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1.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788209

RESUMO

A novel symbiotic bacterium, designated strain XY-114T, was isolated from the cerata of an Onchidium marine invertebrate species collected in the South China Sea. Strain XY-114T was an aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and short rod-shaped bacterium (0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.0-1.5 µm long) without flagellum. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XY-114T belonged to the genus Algibacter with the highest similarity of 97.2 % to the closest phylogenetic relative Algibacter aestuarii KYW371T. Cells grew at 15-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum 7.0-8.0) and at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-5.0 % (w/v; optimum 1.5-3.0 %). The major fatty acids (>10 %) were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c), iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The predominant polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-6. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. The genome size of strain XY-114T was 3.4 Mbp, with 34.9 mol% of DNA G+C content. The average nucleotide identity, digital DNA-DNA hybridization and amino acid identity values between strain XY-114T and A. aestuarii KYW371T were 74.5 %, 17.0±1.8 % and 73.9 %. Characterization based on phylogenetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic evidence demonstrated that strain XY-114T represents a novel species of the genus Algibacter, for which the name Algibacter onchidii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY-114T (=KCTC 72217T=MCCC 1K03606T).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Gastrópodes , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(5): 531-534, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of urban construction projects on Oncomelania snails control in Wuhan City, so as to provide insights into the development of an integrated control strategy for urban schistosomiasis. METHODS: The data pertaining to the endemic situation of schistosomiasis, schistosomiasis control data, the construction of the Yangtze River Bridge, marshland management and park constructions were collected from Wuhan City from 1990 to 2020. The changes of areas of snail habitats and high-risk settings were compared before and after implementation of these urban construction projects to evaluate the effectiveness of urban construction projects on Oncomelania snails control. RESULTS: The number of schistosomiasis cases decreased by 97.35%, and the number of cattle with schistosomiasis decreased by 100% in Wuhan City from 1990 to 2020, with a 41.99% reduction in areas of snail habitats, including 94.97% and 34.40% reductions in snail habitats inside and outside the embankment decreased. During the period from 1990 through 2020, a total of 10 Yangtze River bridges were built in Wuhan City, and areas of snail habitats around the bridges reduced from 11 699.05 hm2 before the bridge building to 8 726.14 hm2 after the building (a 25.41% reduction), while the areas of high-risk settings reduced from 411.69 hm2 before the bridge building to 276.78 hm2 after the building (a 32.77% reduction). Following treatment of three marshlands in Hankou, Hanyang and Wuchang, the areas of snail habitats reduced from 225.80 hm2 before the management to 199.47 hm2 after the management (a 11.66% reduction), and the areas of high-risk settings reduced from 23.14 hm2 before the treatment to 17.73 hm2 after the building (a 23.38% reduction). Following the building of 5 parks in snail-infested settings, the areas of snail habitats reduced from 319.61 hm2 before the construction to 280.80 hm2 after the construction (a 12.14% reduction), and the areas of high-risk settings reduced from 35.00 hm2 before the construction to 27.73 hm2 after the construction (a 20.77% reduction). CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous implementation of urban construction projects and schistosomiasis control measures is effective to shrink snail-infested setting and high-risk settings and control the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in endemic foci in Wuhan City.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Ecossistema , Rios , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
4.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 23(5): 836-846, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609689

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are members of the superfamily of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), are known both in vitro and in vivo for their osteoinduction properties on the osteoblastic cells. Its role in the mollusk shell formation has also been gradually established. Using Haliotis diversicolor as a model, we characterized the HdBMP2/4 gene in the mantle tissue and showed its expression in the outer fold epithelium (particularly at the periostracal groove) the epithelial site which is involved in shell formation, both prismatic and nacreous layers. Shell notching experiments following gene analysis by qPCR revealed the upregulation of the HdBMP2/4 gene up to 3.2-fold than that of the control animals. In vitro treatments of the preosteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1 with HdBMP2/4 synthetic peptide demonstrated the enhanced effect of many osteogenic genes that are known to regulate bone and shell biomineralization including ALP, Runx2, and OCN with 2-4 fold-change throughout 14 days of culture. In addition, the increased deposition of calcium-based mineral (as assessed by Alizarin red staining) of the treated cells was comparable to the ascorbic acid (Vit C) + glycerophosphate positive control which revealed the enhanced effect of HdBMP2/4 peptide on matrix biomineralization of the preosteoblastic cells. In conclusion, these results indicated the presence of the HdBMP2/4 gene in the mantle tissue at the site involved in shell formation and the effect of the HdBMP2/4 knuckle epitope peptide in osteoinduction in vitro.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Exoesqueleto/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biomineralização , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Calcificação Fisiológica/genética , Gastrópodes/genética , Técnicas In Vitro , Osteoblastos/metabolismo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 227: 112933, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700166

