89, 1.98 ± 0.2 and 17.22 ± 0.63 respectively. The results were inferred the level water temperature directly proportional to the oxidative stress by ROS generation in Nerita oryzarum. Similar results were observed at laboratory experiment under the condition i.e., Treatment 1 (300C), Treatment 2 (350C), Treatment 3 (400C) and Control (250C). The present prima facie work clearly indicated the physiological response of N. oryzarum with respect to antioxidant enzyme activity against the heated effluent released, which will be useful as baseline information for future research work.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Gastrópodes , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Temperatura , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Centrais Elétricas , Catalase/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 405(Pt B): 134947, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410213

RESUMO

The subunit of tropomyosin (α-TM) from Haliotis discus hannai is an important allergen. The methods to reduce the immunoreactivity of α-TM are worth investigating. Thus, this study confirmed the reacted conditions of α-TM with transglutaminase (TG)-catalyzed cross-linking reaction, TG-catalyzed glycosylation, and glycation. Three processing technologies reduced significantly the contents of α-helix and hydrophobic force of α-TM and increased the surface hydrophobicity. A serological experiment confirmed that the glycated α-TM with xylose showed the lowest IgG/IgE-binding capacity. The inhabitation dot blot displayed that five epitope peptides could bind with the site-specific IgE prepared by the glycated α-TM. Three in nine glycated sites (M68, N202, and N203) were verified to modify-two epitopes (L-HTM-3 and L-HTM-7) of α-TM, which affected the immunoreactivity of α-TM during glycation. These results indicated that glycation would be desired for developing hypo-allergenic abalone products.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Tropomiosina , Animais , Tropomiosina/genética , Gastrópodes/genética , Epitopos , Transglutaminases , Glicopirrolato , Imunoglobulina E
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246889, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285639

RESUMO

Abstract The intertidal rocky shores in continental Chile have high species diversity mainly in northern Chile (18-27° S), and one of the most widespread species is the gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822). The aim of the present study is do a first characterization of spatial distribution of E. peruviana in along rocky shore in Antofagasta town in northern Chile. Individuals were counted in nine different sites that also were determined their spectral properties using remote sensing techniques (LANDSAT ETM+). The results revealed that sites without marked human intervention have more abundant in comparison to sites located in the town, also in all studied sites was found an aggregated pattern, and in six of these sites were found a negative binomial distribution. The low density related to sites with human intervention is supported when spectral properties for sites were included. These results would agree with other similar results for rocky shore in northern and southern Chile.


Resumo As costas rochosas entremarés no Chile continental apresentam alta diversidade de espécies, principalmente no norte do país (18-27 ° S), e uma das espécies mais difundidas é o gastrópode Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822). O objetivo do presente estudo é fazer uma primeira caracterização da distribuição espacial de E. peruviana no costão rochoso da cidade de Antofagasta no norte do Chile. Os indivíduos foram contados em nove locais diferentes onde também foram determinadas suas propriedades espectrais usando técnicas de sensoriamento remoto (LANDSAT ETM +). Os resultados revelaram que os locais sem intervenção humana marcada apresentam maior abundância em comparação aos locais localizados no município. Também em todos os locais estudados foi encontrado um padrão agregado, sendo que em seis desses locais foi encontrada uma distribuição binomial negativa. A baixa densidade relacionada a sites com intervenção humana é suportada quando as propriedades espectrais para sites foram incluídas. Esses resultados concordariam com outros resultados semelhantes para costões rochosos no norte e no sul do Chile.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Gastrópodes , Chile
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246984, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285632

RESUMO

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; pertencem ao filo Mollusca e, sendo bioindicadores, hospedeiros intermediários de parasitas e pragas, ocupam uma posição-chave no ecossistema. Existem três espécies do gênero Physa, ou seja, P. fontinalis, Physa acuta e P. gyrina em corpos d'água do Punjab Central e foram caracterizadas com base em marcadores moleculares. Alto nível de diversidade genética foi revelado por RAPD polimórfico, no entanto os marcadores SSR não foram amplificados. A análise multivariada revelou polimorfismo variando de 9,09% a 50% entre as três espécies de Physid. Um número total de 79 loci foi observado para as três espécies em estudo e 24 loci foram observados como polimórficos. Esses fragmentos RAPD podem ser desenvolvidos em marcadores codominantes (SCAR) por clonagem e podem ser posteriormente sequenciados para o desenvolvimento de marcadores específicos da espécie Physa para identificar as espécies introduzidas e nativas no Paquistão.