RESUMO

Along with a steady increasing use of artificial nitrogen fertilizer, concerns have been raised about the effects that high nitrogen loading may have on ecosystems. Due to the toxicity of unionized ammonia (NH3), tolerance criteria have been proposed for ambient water management in many countries; however, these are mainly based on acute or chronic tests carried out under lab conditions run with purified water. Aiming at understanding the responses of organisms to natural exposure to high ammonia concentrations, a Viviparidae gastropod, Bellamya aeruginosa, was tested at three experimental scales: standard 96-h lab test, one-month cage test in 6 experimental ponds with continuous nitrogen inputs, and intensive investigation of the B. aeruginosa from these ponds in spring and winter. The results were: 1) 96-h LC50 in the standard lab test was 0.56 mg NH3-N/L and 343.3 mg TAN/L (total ammonia expressed as N, standardized at pH 7 and 20 â„ƒ). 2) In the one-month cage test, the survival rate was 97% when NH3-N was 0.61 mg/L (i.e., a higher concentration than the lab 96-h LC50) and the body size of the gastropods actually increased with increasing NH3-N concentrations. 3) In the winter-spring investigation, little effect of ammonia on the standing crops of gastropods was found, and the body size of the gastropods tended to increase with increasing ammonia concentrations (NH3-N concentration range of 0.05 ~ 2.06 mg/L). Thus, B. aeruginosa showed higher tolerance to ammonia exposure (NH3-N concentration < 0.81 mg/L) in the field than under laboratory conditions. Our study points to the necessity of considering the relevant scale when determining criteria for ammonia toxicity in water management.


Assuntos
Amônia , Gastrópodes , Amônia/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Laboratórios , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
7.
Mar Environ Res ; 172: 105482, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656855

RESUMO

Marine rocky intertidal organisms are amongst those most affected by climate change with regional distributional changes observed for many species. Although often ascribed to increased sea surface temperatures, precise assessment of the local habitat conditions underpinning observed and predicted changes in community assembly is lacking. Here we examine how aspect (i.e. north-south orientation) affects intertidal community composition and how rock surface temperatures and stress responses of two dominant grazer species (Patella spp.) elucidate emergent differences. We quantified year-round temperature variation and surveyed intertidal community composition on paired natural rock gullies with Equator- (EF) and Pole-facing (PF) surfaces. We also investigated variation in limpet (Patella spp.) reproductive phenology and osmotic stress. Average annual temperatures were 0.8 °C (1.6 °C at low tide) higher, with six-fold more frequent extremes (i.e. > 30 °C) on EF than PF surfaces. Intertidal community composition varied with aspect across trophic levels with greater overall species richness, abundance of primary producers and grazers on PF-surfaces, and greater barnacle abundance on EF-surfaces. Although species richness of organisms from different biogeographical origins ('Boreal' or 'Lusitanian') did not vary, the Lusitanian limpet Patella depressa exhibited earlier reproductive development on EF-surfaces and both limpet species exhibited greater thermal stress on EF-surfaces. We argue that our study system provides a good model for understanding how temperature variation at local scales can affect community composition, as well as ecophysiological and ecological responses to climate change and so better inform and predict regional range shifts over coming decades.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Thoracica , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Temperatura
8.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(5): 466-480, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664922

RESUMO

Symbioses between invertebrates are common in the ocean although usually the diversity and specificity of their interactions are not well understood. Parazoanthidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Zoantharia) is one of the most diverse zoantharian families in terms of numbers of genera and species. Species in this family are commonly associated with various other invertebrates that they utilize as their substrate. Previous studies have re-organized the taxonomy of Parazoanthidae and revealed a strong specificity between many parazoanthid species and genera and their substrates. However, our understanding of the species diversity of Parazoanthidae is far from complete, as parazoanthids are often overlooked in sampling surveys. In this study, we establish three subgenera under the genus Umimayanthus Montenegro, Sinniger, and Reimer, 2015; the nominotypical Umimayanthus, Paraumimayanthus subgen nov., and Gorgoniazoanthus subgen. nov., based on the finding of a new species, Umimayanthus (Gorgoniazoanthus) kanabou sp. nov., associated with the sea-whip gorgonian Ellisella sp. from approximately 30 m depth in shallow mesophotic coral reef communities in Oura Bay on Okinawajima Island and in Oshima Strait near Amami-Oshima Island, in the Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan. We additionally report on gastropods and crustaceans observed in association with U. kanabou, and these species are thought to potentially prey upon the zoantharians or on gorgonian polyps. Umimayanthus kanabou is phylogenetically closely related to congeneric sponge-associated Umimayanthus spp., further supporting the recent hypothesis that substrate preferences may change during the evolutionary history of zoantharians.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Crustáceos , Ecossistema , Gastrópodes , Japão , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Fungal Biol ; 125(10): 796-805, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537175

RESUMO

Truffles in the genus Tuber produce subterranean fruiting bodies that are not able to actively discharge their spores in the environment. For this reason, truffles depend on mycophagous animals for reproduction. Fungus consumption (mycophagy) is a behaviour typical of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Mammals, especially rodents, are the most studied group of mycophagists and have been found to consume a great variety of fungi. Among invertebrates, mycophagy is documented in arthropods, but rarely in molluscs. In our study we assessed the effect on the morphology and mycorrhizal colonization of Tuber aestivum spores after passage through the gut of slugs (Deroceras invadens) and, for comparison, of a house mouse (Mus musculus). Light, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy revealed that the digestion, especially by slugs, freed spores from the asci and modified their morphology. These are believed to be the reasons why we observed an improvement in oak mycorrhization with the slug and rodent ingested spores in comparison to a fresh spore inoculation. We also demonstrated by molecular barcoding that slugs' guts sampled on a Tuber melanosporum truffle ground contain spores from this species and Tuber brumale, further suggesting that some invertebrates are efficient Tuber spore dispersers.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Gastrópodes , Micorrizas , Animais , Camundongos , Esporos Fúngicos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516364

RESUMO

An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile strain (XY-359T) was isolated from the mouth of a marine invertebrate Onchidium species from the South China Sea. It grew at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.5), at 15-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and in the presence of 0.5-4.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.5 %). It could not hydrolyse Tweens 20, 40, 60 or 80 and no flexirubin-type pigments were produced. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, six unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified polar lipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:1 G and iso-C15:0 3-OH. The respiratory quinone was MK-6. Strain XY-359T showed the greatest degree of 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Flagellimonas algicola AsT0115T (96.54 %), followed by Muricauda flava DSM 22638T (96.27 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and 31 core genes indicated that strain XY-359T belongs to the genus Muricauda. The genome size of strain XY-359T was 4 207 872 bp, with 39.1 mol% of DNA G+C content. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain XY-359T and F. algicola AsT0115T were 74.58 % and 18.5 %, respectively, and those between strain XY-359T and M. flava DSM 22638T were 74.2 % and 18.3 %. The combined phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data suggest that strain XY-359T represents a novel species of the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda onchidii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY-359T (=MCCC 1K03658T =KCTC 72218T). Moreover, based on the proposal of nesting Spongiibacterium and Flagellimonas within Muricauda by García (Validation List No. 193) and the analyses of phylogenetic trees and average amino acid identities in this study, the transfers of F. algicola, F. pacifica and F. maritima to the genus Muricauda as Muricauda algicola comb. nov., Muricauda parva nom. nov. and M. aurantiaca nom. nov., respectively, are proposed, with an emended description of the genus Muricauda.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Gastrópodes , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2
11.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 23(4): 641-652, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471969