Assuntos
Animais , Gastrópodes , Espécies Introduzidas , Paquistão , Filogenia , Ecossistema , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
8.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106708, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195184

RESUMO

Giardia is an ubiquitous protozoa that infect a broad range of vertebrate hosts, including domestic and wild animals as well as humans. Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common parasite in humans and mammals worldwide. Human giardiasis is highly prevalent in the countries that make up from Amazon. The identification of genotypes in humans and animals improves the understanding of transmission routes and the control strategies. Thus, we carried out a systematic review on Giardia in animals from Amazon region/South American, following the PRISMA guidelines. Studies up to September, 2022 were searched for in public database. A total of seven out of 432 articles were selected: four, two and one from Brazil, Colombia and Peru, respectively. Based on these articles it is seen that the G. duodenalis cosmopolitan assemblages A and B prevail within domestic and wild animals in the Amazon. Moreover, a Giardia microscopic screening in aquatic animals from this biome showed its prevalence among aquatic mammals including the endangered species Trichechus inunguis (manatee). Therefore, a yet not accessed number of susceptible hosts, new G. duodenalis assemblages and species can be occurring in this huge hotspot of biodiversity that is Amazon region.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , Humanos , Giardia lamblia/genética , Animais Selvagens , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Giardíase/parasitologia , Giardia/genética , Genótipo , Prevalência , Mamíferos
9.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 118918, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227850

RESUMO

To understand how climate change stressors might affect marine organisms and support adequate projections it is important to know how multiple stressors may be modulated by the presence of other species. We evaluated the direct effects of ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) together with non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of the predatory crab Acanthocyclus hassleri on early ontogeny fitness-related traits of the commercially important rocky-shore keystone gastropod Concholepas concholepas. We measured the response of nine traits to these stressors at either the organismal level (survival, growth, feeding rates, tenacity, metabolic rate, calcification rate) or sub-organismal level (nutritional status, ATP-supplying capacity, stress condition). C. concholepas survival was not affected by any of the stressors. Feeding rates were not affected by OW or OA; however, they were reduced in the presence of crab NCEs compared with control conditions. Horizontal tenacity was affected by the OA × NCEs interaction; in the presence of NCEs, OA reduced tenacity. The routine metabolic rate, measured by oxygen consumption, increased significantly with OW. Nutritional status assessment determined that carbohydrate content was not affected by any of the stressors. However, protein content was affected by the OA × NCEs interaction; in the absence of NCEs, OA reduced protein levels. ATP-supplying capacity, measured by citrate synthase (CS) activity, and cellular stress condition (HSP70 expression) were reduced by OA, with reduction in CS activity found particularly at the high temperature. Our results indicate C. concholepas traits are affected by OA and OW and the effects are modulated by predator risk (NCEs). We conclude that some C. concholepas traits are resilient to climate stressors (survival, growth, horizontal tenacity and nutritional status) but others are affected by OW (metabolic rate), OA (ATP-supplying capacity, stress condition), and NCEs (feeding rate). The results suggest that these negative effects can adversely affect the associated community.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Gastrópodes/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Água do Mar
10.
Naturwissenschaften ; 109(6): 58, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454372

RESUMO

The molluscan phylum is characterized by the radula, used for the gathering and processing of food. This structure can consist of a chitinous membrane with embedded rows of teeth, which show structural, chemical, and biomechanical adaptations to the preferred ingesta. With regard to the chemical composition of teeth, some taxa (Polyplacophora and Patellogastropoda) were extensively studied, and high proportions of incorporated iron, calcium, and silicon were previously reported. However, outside these two groups, there is an immense lack of knowledge about the elemental composition of radular teeth. The here presented work aims at shedding some light on the radular composition by performing energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) on six non-patelliform gastropod species (Anentome helena, Cornu aspersum, Lavigeria nassa, Littorina littorea, Reymondia horei, and Vittina turrita), with the focus on the ontogeny of the elemental composition. Proportions of elements, which are not part of chitin and other purely organic molecules, were documented for overall 1027 individual teeth of all ontogenetic radular stages, i.e., for the building zone, the maturation zone, and the working zone. We detected that the proportions of these elements increased from the building to the maturation zone. However, from the maturation to the working zone, two general trends are visible: either the proportions of the elements increased or decreased. The latter trend could potentially be explained by the acidic pH of the gastropod saliva, which awaits further investigations.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Animais , Aclimatação , Cálcio
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1048962, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36452305

RESUMO

Human babesiosis is a global emerging tick-borne disease caused by infection with intra-erythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia. With the rise in human babesiosis cases, the discovery and development of new anti-Babesia drugs are essential. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K) is a widely present eukaryotic enzyme that phosphorylates lipids to regulate intracellular signaling and trafficking. Previously, we have shown that MMV390048, an inhibitor of PI4K, showed potent inhibition against Babesia species, revealing PI4K as a druggable target for babesiosis. However, twice-administered, 7-day regimens failed to clear Babesia microti parasites from the immunocompromised host. Hence, in this study, we wanted to clarify whether targeting PI4K has the potential for the radical cure of babesiosis. In a B. microti-infected SCID mouse model, a 64-day-consecutive treatment with MMV390048 resulted in the clearance of parasites. Meanwhile, an atovaquone (ATO) resistant parasite line was isolated from the group treated with ATO plus azithromycin. A nonsynonymous variant in the Y272C of the cytochrome b gene was confirmed by sequencing. Likewise, MMV390048 showed potent inhibition against ATO-resistant parasites. These results provide evidence of PI4K as a viable drug target for the radical cure of babesiosis, which will contribute to designing new compounds that can eradicate parasites.


Assuntos
Babesia microti , Babesia , Babesiose , Gastrópodes , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Babesia microti/genética , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos SCID , 1-Fosfatidilinositol 4-Quinase , Babesia/genética , Atovaquona , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido
12.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 796, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcareous outcrops, rocky areas composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), often host a diverse, specialized, and threatened biomineralizing fauna. Despite the repeated evolution of physiological and morphological adaptations to colonize these mineral rich substrates, there is a lack of genomic resources for calcareous rock endemic species. This has hampered our ability to understand the genomic mechanisms underlying calcareous rock specialization and manage these threatened species. RESULTS: Here, we present a new draft genome assembly of the threatened limestone endemic land snail Oreohelix idahoensis and genome skim data for two other Oreohelix species. The O. idahoensis genome assembly (scaffold N50: 404.19 kb; 86.6% BUSCO genes) is the largest (~ 5.4 Gb) and most repetitive mollusc genome assembled to date (85.74% assembly size). The repetitive landscape was unusually dominated by an expansion of long terminal repeat (LTR) transposable elements (57.73% assembly size) which have shaped the evolution genome size, gene composition through retrotransposition of host genes, and ectopic recombination. Genome skims revealed repeat content is more than 2-3 fold higher in limestone endemic O. idahoensis compared to non-calcareous Oreohelix species. Gene family size analysis revealed stress and biomineralization genes have expanded significantly in the O. idahoensis genome. CONCLUSIONS: Hundreds of threatened land snail species are endemic to calcareous rock regions but there are very few genomic resources available to guide their conservation or determine the genomic architecture underlying CaCO3 resource specialization. Our study provides one of the first high quality draft genomes of a calcareous rock endemic land snail which will serve as a foundation for the conservation genomics of this threatened species and for other groups. The high proportion and activity of LTRs in the O. idahoensis genome is unprecedented in molluscan genomics and sheds new light how transposable element content can vary across molluscs. The genomic resources reported here will enable further studies of the genomic mechanisms underlying calcareous rock specialization and the evolution of transposable element content across molluscs.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio , Gastrópodes , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Sequências Repetidas Terminais , Genômica , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20914, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463385

RESUMO

Research in cognitive neuroscience has renewed the idea that brain oscillations are a core organization implicated in fundamental brain functions. Growing evidence reveals that the characteristic features of these oscillations, including power, phase and frequency, are highly non-stationary, fluctuating alongside alternations in sensation, cognition and behavior. However, there is little consensus on the functional implications of the instantaneous frequency variation in cortical excitability and concomitant behavior. Here, we capitalized on intracortical electrophysiology in the macaque monkey's visual area MT performing a visuospatial discrimination task with visual cues. We observed that the instantaneous frequency of the theta-alpha oscillations (4-13 Hz) is modulated among specific neurons whose RFs overlap with the cued stimulus location. Interestingly, we found that such frequency modulation is causally correlated with MT excitability at both scales of individual and ensemble of neurons. Moreover, studying the functional relevance of frequency variations indicated that the average theta-alpha frequencies foreshadow the monkey's reaction time. Our results also revealed that the neural synchronization strength alters with the average frequency shift in theta-alpha oscillations, suggesting frequency modulation is critical for mutually adjusting MTs' rhythms. Overall, our findings propose that theta-alpha frequency variations modulate MT's excitability, regulate mutual neurons' rhythmicity and indicate variability in behavior.