RESUMO

Thrombospondin repeats (TSR) are important peptide domains present in the sequences of many extracellular and transmembrane proteins with which a variety of ligands interact. In this study, we characterized HdTSR domains in the ADAMTS3 protein of Thai abalone, Haliotis diversicolor, based on the transcriptomic analysis of its mantle tissues. PCR amplification and localization studies demonstrated the existence of HdTSR transcript and protein in H. diversicolor tissues, particularly in both the inner and outer mantle epithelial folds. We, therefore, generated a short recombinant protein, termed HdTSR1/2, based on the existence of the WxxWxxW or WxxxxW motif (which binds to TGF-ß, a known signaling in bone formation/repair) in HdTSR1 and HdTSR2 sequences and used it to test the osteoinduction function in the pre-osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1. This recombinant protein demonstrated the ability to induce the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells by the concentration- and time-dependent upregulation of many known osteogenic markers, including RUNX2, COL1A1, OCN, and OPN. We also demonstrated the upregulation of the SMAD2 gene after cell treatment with HdTSR1/2 proteinindicating its possible interaction through TGF-ß, which thus activates its downstream signaling cascade and triggers the biomineralization process in the differentiated osteoblastic cells. Together, HdTSR domains existed in an extracellular ADAMTS3 protein in the mantle epithelium of H. diversicolor and played a role in osteoinduction as similar to the other nacreous proteins, opening up its possibility to be developed as an inducing agent of bone repair.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Trombospondina 1/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Biomineralização , Diferenciação Celular , Gastrópodes/genética , Hibridização In Situ , Camundongos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Sequências Repetitivas de Aminoácidos , Trombospondina 1/genética
12.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 180, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mangroves are tropical and subtropical intertidal forests colonising sheltered coasts across the world. They host a unique faunal community, dominated by brachyuran crabs and gastropods. These invertebrates strongly contribute to the functionality of the entire forest. The reliable assessment of mangrove faunal diversity is, thus, a crucial step for efficient management and conservation plans, but it is hindered by difficulties in species identification. Here we provide a verified DNA barcode library for brachyuran crabs and gastropods inhabiting the mangroves of the Greater Bay Area, Southern China. In particular, we collected and morphologically identified 1100 specimens of mangrove associated brachyuran crabs and gastropods. The partial sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene were obtained from 275 specimens. Barcode sequences were then used to delineate Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs), employing three different delimitation methods: the automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) method, the general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) model and a Bayesian implementation of the Poisson tree processes (bPTP) model. RESULTS: By integrating DNA barcodes with morphology, we identified 44 gastropod species and 58 brachyuran species associated with Hong Kong mangroves, with five and seven new records, for gastropods and crabs, respectively, for the Greater Bay Area. The delineation of MOTUs based on barcode sequences revealed a strong congruence between morphological and molecular identification for both taxa, showing the high reliability of the barcode library. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first reference barcode library for mangrove-associated macrobenthic fauna in the Greater Bay Area and represents a reliable tool to management and conservation plans. Our molecular analyses resolved long lasting taxonomic misidentifications and inconsistencies and updated the knowledge on the geographical distribution of Asian mangrove associated fauna, ultimately highlighting a level of biodiversity higher than previously thought for Southern China.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Gastrópodes , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Braquiúros/genética , China , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Florestas , Gastrópodes/genética , Hong Kong , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 650, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterosis has been exploited for decades in different animals and crops due to it resulting in dramatic increases in yield and adaptability. Hybridization is a classical breeding method that can effectively improve the genetic characteristics of organisms through heterosis. Abalone has become an increasingly economically important aquaculture resource with high commercial value. However, due to changing climate, abalone is now facing serious threats of high temperature in summer. Interspecific hybrid abalone (Haliotis gigantea ♀ × H. discus hannai ♂, SD) has been cultured at large scale in southern China and has been shown high survival rates under heat stress in summer. Therefore, SD has become a good model material for heterosis research, but the molecular basis of heterosis remains elusive. RESULTS: Heterosis in thermal tolerance of SD was verified through Arrhenius break temperatures (ABT) of cardiac performance in this study. Then RNA-Sequencing was conducted to obtain gene expression patterns and alternative splicing events at control temperature (20 °C) and heat stress temperature (30 °C). A total of 356 (317 genes), 476 (435genes), and 876 (726 genes) significantly diverged alternative splicing events were identified in H. discus hannai (DD), H. gigantea (SS), and SD in response to heat stress, respectively. In the heat stress groups, 93.37% (20,512 of 21,969) of the expressed genes showed non-additive expression patterns, and over-dominance expression patterns of genes account for the highest proportion (40.15%). KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the overlapping genes among common DEGs and NAGs were significantly enriched in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitophagy, and NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, we found that among these overlap genes, 39 genes had undergone alternative splicing events in SD. These pathways and genes may play an important role in the thermal resistance of hybrid abalone. CONCLUSION: More alternative splicing events and non-additive expressed genes were detected in hybrid under heat stress and this may contribute to its thermal heterosis. These results might provide clues as to how hybrid abalone has a better physiological regulation ability than its parents under heat stress, to increase our understanding of heterosis in abalone.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Vigor Híbrido , Animais , Gastrópodes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Hibridização Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Transcriptoma
14.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(182): 20210377, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520692