Assuntos
Excitabilidade Cortical , Gastrópodes , Córtex Visual , Animais , Neurônios , Cognição , Macaca , Periodicidade
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(5): 542-546, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464254

RESUMO

Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and control of O. hupensis is of great significance in schistosomiasis control. As an amphibious mollusk, O. hupensis is frequently distributed in the fluctuating zones of rivers and lakes, and its distribution is along the water system and watershed. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge on the impact of watershed factors on the landscape and dynamic changes of O. hupensis distribution. As a novel discipline, watershed ecology will help reveal the internal relationship of snail distribution, identify the vulnerable areas of snail distribution, and define the priority areas for snail control and protection based on the specific needs of schistosomiasis control and ecological protection of the Yangtze River. In addition, watershed ecology may be used to evaluate the impact of water resource development projects on snail control from the perspective of watershed hierarchy.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Schistosoma japonicum , Animais , Recursos Hídricos , Conhecimento , Lagos , Água
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(5): 469-474, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changing trends in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province from 2004 to 2020, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis elimination strategy in the province. METHODS: The epidemiological data of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province from 2004 to 2020 were collected, and the trends in the endemic status of schistosomiasis were analyzed using a Joinpoint regression model. The trends in the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, bovines and Oncomelania hupensis were measured in Anhui Province from 2004 to 2020 using average annual percent change (AAPC), and the correlations among the changing trends in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans, bovines and O. hupensis snail status were evaluated using Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of S.japonicum human infections continued to decline in Anhui Province from 2004 to 2020, with an annual mean decline of 14.8% [AAPC = -14.8%, 95% confidential interval (CI): (-18.9%, -10.5%), P < 0.01]. The prevalence of S. japonicum infections continued to decline in bovines in Anhui Province from 2004 to 2015 [AAPC = -31.3%, 95%CI: (-35.1%, -27.2%), P < 0.01], and was 0 for 5 successive years from 2016 to 2020. During the period from 2004 to 2020, there was an annual mean decline of 0.7% in areas of snail habitats [AAPC = -0.7%, 95%CI: (-1.2%, 0.3%), P < 0.05] and an annual mean decline of 9.2% in the density of living snails [AAPC = -9.2%, 95%CI: (-18.3%, 1.0%), P = 0.08] in Anhui Province from 2004 to 2020, and an annual mean decline of 35.6% was found in the density of S. japonicum-infected snails [AAPC = -35.6%, 95%CI: (-49.2%, -18.3%), P < 0.01] from 2004 to 2012, with no infected snails detected in Anhui Province from 2013 to 2020. There were significant correlations in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections between humans and bovines (r = 0.959, P < 0.01), between the prevalence of S. japonicum human infections and the density of S. japonicum-infected snails (r = 0.823, P < 0.01) and between the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in bovines and the density of S. japonicum-infected snails (r = 0.902, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of S. japonicum infections appeared a decline in humans, bovines and O. hupensis in Anhui Province from 2004 to 2020, and significant correlations were found among the changing trends in the prevalence of S. japonicum human infections, the prevalence of S. japonicum bovine infections and the density of S. japonicum-infected O. hupensis snails. Because of a minor decline in the area of snail habitats and widespread distribution of O. hupensis, however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission, and precision control for schistosomiasis remains to be reinforced in Anhui Province.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/veterinária , Análise de Regressão
16.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(5): 453-457, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464266

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that seriously endangers human health and affects socioeconomic developments. Artificial intelligence technology has been widely used in clinical medical sciences, including tumor screening, and electrocardiogram, imaging and pathological analyses, which has potential for precision control of schistosomiasis. Currently, artificial intelligence technology has been employed for clinical assessment of schistosomiasis-associated hepatic fibrosis and ectopic schistosomiasis, prognostic prediction of advanced schistosomiasis, automated identification of Oncomelania hupensis and Schistosoma japonicum eggs and miracidia, epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis, and drug discovery. This review summarizes the advances in the applications of artificial intelligence technology in the management of schistosomiasis and proposes the prospects for the use of artificial intelligence in schistosomiasis elimination.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose , Humanos , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Descoberta de Drogas
17.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 188: 105243, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464353

RESUMO

Previous studies have found that temperature influences molluscicidal the activity of pedunsaponin A (PA), which may be related to the expression of Hsp70, a cold-tolerance gene in Pomacea canaliculata. We determined the temperature effect of PA and the relationship between Hsp70 and temperature sensitivity of P. canaliculata poisoned by PA. Toxicity tests resulted in LC50 values of 17.7239 mg⋅L-1 at 10 °C, which decreased to 2.5774 mg⋅L-1 at 30 °C, implying a positive correlation between toxicity of PA and temperature. After Hsp70 being interfered, the mortality rate of P. canaliculata treated with PA for 72 h was 70%, which was significantly higher than that of snails treated with PA for 72 h without interfering (56.7%). Meanwhile, immune enzyme activities such as SOD, ACP and AKP were significantly increased in the interfered group and expression level of PcAdv in the gill was also significantly increased. These results suggest that deletion of Hsp70 promotes the activation of some immune enzymes of P. canaliculata and elevates the content of target proteins to cope with the dual stresses of low temperatures and molluscicides. These findings indicate that the Hsp70 plays an important role in influencing the temperature sensitivity of P. canaliculata when treated with PA.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Moluscocidas , Animais , Temperatura , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Temperatura Baixa
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20758, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456597