RESUMO

The radula is the structure used for food processing in Mollusca. It can consist of a membrane with stiffer teeth, which is, together with alary processus, muscles and odontophoral cartilages, part of the buccal mass. In malacology, it is common practice to infer potential tooth functions from morphology. Thus, past approaches to explain functional principles are mainly hypothesis driven. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a workflow testing hypotheses on the function of teeth and buccal mass components and interaction of structures, which can contribute to understanding the structure as a whole. Here, in a non-conventional approach, we introduce a physical and dynamic radular model, based on morphological data of Spekia zonata (Gastropoda, Paludomidae). Structures were documented, computer-modelled, three-dimensional-printed and assembled to gather a simplistic but realistic physical and dynamic radular model. Such a bioinspired design enabled studying of radular kinematics and interaction of parts when underlain supporting structures were manipulated in a similar manner as could result from muscle contractions. The presented work is a first step to provide a constructional manual, paving the way for even more realistic physical radular models, which could be used for understanding radular functional morphology and for the development of novel gripping devices.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Hepatófitas , Dente , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Moluscos
15.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 87: 103722, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391907

RESUMO

We assessed metal/metalloid pollutants (through multi-indices) in seawater, sediments, tissues and shells of gastropods using various indices such as contamination degree (modified/unmodified; Cd/mCd; 1875/187.5). From sediment indices; e.g. the potential ecological risk index/enrichment factor (Eri/EF; 3396.8/105.5) indicated the area to be highly contaminated with metal/metalloid pollutants. Indeed, bioaccumulation with these materials was gastropod size dependent. Antimicrobial and percentage activity indices (AMI/PAI) for; T. telescopium was (AMI/PAI; 1.59/159), N. albicilla (1.14/114) and L. coronata (0.95/95) against E. coli. Similarly T. telescopium (1.33/133), N. albicilla (1.19/119) and L. coronata (1.14/114) have AMI/PAI against A. terreus. The total activity index (TAI), for T. telescopium was the highest, while L. coronata has lowest for all pathogens. This study indicates, T. telescopium, N. albicilla and L. coronata, surviving under metal/metalloid stress exhibited altered natural defense to pathogens which was related to the degree of toxin bioaccumulation.


Assuntos
Arsênio/metabolismo , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arsênio/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bioacumulação , Tamanho Corporal , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gastrópodes/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Endeavour ; 45(3): 100780, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364062

RESUMO

In this article we document the role of Ivan Matveevich Sokolov, anatomy professor at Moscow University, in the mummification of Julia Pastrana, born in Mexico (afterwards an American citizen by marriage), and her son. Sokolov had investigated and described the corpse of this famous "hairy woman" as an example of a congenital anomaly of the genus Homo. Due to the art of Sokolov's embalming, the mummies of Julia and her son were presented to the scientific world, which made it possible to study similar cases of deformity in the human population. However, the historical role of Sokolov was not limited to his study of a congenital disease. His thorough postmortem examination and description of Pastrana's and her son's bodies allowed Sokolov to make an indirect contribution to evolutionary thought. Sokolov's confirmation that Pastrana belonged to the genus Homo refuted all speculation about her hybrid origins and status as a missing link in the evolution of apes into humans.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Múmias , Animais , Autopsia , Embalsamamento , Feminino , Humanos , Núcleo Familiar
17.
Ecotoxicology ; 30(9): 1880-1892, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379245

RESUMO

Psychoactive drugs have emerged as contaminants over the last few decades. These drugs are frequently prescribed and poorly eliminated by wastewater treatment plants, and many are present at non-negligible concentrations in surface waters. Several studies have investigated the non-target organism toxicity of one such drug, oxazepam, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic frequently detected in rivers. However, very little is known about the impact of this drug on reproduction. We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of oxazepam on Radix balthica, a freshwater gastropod widespread in Europe. We identified the reproductive organs of Radix balthica. We then exposed this gastropod to oxazepam for two months and assessed several reproductive parameters, from reproductive organ status to behavioral parameters. We found that adults exposed to 10 µg/L oxazepam display an increase in the density of spermatozoa, and that adults exposed to 0.8 µg/L oxazepam displayed a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass over time. By contrast, oxazepam had no effect on shell length, the size of male reproductive organs or social interactions. Finally, a locomotor activity analysis showed the distance covered over time decreased in all conditions of exposure to oxazepam, potentially reflecting a disturbance of exploratory activity. These results shed light on the effects of oxazepam on the reproduction of a non-target freshwater mollusk.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Gastrópodes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ansiolíticos/toxicidade , Benzodiazepinas/toxicidade , Água Doce , Masculino , Oxazepam/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
eNeuro ; 8(4)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380659

RESUMO

When listening to speech, low-frequency cortical activity tracks the speech envelope. It remains controversial, however, whether such envelope-tracking neural activity reflects entrainment of neural oscillations or superposition of transient responses evoked by sound features. Recently, it is suggested that the phase of envelope-tracking activity can potentially distinguish entrained oscillations and evoked responses. Here, we analyze the phase of envelope-tracking in humans during passive listening, and observe that the phase lag between cortical activity and speech envelope tends to change linearly across frequency in the θ band (4-8 Hz), suggesting that the θ-band envelope-tracking activity can be readily modeled by evoked responses.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Percepção da Fala , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Som , Fala
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 274-290, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411749

RESUMO

As a result of increasing CO2 emissions and the prevalence of global climate change, ocean acidification (OA) is becoming more pervasive, affecting many trophic levels, particularly those that rely on succinctly balanced ocean chemistry. This ultimately threatens community structures, as well as the future sustainability of the fishing/aquaculture industry. Understanding the molecular stress response of key organisms will aid in predicting their future survivability under changing environmental conditions. This study sought to elucidate the molecular stress response of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae, an understudied organism with high economic value, utilising a high throughput iTRAQ-based proteomics methodology. Adult abalone were exposed to control (pH 7.9) and experimental (pH 7.5) conditions for 12, 72 and 168 h, following which protein was isolated from sampled haemocytes and subsequently processed. iTRAQ-labelled peptides were analysed using mass spectrometry, while an array of bioinformatics tools was utilised for analysing the proteomic data. COG analysis identified "Cytoskeleton", "Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis", "Post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones", and "Intracellular trafficking, secretion and vesicular transport" to be the most enriched functional classes, while statistical analysis identified a total of 33 up-regulated and 23 down-regulated effectors of OA stress in abalone. Several of the up-regulated proteins that were identified function in central metabolism (ENO1, PGK, DUOX1, GPD2), the stress/immune response (CAMKI, HSPA5/GRP78, MAPKI), and cytoskeleton, protein sorting and signal transduction (IQGAP1, MYO9B, TLN1, RDX, TCP-1/CCT, SNX6, CHMP1a, VPS13a). Protein-protein interactions were predicted using STRING DB, Cytoscape and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, providing a model of the effects of OA on the H. midae haemocyte proteome. The data indicated that H. midae underwent a metabolic shift under OA conditions to utilize more energy-efficient mechanisms of ATP generation, while attempts at restoring haemocyte stabilisation and homeostasis were reflected by up-regulation of oxidative stress and cytoskeletal proteins. Our results support other molluscan studies that report a complex array of overlapping functions of both the stress and immune response systems. This interplay of the mounted stress and immune response is maintained and observed through the up-regulation of proteins involved in protein synthesis and turnover, as well as intracellular signalling and transport. The data presented in this study highlight the value of employing sensitive and robust -omics technologies for assessing the effects of changing environmental conditions on marine organisms.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Proteômica
20.
Biol Bull ; 241(1): 92-104, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436961

RESUMO

AbstractThe diversity and consequences of development in marine invertebrates have, for a long time, provided the opportunity to understand different evolutionary solutions to living in variable environments. However, discrete classifications of development can impede a full understanding of adaptation to variable environments when behavioral, morphological, or physiological flexibility and variation exist within traditionally defined modes of development. We report here novel behavioral variability in hatchlings of a marine gastropod, the Florida crown conch (Melongena corona), that has broad significance for understanding the correlated evolution of development, dispersal, and reproductive strategies in variable environments. All hatchlings crawl away from egg capsules after emergence as larval pediveligers. Some subsequently swim for a brief period (seconds to minutes) before crawling again. From detailed observations of 120 individuals over 30 days, we observed 28 (23.3%) hatchlings swimming at least once (8%-50% per maternal brood). The propensity to swim was unrelated to time spent encapsulated or size at hatching and lasted for 22 days. We manipulated hypothesized environmental cues and found that the proportion of hatchlings that swam was highest in the absence of cues related to habitat or juvenile food and lowest when only habitat cues were present. The relative growth rate of hatchlings was highest when habitats contained a putative juvenile food source. About 44% of hatchlings were competent to metamorphose at emergence but did not metamorphose at this time in the lab or the field. The rate of metamorphosis increased with age and depended on the presence of unknown cues in the field. Crawl-away larvae with prolonged swimming ability may be an adaptation to balance the unpredictable risks of exclusively benthic or pelagic development and to allow the option to disperse to higher-quality habitat.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Natação , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Larva , Metamorfose Biológica
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