RESUMO

Theta oscillations (spectral power and connectivity) are sensitive to the social content of an experience in typically developing infants, providing a possible marker of early social brain development. Autism is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting early social behaviour, but links to underlying social brain function remain unclear. We explored whether modulations of theta spectral power and connectivity by naturalistic social content in infancy are related to family history for autism. Fourteen-month-old infants with (family history; FH; N = 75) and without (no family history; NFH; N = 26) a first-degree relative with autism watched social and non-social videos during EEG recording. We calculated theta (4-5 Hz) spectral power and connectivity modulations (social-non-social) and associated them with outcomes at 36 months. We replicated previous findings of increased theta power and connectivity during social compared to non-social videos. Theta modulations with social content were similar between groups, for both power and connectivity. Together, these findings suggest that neural responses to naturalistic social stimuli may not be strongly altered in 14-month-old infants with family history of autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Gastrópodes , Lactente , Animais , Humanos , Encéfalo , Comportamento Social , Eletroencefalografia
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20788, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456640

RESUMO

Repulsive guidance molecule-a (RGMa) inhibits angiogenesis and increases inflammation. Animal models of cerebral ischemia have shown that an increased expression of RGMa leads to larger infarction and its inhibition attenuates effects of ischemia. We report on the relationship of RGMa to stroke types and severity. This is a prospective study in patients admitted to the stroke service in Qatar. We collected the clinical determinants, including NIHSS at admission, imaging and outcome at discharge and 90-days. RGMa levels were determined by measuring mRNA levels extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) within 24 h of onset and at 5 days. There were 90 patients (lacunar: 64, cortical: 26) and 35 age-matched controls. RGMa mRNA levels were significantly higher in the stroke patients: day 1: 1.007 ± 0.13 versus 2.152 ± 0.19 [p < 0.001] and day-5: 3.939 ± 0.36 [p < 0.0001]) and significantly higher in patients with severe stroke (NIHSS ≥ 8) compared to milder symptoms (NIHSS < 8) at day 1 (NIHSS ≥ 8: 2.563 ± 0.36; NIHSS < 8: 1.947 ± 0.2) and day 5 (NIHSS ≥ 8: 5.25 ± 0.62; NIHSS < 8: 3.259 ± 0.419). Cortical stroke patients had marginally higher RGMa mRNA levels compared to lacunar stroke at day 1 (cortical stroke: 2.621 ± 0.46 vs lacunar stroke: 1.961 ± 0.19) and day 5 (cortical stroke: 4.295 ± 0.76 vs lacunar stroke: 3.774 ± 0.39). In conclusion, there is an increase in the level of RGMa mRNA in patients with acute stroke and seen in patients with lacunar and cortical stroke. The increase in RGMa mRNA levels is related to the severity of the stroke and increases over the initial 5 days. Further studies are required to determine the effects of the increase in RGMa on stroke recovery.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Infarto Cerebral
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20711, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456668

RESUMO

The hippocampus plays a crucial role in the formation and retrieval of spatial memory across mammals and episodic memory in humans. Episodic and spatial memories can be retrieved irrespective of the subject's awake behavioral state and independently of its actual spatial context. However, the nature of hippocampal network activity during such out-context retrieval has not been described so far. Theoretically, context-independent spatial memory retrieval suggests a shift of the hippocampal spatial representations from coding the current spatial context to coding the remembered environment. In this study we show in rats that the CA3 neuronal population can switch spontaneously across representations and transiently activate another stored familiar spatial pattern without direct external sensory cuing. This phenomenon qualitatively differs from the well-described sharp wave-related pattern reactivations during immobility. Here, it occurs under the theta oscillatory state during active exploration and reflects the preceding experience of sudden environmental change. The respective out-context coding spikes appeared later in the theta cycle than the in-context ones. Finally, the experience also induced the emergence of population vectors with a co-expression of both codes segregated into different phases of the theta cycle.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Memória Episódica , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Hipocampo , Memória Espacial , Rememoração Mental , Sinais (Psicologia) , Mamíferos
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